The article examines what lies at the core of the notion ‘national security’. It establishes the inextricable interrelationship and interdependence of state security on social and economic development of the subjects of the North Caucasian Federal District (NCFD). The analyzed social and economic situation of the North Caucasian republics identified a series of internal threats, inter alia, low living standards, poverty, unemployment, lack of affordable housing, imperfect education and training systems, lack of life prospects, etc. A high unemployment rate in subjects of the NCFD is deemed to lead to migration problems. Economic crisis brings about higher prices, inflation, while a greater social gap causes an upsurge of social-psychological impacts including anger, hatred, envy, aggression and others. Unemployment, rampant criminality, neglect, and more other factors lead to a situation that is extremely undesirable for the society and every single man, which highlights a pronounced polarization of population and social contrasts. A rise in such a negative security element as threat is an aggregate of conditions and factors that endanger significant interests of an individual, society and the State eventually results in an unfair distribution of land, property, uneven and insufficient development of regional economies. To ensure the security of the State from internal threats, it is proposed to improve social and economic situation of subjects of the North Caucasian Federal District, which implies solving the problem of social disorder, implementing a strategic program for the development of the economy as a whole, agriculture, industry, tourist and recreation facilities
Keywords: Statesecurityeconomysocial and economic developmentpopulationsubject
The security of the Russian Federation is currently estimated by experts as moderately alarming. It is viewed as strategic and long-term rather than opportunistic, with a tendency to further slow deterioration. The state of national security largely depends on political, socio-economic, religious and other components (Yeremeyev, 2012).
The interests of the State consist in the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Russia, in political, social and economic stability, in the sustainable enforcement of law and the maintenance of law and order, in the development of equal cooperation (Malyshev, 2016). The Doctrine of the National Security of the Russian Federation “On the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation” defines the directions and tasks for ensuring national security. National security refers to the state of protection of the State, society and the individual from internal and external threats, which ensures the implementation of constitutional rights and human freedoms, decent quality and standard of living, sovereignty, independence, state and territorial integrity, sustainable social and economic development of the Russian Federation. National security also involves the defense of the country and all types of security as stipulated in the Constitution and the legislation of the Russian Federation, primarily state, public, information, environmental, economic, transport, energy security and personal security.
Ensuring national security from internal threats based on the implementation of social and economic development of the North Caucasian Federal District and the State as a whole.
The set of social and economic components related to ensuring state security.
Purpose of the Study
A study is aimed at the social and economic impact of the subjects of the North Caucasian Federal District on state security.
Abstract logical, systemic, complex, monographic.
The analyzed social and economic situation of the republics of the North Caucasian Federal District led to the following conclusions, namely: the standard of living in the region is significantly lower compared to similar indicators in other regions of the Russian Federation.
In the NCFD, there was a high unemployment rate. Thus, by this indicator, Ingushetia ranked 85th (30.2% of the unemployed), the Chechen Republic – 83rd (15.8% of the unemployed), Karachay-Cherkessia – 82nd (14.4% of the unemployed). In Ingushetia, 59.3% of the unemployed were young people under 29 years of age; in Chechnya, this category of people accounted for 79.2% of the unemployed. Despite this fact, by the number of registered crimes per 100 thousand people the Karachay-Cherkess Republic ranked 82nd, Dagestan – 83rd, Ingushetia – 84th and the Chechen Republic – 85th, i.e. last places in the ranking of Russian regions.
In 2017, the average per capita cash income in Ingushetia was 15,000 rubles per capita, in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic – 16,867 rubles per capita. Moreover, in Ingushetia, the average per capita cash income was only 48.8%, and in the KCR – 54.9% of the same average Russian indicator (30,744 RUB).
In Ingushetia, as contrary to other regions of the North Caucasian Federal District, there was a very low average monthly nominal wage of employees, the smallest number of personally-owned cars per 1000 people, the least in the RF living space per resident, the lowest in the North Caucasian Federal District agricultural productivity, the lowest retail turnover per capita, and a negative net financial position of enterprises. The largest percent of the republic’s population had income below the cost of living.
Unemployment rate in Chechnya was significantly higher than the national average, with a very small living space per inhabitant (the 82nd place) and about 20% of the total housing stock of the republic to be dilapidated and hazardous. Agricultural and manufacturing industries were developed in the republic. In terms of mineral resources, the Chechen Republic took the 2nd place (after Stavropol Krai) among the subjects of the North Caucasian Federal District. The core production was largely invested. In 2017, in Chechnya, dwellings with aggregate floor space of 1041.5 m2 were commissioned, which allowed the republic to be ranked 11th upon this indicator. In 2017, the net financial position of enterprises was negative (-8,076 million rubles).
Unlike all other subjects of the North Caucasian Federal District, a positive balanced financial result was observed in Stavropol Krai (48,360 million rubles) and the Karachay-Cherkess Republic (2,316 million rubles).
Karachay-Cherkessia could be characterized as a republic with a low level of employment (83rd in the Russian Federation); high unemployment (82nd in the RF); low average monthly nominal wages (81st in the RF); low cost of living and average per capita incomes; low new housing supply. At the same time, the republic’s population was engaged in mineral production, manufacturing, agricultural production, production and distribution of electric energy, gas and water.
In 2017, the Kabardino-Balkar Republic took the 3rd place in the North Caucasian Federal District in terms of agricultural production (43,697 million rubles), after Stavropol Krai (207,082 million rubles) and Dagestan (113,363 million rubles). In terms of social and economic indicators in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, there was a rise in employment and reduction in unemployment rate. The republic took a leading position in the North Caucasian Federal District after Stavropol Krai. Kabardino-Balkaria was characterized by a very low nominal wage; low per capita cash incomes; low total area of residential premises per inhabitant; the lowest extraction of minerals and turnover of retail trade per capita. The balanced financial result of enterprises was negative in 2017 (-1186 million rubles.)
The level of unemployment in the Republic of Dagestan, like in other republics of the North Caucasian Federal District, was critical. In 2017, young people under 29 years of age accounted for about 53% of the total number of the unemployed. Despite this, there was a low crime rate (522 crimes per 100 thousand people). Dagestan ranked 15th in the Russian Federation (113,363 million rubles) in crop production and was the leader in the North Caucasian Federal District in 2016. The republic ranked 27th in the Russian Federation by the volume of investments in fixed capital, per capita cash income, and retail trade per capita. By the total area of living space per inhabitant, Dagestan occupied 80th place in the Russian Federation, and 20.1% of the total area of the republic’s housing stock was considered dilapidated or hazardous. In 2017, by the volume of new housing supply the republic took one of the leading positions in the North Caucasian Federal District. At the same time, this subject of the North Caucasian Federal District was characterized by large volumes of agricultural production, production and distribution of electricity, gas and water, and the growth of manufacturing and mining industries. The net financial position of organizations in 2017 was negative and stood at -9302 million rubles.
North Ossetia-Alania could be characterized as a subject with a low level of employment making up 57.4% (5th in the North-Caucasian Federal District and 80th in the Russian Federation), and unemployment rate standing at 9.9%. A distinctive positive feature of this subject was the highest indicator of the total area of living space per inhabitant in the North Caucasian Federal District, 16th – in the Russian Federation. The net financial position of enterprises in the region amounted to 1,783 million rubles. Despite the growth of manufacturing, production and distribution of electricity, gas and water, agricultural production, especially livestock production and a significant volume of investments in fixed capital, the standard of living of the population remained low and there was an acute need for its growth.
Stavropol Krai ranked 5th in the Russian Federation in crop production (207,082 million rubles).
In 2017, as in previous years, Stavropol Krai had the most favorable situation in the NCFD in terms of employment (62.1%) and unemployment (5.7%) rates. A positive situation was in the total volume of new housing supply, in the volume of goods shipped both in the manufacturing and extraction industries, and in agricultural production (5th place in the Russian Federation), with a majority of agricultural products representing crop production. The net financial result in Stavropol Krai was positive (48,360 million rubles).
High unemployment rate in the subjects of the NCFD leads to migration problems. Economic crisis brings about higher prices, inflation, while a greater social gap causes an upsurge of social-psychological impacts including anger, hatred, envy, aggression and others. Unemployment, rampant criminality, neglect, and more other factors lead to a situation that is extremely undesirable for the society and every single man, which highlights a pronounced polarization of population and social contrasts (Balakhonsky, 2014). A rise in such a negative security element as threat being an aggregate of conditions and factors that endanger significant interests of an individual, society and the State eventually results in an unfair distribution of land, property as well as uneven and insufficient development of regional economies (Dobryshina, 2018; Masloboev & Putilov, 2015).
The cost of living is a conditional value intended for every citizen (Dolganova, 2018; Lebedinskaya, Semakhina, & Loginov 2016). However, not everyone can afford even this minimum income. Fig. 02 shows that if in 2005, 17.6% of the RF population obtained incomes below the cost of living, in North Ossetia – Alania this figure made up 18.2%, in Stavropol Krai – 29%, in Kabardino-Balkaria – 25.9%, in Karachay-Cherkessia – 29.6%, in Dagestan – 30.5%, in Ingushetia – 68. 9%, then in 2017, the value of this indicator slightly improved.
Thus, in 2017, 13.4% of the Russian population earned incomes below the cost of living, in Dagestan this figure made up 10.8%, in Stavropol Krai – 14%, in North Ossetia - Alania – 14.4%, in Karachay-Cherkessia – 24.8%, in Kabardino-Balkaria – 25.8%, in Ingushetia – 32%. Despite the reduction in the proportion of the population with incomes below the cost of living, such segments of the population still exist, which is a negative fact in the social development of the population of the North Caucasian Federal District.
The analyzed social and economic situation of the North Caucasian republics identified low living standards, poverty, unemployment, lack of affordable housing, imperfect education and training systems, lack of life prospects, alienation and marginalization of the population (tramps and beggars on the margins of social life), exacerbation of social inequality (Kazantsev, 2016), social and family disengagement, child maltreatment, negative impact of migration, destruction of cultural integrity, lack of cultural and community facilities, dissemination of ideas and attitudes in the mass media, likely to entail increased violence, inequality and intolerance.
There is a direct link between poverty, mercantile motives and propensity to engage in activities related to the initiation, evolution and implementation of threats. Therefore, to reduce threats, it is necessary to solve the problems of social disorder (Minakova, 2016).
In order to advance social and economic development of the studied regions, reduce threats and their impact on the stability and security of society, it is necessary to eliminate all factors that, in one way or another, trigger the evolution of threats. Admittedly, greater emphasis should be placed on eliminating the consequences, rather than addressing the causes of threats (Ivanov, 2012). Heavy-handed or similar approach can certainly help address these challenges; however, this will be a temporary phenomenon. To eliminate the causes of threats, it is necessary to create jobs, provide the opportunity for the unemployed and those living below the poverty line to find a well-paid job, thus giving them an opportunity to provide a living for their families, that is, to give the economically active population the chance to satisfy their primary needs and requirements.
The subjects of the North Caucasian Federal District at all times were famous for their stable industrial and industrial bases, crop and livestock production, traditional crafts, etc. Thus, in Dagestan there were unsurpassed vineyards that are now being revived; Derbent is known for its wonderful handmade carpets; Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria and North Ossetia-Alania are some of the best tourist destinations in the world.
In the subjects of the North Caucasian Federal District, a significant amount of agricultural products is imported from other regions. It would be more profitable to reduce transportation costs and develop their own production, which requires significant government support. At present, strategic programs for the development of the economy as a whole are being implemented in the subjects of the NCFD.
To sum up, ensuring national security is inextricably intertwined and interdependent on the social and economic development of the NCFD and the State as a whole.
To ensure the security of the State from internal threats, it is proposed to improve the social and economic situation of the population of the NCFD subjects, namely, by solving the problem of social disorder, implementing a strategic program for the development of the economy as a whole, agriculture, industry, tourist and recreation facilities.
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28 December 2019
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Yaitskaya, E., Tamakhina, A., Akbasheva, A., & Dzakhmisheva*, I. (2019). Ensuring Social And Economic Security Of Subjects Of North Caucasus. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 831-837). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.110