The article discusses the features of professional socialization of foreign students studying in Russian universities, taking into account the value, dialogical nature of the educational process and the leading role of the cultural component in it. The professional socialization of foreign students is considered from the standpoint of a humanitarian (post-non-classical) pedagogical paradigm, at the center of which is the position of a person as a carrier and exponent of the values of national and world culture, as well as on the process of assigning values in the dialogue through the identification of their meanings. Two aspects of the professional socialization of foreign students at the stage of professional education are considered: adaptation to the educational conditions of a Russian university and appropriation of values, mastery of the knowledge, skills and behavior necessary for the successful professional activities and interaction with representatives of the professional community. The article presents the results of an empirical study conducted among students foreign citizens planning to study at the Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University and allowed to identify prerequisites for successful professional socialization of foreign students. The features of professional socialization of foreign students based on the dialogue of cultures are characterized: assignment of professional values as a starting point of professional socialization, identification of concepts meanings of professional thesaurus, inclusion of students in the wide social environment for the purpose of professional culture values assignment.
Keywords: Professional socializationdialogue of culturesforeign studentsforeign cultural educational environmenthumanitarian pedagogical paradigm
According to generally accepted vocabulary definitions, professional socialization is “the process of development by an individual of a certain professional knowledge and skills, assimilation of professional experience, obtaining the standards and values of the professional community” (Sociology of Youth, 2018). At the same time, in the process of professional socialization, professional education is particularly distinguished (Arendachuk, 2013; Barretti, 2004; Klimenko, 2012; Leontiev, 2005; Perez, 2016; Solyankina, 2018). The problems of professional socialization are very significant in the modern sociocultural and educational conditions.
Nowadays the problem of international cooperation in education is becoming increasingly relevant. Thousands of young people prefer education abroad, due to social, economic, political and cultural reasons. The system of international education is an important factor contributing to rapprochement and mutual understanding between peoples. Training foreign students in universities is, among other things, a matter of prestige of the country in the international arena. Qualified specialists trained at Russian universities in the future will become the intellectual elite of their countries, which will largely determine the course of development the relations with Russia.
The British company QS, studying issues related to the educational migration, only 3% of young people choose Russian education. Therefore, the question of how a young man who came to Russia to get an education feels, how his professional socialization takes place in the country, city, university is important and relevant.
When foreign students come to study at Russian universities, they feel a cultural shock related to language difficulties, a different sociocultural situation, educational traditions, etc. The foreign cultural environment imposes certain requirements, according to which a foreign student has to build his relations, including educational and professional ones. The most complete realization of personal potential occurs when the student himself is interested in professional socialization, when he perceives the changed circumstances of life on the positive side, with the desire to overcome difficulties and get the most out of the new educational environment, which defines professional standard of future expert.
Professional socialization, which ensures the process of integrating the individual into the professional community, is understood in modern sociological, pedagogical and psychological literature as a part of general socialization; but some researchers (Klimenko, 2012; Yugfeld, 2015; Barretti, 2004; Dinmohammadi, Peyrovi, & Mehrdad, 2017) pay attention to the fact that professional socialization occurs with an already socialized individual, mainly at the secondary stage of socialization, allowing to explore new sectors of social reality. For foreign students, the development of professional reality is carried out in the unity with the studying Russian culture both general and professional, which necessarily requires the understanding of the professional culture value foundations, considering Russian specifics. In addition, for foreign students, the process of professional socialization involves rethinking the ideas about the pedagogical profession that have developed when studying in their native country. Consequently, the basis for building models of foreign students professional socialization should be theories and approaches that consider in unity the process of professional socialization with the process of mastering the values and meanings of the culture in which this process is carried out.
However, in most of the studies we analyzed, which address to the problems of studying foreign students at a university (Avdonina, Bochkareva, & Bulganina, 2016; Gez & Starikova, 2018; Pavlushkina et al., 2016; Rudenko, 2016; Tyurina & Fadina, 2015), the processes of students professional socialization and inculturation are considered as relatively independent; in the presence of a large array of studies on the socio-cultural adaptation of foreign citizens, we found a clear deficit of studies on the foreign students professional socialization. In addition, professional socialization, as a rule, is considered without the achievements of the modern humanitarian pedagogical paradigm (Borytko, 2015; Kolesnikova, Lilienthal, & Buchneva, 2017; Luzina, 2011; Schurkova, 2017; Tyunnikov, Maznichenko, Afanasyeva, & Krylova, 2018), which is based on the value, dialogical nature of educational process and the leading role of the cultural component. Thus, in modern conditions, the problem of scientific substantiation of the optimal methods of pedagogical assistance to foreign students in professional socialization on the basis of the humanitarian, dialogical nature of the educational process, value and culturological components of the formed competencies is relevant.
This article focuses on two important aspects of the professional socialization of foreign students.
(1) The refinement of the concept "professional socialization of foreign students" from the standpoint of the humanitarian pedagogical paradigm. Traditionally, professional socialization at the stage of professional education is considered as the process of student development as a professional and role-related subsystems (Andriyanova, Chernyshkov, Kuznetsova, & Gorshenina, 2016; Kicherova, Efimova, & Khveshko, 2015; Perez, 2016; Roucaud, 2016; Shuval, 1975; Solyankina, 2018). There are some studies that examine the psychological regulations of professional socialization, mainly the motive system that influences the choice of profession and professional training (Arendachuk, 2013; Moran, 1989; Perez, 2016; Rudenko, 2016; Barretti, 2004; Orten, 1981). However, from the humanitarian paradigmpoint of view, the process of foreign students professional socialization should be considered primarily as a process of assigning the values of professional culture and the discovery of their own meanings, adequate to the meanings of professional culture - both native and Russian. The provision on the humanitarian nature of the educational process also applies to global education (Kolesnikova, Lilienthal, & Buchneva, 2017). At the same time, the search for “common ground” between the student’s native culture and Russian culture is important only in this case a student studying at a Russian university can fully absorb professional knowledge and master professional skills, the translators of which are representatives of Russian culture (teachers, representatives of professional community, Russian students), and apply this knowledge and skills in the process of professional activity in their native country.
(2) The identification of main features of professional socialization of foreign students based on the dialogue of cultures. The theory of dialogue of cultures developed by M. M. Bakhtin, consistent with the context of the humanitarian pedagogical paradigm. Since values are embodied in culture, representatives of this paradigm consider the educational process in the context of culture as an integral and important part of national and world culture, and the upbringing of a “person of culture” as an important task, including professional. Dialogue is understood not only as a way of communication between people, but as the universal way of human existence in the world of values and culture. The humanitarian pedagogical paradigm is characterized by the pedagogical problems consideration not only at the specific scientific, but also at the philosophical level. Thus, a special way of studying the problem of professional socialization of foreign students is given, and the theory of dialogue of cultures acts as one of the leading methodological approaches in the study of this problem.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study to determine the methodological foundations for modeling the system of pedagogical assistance to foreign students in professional socialization during their education from the standpoint of the humanitarian pedagogical paradigm, which is based on the dialogue of cultures as the universal way of interaction between people as representatives of different cultural communities, including in the educational process at the stage of professional training.
Theoretical methods (analysis, synthesis, generalization) became the basis for the research concept development. The method of classification allowed presenting in a structured form the features of foreign students professional socialization based on a dialogue of cultures. Empirical methods (questioning, observation, conversation, search experiment) made it possible to determine main manifestations of the problem in the practice of education, to determine the existing educational practice grounds for the organization of the process of foreign students professional socialization based on a dialogue of cultures.
The empirical study was conducted at the Volgograd State Social and Pedagogical University (Volgograd, Russia). The purpose of the empirical study was to identify the foreign students ' ideas about professional training, which can positively or negatively affect the process and the result of their professional socialization. The leading method was a questionnaire. The authors developed a questionnaire, consisting of three blocks of substantive questions, among which were the questions that suggested a single answer, and the questions that suggested the possibility of multiple choice. At the same time, respondents had the opportunity to propose their own answer (except for the questions that suggested an alternative). The questions with an alternative were aimed at identifying the students ' ideas of professional socialization at the stage of professional education. The second block of questions was aimed at identifying difficulties that students may face in the process of professional socialization. The third block of questions allowed to find out why the applicant chose Russia, a specific city (Volgograd) and a specific university for training. At this stage of the study, these questions are of a general nature, in the future they are expected to be specified. It was interviewed 63 applicants entered the Volgograd State Social and Pedagogical University in 2019 at different levels of study: bachelor's degree 52 students, master's degree 7 persons, postgraduate programs 4 persons. Of these, 35 students are going to study "Pedagogical education" program, 28 “Linguistics” program. Since the number of respondents is small, the methods of qualitative analysis were used in the processing of empirical data. The data obtained during the survey were supplemented by the results of conversations with applicants.
In the process of training foreign students, an important task for the university is the training of highly qualified specialists, which takes place in the process of professional socialization of students, involving the mastery of the professional community laws. The success of professional socialization at the university stage largely depends on the educational processes aimed at preparing for professional activities.
At the stage of pre-professional activity, the student receives those professional skills, masters those norms and rules that allow him to improve his professional abilities within educational and professional activity (production practices) and are the basis for future career growth, for further profession improvement. Thus, professional socialization is correlated with professional- and self-development (Arendachuk, 2013; Klimenko, 2012; Weis & Schank, 2002).
The most important task of professional socialization at the university stage is to prepare a foreign student for contacts with the professional environment, for the rules, laws, norms, experience, knowledge that are inherent in this type of activity. The success of professional socialization depends not only on how fully and competently an individual has mastered a certain amount of professional knowledge, skills and abilities, but also how professionally and skillfully he can embody the entire body of knowledge in practical activities. Professional socialization features are determined by the norms, goals and objectives of a certain professional environment.
Long-term monitoring the features of foreign students professional socialization, as well as the results of the survey conducted among foreign students became the basis for highlighting two aspects in the process of professional socialization at the stage of professional education: (1) adaptation to the educational conditions of a Russian university; (2) appropriation of values, mastery of knowledge, skills and behavior necessary for the successful implementation of professional activities and for the successful interaction with representatives of the professional community.
The adaptation of a foreign student to the educational conditions of a Russian university is an adaptation to the educational system of the country in which the student is studying, to the educational system, which includes not only the learning process itself, but also the educational process, to the system of the educational process in the chosen university and faculty.
Surygin (2000), considering the process of adaptation to the new pedagogical system, calls it academic and identifies two aspects: educational, which involves a transition from one level of education to another, higher the school-university system, and national-cultural, involving adaptation to educational environment, which differs from the native national-cultural traditions in that the individual is taught in a non-native language in a non-native sociocultural environment. The differences between the educational systems of Russia and their home country can lead to serious problems. So, in Chinese universities and schools, collective forms of education predominate, due to the large number of student groups (classes), traditional verbal teaching methods that do not involve students' activity and implement a reproductive pattern of knowledge acquisition. In Russia, Chinese students find themselves in a completely different educational environment characterized by a democratic style of interaction between teachers and students, the widespread use of active and interactive teaching methods, differentiation and individualization in the educational process. The same features are typical for schools, on the basis of which students studying in “Pedagogical education” program including practical training. It is required to use special pedagogical techniques that contribute students activities, including creative nature, as opposed to their usual reproductive activities. While ensuring the adaptation of foreign students to the educational conditions of the Russian University, it is necessary to include students in a wide socio-cultural environment, otherwise the University will be perceived as a closed system, not associated with other social structures, including professional ones; this situation will inevitably lead to failures in the process of professional socialization.
The survey, which involved applicants from China, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Congo, Uzbekistan, showed that applicants are aware of the fact that they will have to adapt to an unusual educational environment. Among the predicted difficulties that they will face in the learning process, all the foreign interviewed citizens put the language barrier in the first place (“I will not understand what teachers say,” “It will be difficult for me to speak Russian in the classroom”). Only 14 persons among the respondents are aware of the fact that difficulties can also be associated with the peculiarities of the educational process (“It will be difficult for me to get used to the rules of behavior in the Russian university,” “It will be difficult for me to get used to the peculiarities of the lessons”). It is characteristic that these same respondents, answering the question of what difficulties they faced in Russia, chose the option “Unusual traditions, it’s difficult for me to understand how to behave in some situations”. During the conversation, undergraduates and graduate students from China who studied at Russian universities and have already passed the stage of adaptation to educational conditions, note that they experienced serious difficulties associated with adapting to new learning conditions (an unusual schedule of classes, the use of active and interactive methods during classes, partner style of interaction between teachers and students, the orientation of teachers not to memorize the material, but to understand it). A student from Azerbaijan was surprised that the teachers thank the students for the answer; in general, the tradition of Russian culture to say “thank you” for the services and for the help prescribed by the rules of etiquette was unusual for her. Thus, the vast majority of applicants do not fully represent the problems arising in the process of adaptation to the educational conditions of a Russian university.
All students expectations from the educational process are associated with the professionally significant knowledge and skills. In other words, they are aware of the leading role of knowledge and skills for the future profession. Only some respondents associate their expectations not only with the educational process, but also with the university educational environment as a whole, choosing the option “There will be an interesting and diverse student life” (19 persons). Only two respondents rely on communication with Russian friends and on their help. In our opinion, these data indicate a tendency toward isolation of national student diasporas (which is confirmed by the results of observation), which can significantly reduce the effectiveness of professional socialization.
32 out of 63 respondents are focused not only on education, but also on studying Russian culture. It should be noted that these respondents provided absolutely consistent data and demonstrate the most serious attitude to the development of the future profession. Conversations with them confirmed that they are aware of the connection between “immersion” in Russian culture and success in mastering a future profession.
Empirical research has confirmed that there are positive prerequisites for successful professional socialization of foreign students. They are:
awareness of the seriousness and complexity of the process of professional training in a non-cultural educational environment, as well as the role of professional skills (the expectations of all applicants due to the fact that “there will be a lot of practical activity related to the future profession”);
focus on professional self-development (one hundred percent choice of two alternative statements of the option “To become a good specialist, you need to constantly improve in your profession”);
understanding of the relationship between professional and general socialization in a foreign culture environment (52 respondents noted the option “To become a good specialist, you need to be active, to participate in public life”, explaining that a future teacher or interpreter needs to be able to interact with a variety of people, to develop their communicative and organizational skills, to learn better the culture of Russia you should take part in public life);
profession choice under the influence of internal factors (58 respondents, answering the question about the reasons for choosing a profession, noted the item “I like profession”);
understanding the importance of the language in which the training is conducted and which is the basis for communication both at the household level and at the professional level;
understanding the importance of knowledge of Russian culture for successful mastery of the profession (54 respondents agree that not only professional knowledge, but also knowledge of Russian culture, its history, traditions will help to become a good specialist.
Many researchers who pay attention to the fact that professional socialization has internal and external components distinguish in the process of professional socialization value aspect (Arendachuk, 2013; Kicherova, Efimova, & Khveshko, 2015; Klimenko, 2012; Malakhova, 2017; Moran, 1989; Neikrug, 1978; Orten, 1981; Sharwell, 1974; Solovtsova, 2018; Solyankina, 2018; Tereshchenko & Ovsyannikova, 2018; Weis & Schank, 2002). Professional socialization involves introducing the student to a professional culture and ethics, which are based on certain moral values. Thus, in professional socialization the most important is the appropriation of the professionalvalues, through the student's discovery of their own meanings. However, for foreign students, the development of the value component of professional socialization is possible only if an adequate understanding of the conceptual foundations of professional activity is associated, in turn, with the meanings inherent in general cultural, including ethical, and professional concepts.
The value aspect of professional socialization, as well as professional culture (which is based on general cultural norms, traditions, etiquette rules), necessitate to use the theory of dialogue of cultures as the basis for foreign students professional socialization.
Dialogic nature of the humanitarian foundations of the modern education has been the subject of pedagogical research over the past two decades. The formation of the humanitarian educational paradigm, including its value foundations led to the actualization of this problem.
The problems of openness to dialogue and mutual understanding in the modern world have a deep global character. However, good will alone is not enough for mutual understanding and dialogue, but understanding the cultures of other peoples is necessary, which includes awareness of the differences in ideas, customs, cultural traditions inherent in different peoples, the ability to see the common and different between various cultures and look at the culture of our own community through the eyes of other nations (Buryak, 2016). The dialogue of cultures enhances mutual understanding between peoples, makes it possible to better know their own national image.
The concept of "dialogue of cultures" differs significantly from the concept of "intercultural communication". If the concept of “intercultural communication” describes a system of interactions at the social level, then the concept of “dialogue of cultures” is philosophical and is intended to denote a universal way of human life. Dialogue of cultures is the need for interaction, mutual assistance, mutual enrichment. The dialogue of cultures acts as an objective necessity and condition for the development of cultures. In the dialogue of cultures, mutual understanding is assumed. Moreover, in mutual understanding is supposed to unity, similarity, identity. That is, the dialogue of cultures is possible only on the basis of mutual understanding, but at the same time only based on the individual ones in each culture. Dialogue according to Bakhtin (1986) is a mutual understanding of those involved in this process and at the same time, preservation of one’s opinion, merging with the “other” and keeping of distance (one’s place). According to the conclusions of Luzina (2011), genuine dialogue presupposes at the same time a “lack of community” and a “lack of alienation”: if the value bases and features of their manifestation in different cultures completely coincide, then the dialogue becomes unnecessary, but if they radically differ, the dialogue becomes impossible. With regard to issues related to professional socialization, this means that for the successful appropriation of professional values in a foreign cultural educational environment, it is necessary, firstly, to search for “common ground (points of contact)” between cultures (these are, as a rule, the values themselves, primarily absolute values Life, Personality, Truth, Goodness, Beauty... from which the values of a particular profession are derived), secondly, the definition of differences (these are, as a rule, semantic interpretations of the content of values and features of values in specific national and professional cultures).
The dialogue of cultures is possible only with a certain convergence of their cultural codes, the presence or occurrence of a common mentality. The dialogue of cultures is the penetration into the system of particular culture values, respect for them, overcoming stereotypes, a synthesis of original and foreign, leading to mutual enrichment and entry into the global cultural context. In the dialogue of cultures, it is important to understand the common values of interacting cultures.
The content of values is revealed in the system of concepts that make up the thesaurus of a particular profession. Since teachers are carriers and translators of Russian culture (and professional culture as part of it), it is extremely important to disclose the diversity of meanings of professional concepts in Russian and their value bases. This is facilitated by: working with professional texts using hermeneutical methods (identifying “dark places” that arise most often due to sociocultural differences, identifying keywords and ideas; various forms of interpretation); the use of interactive teaching methods (role-playing and business games, including games that promote the development of professional etiquette, the project method); conducting regulated discussions on professional topics; performing tasks on the variable design of professional processes from the standpoint of Russian and native culture of students; the use of reflective teaching methods aimed at identifying the meanings of the phenomena of professional culture and awareness of their own professional position. The value of hermeneutic, active and interactive methods in the process of foreign students professional socialization is to actualize the student's volitional efforts, and this, in the opinion of Lazareva (2018), provides self-movement to a new status the status of a professional. The identification of the content of values becomes the starting point in the process of dialogue of cultures.
The process of dialogue of cultures is complex and uneven. Dialogue presupposes active interaction of equal subjects, it can relieve tension in the process of educational interaction caused by difficulties of professional socialization, create an atmosphere of trust and mutual respect.
Dialogue is the most important methodological principle of understanding culture. As Bakhtin (1986, p. 354) noted, “Alien culture reveals itself more fully and deeper only in the eyes of another culture…One meaning opens its depths meeting and coming in contact with another, alien meaning…, it’s as if a dialogue starts between them, which overcomes the restraint and one-sidedness of these meanings, these cultures… In case of this dialogical meeting of two cultures, they do not merge and do not mix, but they are mutually enriched”. In the dialogue of cultures, there are the same problems as in the translation from one language to another: understanding, getting in to the world of a foreign culture. Dialogue with other cultures is impossible without certain images of culture, both their own and foreign.
The dialogue of cultures cannot occur otherwise than through the interaction of individual worldviews. The essence of dialogism is in the productive interaction of sovereign positions that make up a single and diverse semantic space and common culture. The main difference between dialogism and monologism is the desire to understand the relationship of different views, ideas, phenomena, social forces. The main result of the dialogue of cultures is the appropriation by foreign students of the professional values based on professional activity and the system of professional interactions.
When organizing the professional socialization of foreign students in Russian universities, it is necessary to consider the fact that a foreign student who has successfully mastered the values of the host society, the educational and professional community, perceives them as the norm, faces problems when returning to his sociocultural and professional environment. Often he has to completely change himself not only in the social, social, cultural and political, but also in the professional sphere, i.e. there is a question of a re-adaptation of a foreign specialist, secondary professional socialization. The organization of foreign students professional socialization based on the dialogue of cultures can mitigate the severity of this problem, since the dialogue of cultures involves both the identification of “commonality” and the identification of “alienation” between Russian and the native culture of the student, and the ability to perform professional actions in a foreign culture taking into account its features within the production practice enriches the student’s professional arsenal, makes his professional tools more flexible and varied.
In the process of professional socialization of foreign students during professional education, two aspects are distinguished: adaptation to the educational conditions of a Russian university; appropriation of values, mastery of knowledge, skills and behavior necessary for the successful professional activities and the interaction with representatives of the professional community.
The professional socialization of foreign students is carried out in the unity with the learning about the Russian culture, including professional culture, which implies the value foundations understanding primarily through understanding the meanings that describe profession and professional activity. For foreign students, professional socialization also means the rethinking the ideas about profession that have developed during their studies in their home country. The optimal conditions for the assignment of professional values by students are created in the implementation of the educational model based on the principles of the dialogue of cultures.
Features of the professional socialization of foreign students based on the dialogue of cultures are as follows:
(1) in the structure of professional socialization as a sociocultural phenomenon, the educational process, and pedagogical activity, a value component is distinguished, which from the standpoint of the theory of dialogue of cultures is considered as a system-forming one that defines all the characteristics of an integral professional socialization;
(2) values act as the basis of professional socialization. The search for “common ground (points of contact)” between Russian and the native culture of the student is the starting point for the appropriation of absolute and professional values and a prerequisite for successful foreign student professional socialization in a foreign cultural, professional and socio-cultural environment. Similar “points of contact” may be similarities in value bases, value-purpose settings of the education and professional activities;
(3) professional socialization based on the dialogue of cultures is effective if, along with the general value bases of professional activity, students have discovered and understood the differences between the Russian and native educational and professional cultures, which, as a rule, are found in traditions, ethical standards and rules for such activities, etiquette requirements for interaction between people of particular professions. Understanding the differences between professional cultures is necessary for the secondary professional socialization of a student in their native professional environment;
(4) the dialogue of cultures is aimed at enriching the content of professional socialization of a foreign student, developing his own concept of professional activity, enriching his technological tools through interaction with a different (in this case, Russian) culture;
(5) the dialogue of cultures helps to break the language barrier, without which professional socialization is impossible, and allows a foreign student to realize his activity in society. The optimal conditions for professional socialization are created when the student is not only determined to get professional knowledge and significant skills, but also try to show and realize social activity, try to join the social life of the faculty, university, professional community and when he is ready for professional and personal self-development. For foreign students, to be active in society is also important because it allows them to study Russian language in the sociocultural and professional context (primarily situations of interaction, behavioral norms, etiquette rules), to master the rules of speech behavior and professional interaction in accordance with country-specific traditions.
The prospects of theoretical research are associated with the identification of components and structural relationships of professional socialization of foreign students, with the development and justification of its model. Further empirical research suggests expanding the sample by increasing the number of subjects and expanding the range of professions mastered by them and will be aimed at clarifying and concretizing the factors affecting the professional socialization of students, including at the regional level.
The reported study was funded by RFBR and Volgograd region according to the research project № 19-413-340011.
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12 December 2019
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Society, culture, education
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Solovtsova*, I., Malakhova, V., Nikitenko, S., & Tereshchenko, T. (2019). Professional Socialization Of Foreign Students Based On The Dialogue Of Cultures. In S. Ivanova, & I. Elkina (Eds.), Cognitive - Social, and Behavioural Sciences - icCSBs 2019, vol 74. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 168-180). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.02.21