The paper addresses form master activities focusing on two aspects: the first one – commitment to implementation of requirements of the Federal Educational Standard of Basic Education; the second one considers upbringing activity as arrangement of conditions for personal development of educatee; form master understands and acknowledges it as objective, content and result of his/her pedagogical activities. We explain possible positions in form master activities translated into work forms: tutor, facilitator, moderator, which are interconnected, complement each other and govern general humanistic sense of upbringing process. Formation of child-adult community in a form is emphasized as significant area of form master activities. It is important to recognize a form not only as a formal learning group but also as significant space for living of adults and children together, where conditions for each person identity formation and self-fulfillment, for joint activities interesting to everybody are created, where universal human values and senses show themselves and persist. We introduce in detail such forms of form master activities as homeroom and work with parents. We explain problem homeroom practice, which is based on the following stages: emotional attitude to the homeroom topic; joint topic formulation; clarification of a selected topic; setting of objectives for teamwork; team work on the topic; presentations of group projects; final reflective stage. Working with parents form master helps them to feel involvement in school life of their children, turns them to allies and partners in upbringing process arrangement directing and supporting development of child's personality.
Keywords: Upbringingform masterschool child personality
Modern Russian school experiences delicate stage of structural and content-related reorganization, success of which is impossible without reliance on humanistic and cultural values, general democratization of educational system and improvement of interaction in all levels of the system. Success of school reorganization and improvement of education quality is associated to a great extent with development of children upbringing and extension of its humanistic space.
Modern form master is still a key person in arrangement of upbringing process in the school. He/she performs full continuum of functions significant for child growing-up and development: he/she is an intermediary between social medium and educatee in gaining social experience, in making of educatee's citizenship, in comprehension of human culture basics, universal human values and senses. Form master is a provider of collective and individual activities in a form; he/she renders individual support to specific children (children with health limitations, gifted and troubled children). At the same time form master arranges and maintains trust-based and open interpersonal relations and friendly psychological atmosphere inside form community; he/she considers and uses advantageous potential of school as well as residential area, city and region cultural and educational medium. Above all form master is a leading coordinator of efforts of all school educational parties: administration, subject teachers, children and teaching school staff, parents and social medium – the whole range of upbringing forces and social medium influences focused on education, growing-up and development of child's personality.
Many teachers perceive being a form master as a mission, the most significant part of their lives, their pedagogical work. “I cannot imagine myself without a form!”, chemistry teacher having huge academic load, holding concurrently position of school director of teaching and later heading a sub-department in the local Teacher's Continuing Education Institute, was saying. And one has to agree with it: teacher without a form is an orphan in the school. Only with them, with children you understand that school is not just a workplace: school becomes a part of you and you accept it becoming a part of the community. In such a way, you develop interacting.
A task of modern school is to train the graduate to become the personality ready to face boldly various spheres of life, positioning himself as a person confident in political, moral and ethical issues as a personality capable to build and to be the author of his own life.
The educational standards describe the ways of education. We can find graduate’s portrait in the Concept of spiritual, moral and educational development of a personality. There is an exact framework within which any pedagogical team is recommended to work in the processes of educating, achieving its goal. But nevertheless there are still some questions remaining as:
How to make it? Which ways and methods of educational work may be considered as effective? And which of them can really meet the demands of modern teenagers’ lives realities?
Usually all the teachers who are actively engaged in educational processes are facing these kind of dilemmas. This research is focusing in receiving the answers to these questions; in clarifying the objectives and tasks. It is looking for the significant ways and relevant forms of a modern class teacher’s activities within his duties in realization of the educational component of the new state standards within the General Education’s Russian Federal State Educational Standard.
The purpose of this research is to identify the class teacher activities’ content according to the approximate educational program implementation and socialization of school students (within the Russian Federal State Educational Standard). The research also studies the principles the class teacher activities is based on: as to be an example of moral behavior; on the principle of dialogical communication with significant others; on the principle of identification; on the principle of the socially significant problems decisions; on the principle of the systematic-interactive organization education.
We do understand that the class teachers’ main objectives of their educational activities is to create conditions for development and self-development of child’s identity. And the research is an attempt to find out, describe and underline a teacher’s specific role and actions within this goal.
This work tries to determine possible positions of the class teachers’ activities which they can realize in educational processes within the Federal Educational Standard: tutor, facilitator, moderator.
At the same time understanding the importance of the child-adult communication aspect in a class as significant condition of education and personal development of a student is important.
It is important to remember about such a significant form of educational activity as a class hour, time for extracurricular activities. It is right time to disclose and to develop the student-teacher relationship within the educational process.
To find new effective forms of work of the class teacher with students’ parents when the teacher helps parents to feel his role in school life of their children, creates the atmosphere of partners in the organization of the educational process, directing and supporting personal development of a child.
Purpose of the Study
It is an attempt to provide entire description of modern form master's upbringing activities content, to clarify its tasks and objectives, important areas and up-to-date forms of teacher's activities on implementation of upbringing component provided for by the new state standard (Federal Educational Standard for Basic Education).
Study of form master's upbringing activities is based on papers of Novikova L.I., Limets H.J., Karakovskiy V.A., and Selivanova N.L., which disclose the essence of upbringing as the process of management of educatee personality development (Karakovskiy, 2008; Novikova, 2010; Selivanova, 2016; Stepanov, Parfenova, & Stepanova, 2017). Based on this vision the following papers disclosing form master's upbringing activities are important for our study: by Demakova (Valeeva & Demakova, 2015) who developed the most important invariant characteristics of upbringing activities; by Grigoryev (2007) disclosing co-existence of a child and an adult. Specific features of upbringing activities are presented in the papers by Borytko N.M., Voropaev M.V., Lizinskiy V.M., Mudrik A.V., Polyakov S.D., Rudenko I.V., Stepanov E.N., Stepanov P.V., Stepanova I.V., Shakurova M.V. et al (as cited in Mudrik 2017; Polyakov, 2003; Stepanov et al., 2017; Tagunova, Selivanova, & Valeeva, 2016).
Questionnaire, interviewing, focus group with form masters and reflection of own experience of a form master are the study methods used for detection of important form masters' problems in arrangement of upbringing and significant areas and forms of form masters' work under current cultural and social conditions.
Upbringing of the younger generation personality is one of the top priorities of modern school. Social and pedagogical support of formation and development of moral, creative, competent Russian citizen accepting Motherland destiny as his/her own are objective of school children upbringing and socialization. It is the axiom which is easy to articulate but more difficult to implement. Then, it is necessary to comprehend methods helping us to resolve the problem. If we address the tentative Program of upbringing and socialization of school children, we find the following principles among principles promoting achievement of the program tasks and objectives: principle of moral example following; principle of dialogic communication with significant others; principle of identification; principle of joint resolution of significant personal and public problems; principle of systematic and activity arrangement of upbringing.
These principles should be fundamental for activities of nowadays form master. But how to implement them?
Let’s discuss objectives of upbringing activity. Each educatee has his/her own goal, own thinking and frequently inconscient moral aspirations, which he/she plans and tries to realize in a form. That is why the main teacher's objective is to understand present of his/her educatees, their interests and goals, life priorities and values.
Educate should be considered as a subject of self-improvement, self-education and self-teaching. Basically, form master's actions to a large extent depend on the educatee because conformance of internal (characterizing child's nature, his/her personality, abilities and interests) and external (coming from state policy, teacher and medium) conditions, it's complementarity are important for a form master. Teacher's activities should be focused on educatee's personal agency, his/her efforts in the processes of self-determination and personal fulfillment, his/her ability to set goals, recognize his/her acts and behavior.
Often form master's objectives are related to one specific pupil. For example, helping a pupil to expand sphere of his/her interests, improve his/her relations with classmates or a teacher, contribute to personal advancement, help with making a decision on profession. The objectives appear during work with a form and give an opportunity to resolve intermediate problems. Choice of educational work forms depends on these objectives and “live situation” occurring in the form.
Let's look at a possible teacher's position and forms of form master's upbringing work from the point of view of new teacher's functions development from a perspective of the Federal Educational Standard, which is tutor, facilitator and moderator.
Let's define terminology. Tutor provides development of individual educational programs for pupils and students and supports the process of individualization and individual education in schools, higher educational institutions and in supplementary education systems. “Comprehensive fulfillment of personal educational potential, self-improvement potential, self-actualization through education and meeting of actor's needs are tutor's support objective. The main task is to help a person to realize his/her potential in educational activity” (Kovaleva, 2011, p. 174).
Tutor works with children individually; the work can be performed both in real and digital worlds. For example. It can be individual birthday greetings on behalf of the whole form, communication through Skype, correspondence in group, correspondence via E-mail or personal off/on-line consulting. It may be searching, proposing and later assistance to participation in individual acting skills contests for socially-minded youngsters “I am a leader” or “Student of the year”, in creativity subject competitions, in language and grant programs, subject Olympiads and research-to-practice conferences. Participating in such events children gain social experience, develop themselves, build up portfolios of their achievements. Form master provides advices, assists with writing of presentations scripts, employs available resources such as parents', graduates', etc. help.
Facilitator is a teacher working under paradigm of person-centered pedagogics and guided by the following instructions in work with children: openness to own thoughts, feelings and experiences; encouragement and trust as expression of teacher's moral personal certainty in capabilities of pupils; empathic understanding. Being a facilitator who supports the process of child's upbringing and development, his/her self-determination and self-improvement is teacher's educational activity goal. Ideas of Rogers, Lyon, and Tausch (2013) humanistic psychology are facilitation basis: each educatee personality is valuable and unique in his/her own fashion and requires special treatment; each educatee has exceptional abilities, expression integrity of which makes the essence of “Ego”, his/her “self”; education as facilitation is based on individual aspiration of each pupil to constant development and self-improvement, to implementation of own capabilities.
Moderator is a manager of group work activating and regulating the process of group participants interaction on the basis of democratic principles. When preparing and holding different events moderator works both with separate groups and the whole form. Initiative group: the stage of collective goal-setting and planning takes place in the beginning of each academic term. Further initiative groups arrange and hold events: going to cinema, everybody go to a skating rink, visiting “Zaryadiye” Park, giving concert for children in a hospital, call on a sick person, etc. None of initiatives is rejected.
These characteristics of form master's positions are interconnected and complement each other, set general humanistic sense of upbringing process.
Teacher's position in interaction with children in all types of forms of work with a form is a separate issue. Teacher's example when a teacher is a significant personality for educates has paramount importance for spiritual and moral development of pupils. Using this potential teacher as a “culture bearer” involves children in different types of activities; as a “leader of children” supports establishment of their self-consciousness, inspires self-discovery and self-conception processes, development of reflecting personality qualities; as an “organizer and participant of creative team work” keeps children's initiatives, manages arrangement of children's self-government, joint creative affairs and projects, creates conditions for obtaining and understanding of significant activity and communication experience by children.
Conditionally three positions can be observed in form master's work: “above”, “together” and “nearby”. “Above” is a situation when a form master has to show his/her will, force, has to use techniques inviting pupils of a form to do something what is planned or urgent. “Nearby” is a situation when a form master does not force but does not prevent expression of a form of self-government. “Together” is a situation when teacher and pupils are equal initiators and creators of events, actions or projects. Each form master tends to one position more than to other positions. Prevalence of “above” position may lead to development of lack of interest to school life, unwillingness to show initiative and participation for the sake of appearance. Demonstration of “nearby” position in most form life events creates mutual indifference but herewith situations when children's initiative springs are possible. “Together” position is the most energy and emotionally demanding for a teacher: he/she is open for dialogue, honest, constantly interacts with educatees and keeps the track of events. Danger of “together” position is that being in most cases “on equal terms” with children a teacher may easily cross the “child” - “adult” boundary.
From what is seen in modern school it is possible to extract another point of view to positions of a form master: caring – careful mommy protecting her child; authoritative – dictator actively enforcing his/her will; manipulator managing children without aggression but against their will; precisian – performing his/her functions nominally without emotional load; interlocutor – treating each child as a personality needing empathy. In his/her work it is important for teacher to see and consider potential of all the listed above positions and roles, its strengths and weaknesses.
It appears that only “together” and “interlocutor” positions may lead to formation of child-adult community in a form, which promotes education and development of school children. Form master should be actively involved in what is going on, school children should feel that all what happens in the form is interesting and important for a teacher. On the one hand for a teacher it is important to keep field of common conformity, common interest, common emotions and feelings, common thinking effort. On the other hand he/she creates and keeps intellectual strain of a problem and joint searching. Teacher does not draw conclusions, does not strike the balance, he/she asks questions and finds answers together with pupils.
Formation of child-adult community in a form is an important area of form master activity. School form is the most traditional child-adult community, through which almost each child passes. It is important to see a form not only as a study group where school children get knowledge and skills but as important space of their lives, where processes of education and development take place actively.
During discussion of child-adult community characteristics with form masters of Ulyanovsk region schools several possible regularities of child-adult community manifestation and functioning in a form were distinguished.
The first one. Axiological space saturates the community and keeps it, resolves problems of school children upbringing and development in the optimum way. It is important that teacher does not declare values prevailing in the community but children demonstrate the values of clearly pronounced humanistic nature themselves during open friendly communication.
The second one. Reflection plays distinct role in child-adult community. Reflection is pedagogical means of community manifestation in a formal group, which is school form very often; it is necessary condition of the group existence and active living and result of separate phases of a form life. Collective reflective processes induce openness, demonstrate positions of participants and generate common values and senses. Actualization and inspiration of individual school child reflection through collective reflection are important.
The third one. In most cases form community arises in situations of emotional affinity and openness (discussion of problematic situation in a form, something interesting to everybody, common feelings).
The fourth one. Often community arises in response to axiological collective discussion of a problem, when everyone may frankly share his/her opinion (adult and children are equal in this capacity) during discussion and understanding of common issues and events important to everybody in group reflection.
The fifth one. Teacher can arrange certain conditions generating community, assist formation and functioning of child-adult community, where he/she acts as an equal to others. Community development is driven by emotional involvement of children and adults in common feelings or by activity generated around common interest in formation of community axiological space; it allows self-determination of each party of the community (positions, activity areas and methods), demonstration and implementation of creative (original) initiatives of community participants.
Teacher should have an idea about formal and informal structures existing in a form, he/she should understand what it is driven by and how the structures correlate. Novikova (2010) notes: “when formal and informal structures in a group contradict one another, double field may arise in the group which manifests itself in conflicting of values adopted by the group officially and generated in the area of unofficial communication, in presence of two types of public opinion” (p. 63). Such situation fraught with conflicts and disassociation of school children in a form, misunderstanding and “insincerity” in relations between schoolmates and teacher.
The following are possible areas of form master's work on formation and development of form body as child-adult community: organization of joint valid activity; arrangement of children's self-government; demonstration of form development prospects; establishment and maintaining of form traditions; formation of a system of open and respectful connections and relations in a form.
Form master should have a lot (inner moral freedom, independence of thought, recognition of his/her full responsibility for ramifications of his/her act); should be able to do a lot (plan his/her activities, interesting out-of-school activities, analyze and forecast results of his/her activity, render assistance to educatees, establish social contacts with parents, subject teachers and society); be kind to children, attentive, careful, sociable, understanding, benevolent, responsible, sincere, reserved, fair, goal-oriented, modern, communicative, creative and beautiful – these qualities of a form master children marked in their questionnaires; for parents of his/her pupils form master should be honest and fair, polite and quiet, be sensitive and have high level of culture.
Experience. In our case the first event that lead us to formation of child-adult community in a new form was a walk around the school. We did not go beyond the bounds of 1 quarter from the school but the walk lasted for almost 2 hours and got everybody thinking about various things.
Preparation included several steps. First at the lesson we watched episode of a movie called “Way to school”, which got several Cezar awards. In 20 minutes authors of the movie tell how children from different parts of the world go to school overcoming all sorts of difficulties. The way may be very long and dangerous but nevertheless young heroes follow the way because they have a certain objective. The movie helped pupils to understand that school and education may become a value but not a punishment. The main thing is to recognize this value.
Later children wrote a composition “My way to school”. After discussion we understood that majority of children cover this way in a car, where they sleep more often than not and do not see anything. And children came to this school (we are speaking about a physics and mathematics oriented school) mainly under parents' wish.
One more observation: many children do not know street names and do not have a good sense of direction in the city.
We decided both with children and parents to take a joint walk around the school. Nowadays there are many enthusiasts helping to establish social life in the place where we live: these are people taking responsibility for ecology, condition of landmarks, work with children, etc. in the region. A person with a penchant for architecture and motherland history lives in our city. He implements the interest in excursions, which he develops himself and arranges through social networks. He conducts excursions for minimum charge when he is not working. We addressed him asking for assistance. He made an appointment at a time convenient for everybody.
It was interesting to observe: children were not just learning, they really discovered what would seem familiar to everybody: streets, buildings people around them. Interesting facts of buildings' history are aligned with the school, city and country history. Moreover, we learnt the difference between public garden and boulevard or walkway, between street and square, between lane and alley or blind alley.
Then another important stage - reflection came. We talked about new things that children saw and learnt. And the main thing is that we tried to articulate objective for the sake of which we are going to school every morning 6 times a week. Moreover, we decided that now our way to school changes because we know why we are going there.
Form master performs moderator's functions during homerooms also. Homeroom is a significant form of form master's work. Let's consider it in further detail. Any form master faces a question – how to conduct a homeroom that pupils speak, are involved in discussion and could together come to life values and senses, their growing-up and development objectives during discussions.
Preliminary phase in which homeroom topic is defined plays very important role in homeroom preparation process. It is desirable that first of all, the topic is a problem-based one, important and interesting for school children and induces their reasoning. Second, homeroom topic should correspond to age objectives; it should affect aspects of their life, freedom and responsibility; it should lead children to the area of life values and senses, induce self-determination.
When upbringing school children it is important to inspire and maintain in the children process of self-determination in all life areas, their aspiration to make conscious choice and form view of life. Recognition of humanistic values significant for oneself is the basis of self-determination (in all spheres). This is exactly the main teacher's objective when he/she conducts a homeroom. Let's point out possible stages of problem-based homeroom carrying out: emotional attitude to the homeroom topic; joint topic formulation; clarification of the selected topic; setting of objectives for teamwork; team work in the topic; presentations of group projects; final reflective stage.
On the one hand, homerooms could be thoroughly prepared, on the other hand it may be a response to particular event being almost an improvisation. The main thing is that children find themselves equal participants of communication and enter into dialogue. As, for example, recently it was in one of spontaneous homerooms, which was a response to the following situation: a teacher submitted a memorandum with a complain about discipline in her lesson. As an answer a group of children submitted a memorandum addressed to the school administration requiring to solve the problem with discipline by expulsion of a particular pupil from the form. Form members took the information about it badly, judging by correspondence parents, children and teachers were very emotional over what happened evaluating the situation differently.
A homeroom was appointed next day. It was difficult to decide how to plan it because a serious question of moral choice was at stake: everybody against one person, the one who was “nominated” as guilty for what has happened! Two memorandums submitted by a teacher and by children put everything to its places. Children accused one pupil, teacher complained about misbehavior of all form members.
Both memorandums were read out loud before discussion started and children were asked to find discrepancies. Logic fault was easily discovered and further on everything was smooth sailing, especially that children are able and like to speak up explicitly. Everyone participated in the heated dispute. As a result we came to a conclusion that first of all one should learn to be in charge of himself/herself and take responsibility for his/her behavior. If you understand that another person has problems, try to help him/her to find solutions. But one should start with himself/herself. Now nobody looks for a scapegoat in a conflict. We learned to sort it out, find reasons but not guilty people.
In order to make such work fruitful but not misleading, it is necessary to teach children discussion in civilized manner. For these reasons in the very beginning of work we tried to articulate the form rules. It took not less than 5 homerooms. We discussed each item of the code, worked at every term explaining meaning of every word. It appears that each of us understands friendship, mutual help and success in different ways. As a result, we could learn a lot about each other and got an idea of the main moral categories.
For a from master it is important to find new effective forms of work with parents, when he/she helps them to feel involvement in school life of their children, turns them to allies and partners in pedagogical process arrangement directing and supporting development of child's personality.
Family and parents are a significant element in the structure of child-adult community. Generally speaking, form master should start his/her work in a form with dealing with parents. Of course, preliminary materials study (pupils' data files, children and their parents questionnaires) works towards it. Creative projects devoted to family (“My room”, “My weekend”, “Life principles in my family”) provide invaluable help. Personal communication of form master with parents give a lot also. Although often teacher-parents meeting nowadays accomplish formal function of taking a joint decision. Long before social networks started to bear informational load connected with organization of this work: information and sometimes emotion exchange take place right there. Appointed in advance face-to-face meetings sometimes together with a school psychologist play important role in the work with parents. Such meetings help to understand youngster's personality characteristics, estimate problems, which will be faced in the upbringing process and outline scope of work on the problems.
Later an idea of joint (children-parents-teacher) collective engagement appears. It can be a trip to the country, common celebration, excursion or competition. Afterwards the engagement may turn into the form tradition, which is very valuable. But success of such an engagement depends on preliminary activities: it is necessary to consider demands and interests of all participants of the group including involvement of everybody in discussion and preparation.
Principle of moral example following is implemented in form master's work with family. Following an example is the leading method of upbringing. Example is a possible model of building of relationship by a youngster with other people and himself/herself; it is an example of value-based choice made by a significant other. Sometimes unconsciously parents are example, which we follow. It is important to help parents to show and reveal their best characters in the community and become an example for their children.
Joint meeting with parents can be one of the forms of form master's work. For the first time idea of such homeroom/meeting with parents arose in graduating class. Some disagreement regarding purchasing of class-book appeared. Parents wanted to buy cheaper and more simple class-book but pupils wanted little bit more expensive and modern one. Some questions to which young people wanted to get answers arose during preparation of the meeting. Because as a rule at home everybody talk a lot about Uniform State Exam and coming exams but people wanted to get answers to other questions: “How to survive in another city?”, “How not to be disappointed with the chosen Higher Educational Institution?”, «Is it easy to let your child to adult life?”, “What to do if love passed?” And so on. Pupils wrote their questions in advance. Form master read out the questions. Parents could speak on any question if they wished. The meeting was appointed in the beginning of September of the graduate year when adults provided advices and parting words, recollected their school years and best moments of it, spoke on what they would change in the graduate year if they could. Mutual questions and answers are one of the possible forms of such a meeting. Children wrote questions, which they would like to put to their parents and parents wrote questions to their children and answered the questions circle-wise in turns: parent-child.
In conclusion we propose several options, which can help from masters in work with a form and enjoy it.
Option 1. When you get acquainted with a form don't forget children's' parents; they are part of your new child-adult community! Try to involve parents in the community through direct and open communication but not violently.
Option 2. Joint activity in a form, common collective events should be prepared in such a way that all members of a form as a child-adult community were involved in it consciously under no coercion. For example, common walk may become such an event giving rise to occurrence of such a community and self-improvement.
Option 3. It is necessary to withdraw from manipulation of children! Of course response to any situation arising in a form should be of pedagogical nature: teacher should use resource of the situation which appears in a conflict also, for example, in a winning of subject Olympiad by one of the pupils. It is important to remember that form master's objective comes down to observation, analysis and, when applicable, translation of the situation into field of common reflection with educatees, where children's' values and senses, their deliberate position are demonstrated and child-adult community and common axiological space are generated.
The paper is written under state assignment of the Federal State Funded Research Institution “Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education“ for 2019 (No 073-00086-19-00 concerning ”Development of research and methodological basics for development of upbringing component of the Federal Educational Standard for Basic Education and mechanism for its implementation”).
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30 September 2019
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Strizhak, O. V., Nurullova, A. Y., & Shustova*, I. Y. (2019). Form Master Activities On Upbringing Component Implementation: Purpose, Area, Work Forms. In S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 69. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 824-834). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.02.92