Meaningful Ideas Of The Collective Upbringing Theory For The Social Education

Abstract

The article presents various ideas of the theory of collective education within the context of the enforcement of the educational components of the Federal State Educational Standards for Educational Organizations, marks directions and mechanisms of implementation of programs of social education (upbringing) and socialization of modern students. Individual issues of the study were as follows. The current concepts contextually equal to theory of collective education: team, social group, etc. It is necessary to clarify the educational potential of various children's communities and social groups, which can occur in formations of traditional species and new type of communities and forms emerging in the modern conditions. The article presents various ideas of the theory of collective education in the context of the implementation of the educational components of Federal Educational Standards and its marked directions and mechanisms of efficient use in the practice of education and socialization of modern schoolchildren. Individual issues of the study there were: current concepts of the theory of collective education: close team, social group, etc., especially the potential of child-adult community in the upbringing and development of the personality of the modern schoolchild, his values of self-determination and social self-actualization. Directions and expertise contact activities with the school administration in the framework of the implementation of the program of education and socialization of the Federal State Educational Standards for Educational Organizations.

Keywords: Social education (upbringing)children communityinteraction

Introduction

According to the Federal Law No. 244-FZ "On education in the Russian Federation" and "The Strategy for the Development of Education in the Russian Federation" upbringing (social education) is a priority of the State policy of Russia.

Purpose, values, objectives and directions of upbringing through education means and resources are represented in the Federal State Educational Standards for General Education (FSES GE) where social educational activity is regarded as a component of the general educational process in educational institutions. Educational component becomes a separate direction in the activities of an educational institution. It is responsible for the formation of the “school social educational system”, “educational space of the school and its surrounding environment”, “educational potential of schoolchildren’s training activities”, “the system of social educational activities in the framework of the work with a class, school self-government bodies, key school case studios etc.”, “competence of modern teacher as social educator”.

However, when organizing process of upbringing at school today it is important not only to promote innovative ideas, but also to maintain continuity with the Soviet school, in particular, using the ideas of collective education, which have a rich history in our country. It is impossible to arrange the process of upbringing and development of the personality of the child outside of his connections and relationships with other people.

Problem Statement

Nowadays the process of upbringing is largely focused upon personality; an excessive attention is paid to his/her individual abilities and talents. Perhaps this is the reason for the growth of selfishness and infantilism of our children, their self-obsession (personal position, egotism of interests and goals, etc.), their inability to open communication and cooperation with others.

Another problem in the present is the arising disunity, the generation gap between adults and children when there are less and less common themes, interests and affairs. The collective social education formed the conditions for common goals shared in joint activities, joint stay of emotions and shared meanings of common interests and meaningful affairs in the lives of children and adults.

We agree that the primary purpose of our social education is the development of personality of a student who hosts traditional Russian spiritual values. However, the value-based self-determination as well ashis assignment of the human universal values (including Russian spiritual values) and meanings are only possible in collective activities and communication, where these values manifest and assign and so becoming personal values.

Categorically there is no talk to abandon ideas of collective education, those educational opportunities, which the children's collective group gives the teacher-educator, because no pedagogical tools of social education adequate to children's collective group are found in today’s reality, if ever unlikely to be found. The ideas of collective education are actively claimed in a foreign education. Since 1968 In Marburg (Germany) the research laboratory “Makarenko-Referat” works at the University of Marburg. Since1991 the International Association Anton Makarenko is onwards. The ideas of collective education constitute the scientific heritage of J. Korczak, S. Freinet, G.Vineken, F.Tennies, A.Neil, today they are worked out by L.Endowment, J. Noblitte, G.Rogers (United States), educators of China and India.

The significant problem of the theory and practice of upbringing is rethinking and developing ideas of collective education in the contemporary context, the designation of meaningful positions, which continue to be relevant and effective for activities of a teacher-educator at modern school, including those ones within the framework of realization of the educational components of the Federal Educational Standards. (Tagunova, Selivanova, & Valeeva, 2016) It is necessary to clarify the educational potential of various children's communities and social groups that may arise in the formations of the traditional type (a classroom, a sports team, an association of additional (informal) education) and some new communities type and forms (network community, the project team, etc.) emerging in the modern conditions (Epstein, Paluch, Gordy, Saelens, & Ernst, 2000).

Research Questions

The article reveals various ideas of the theory of collective education in the context of the enforcement of the social educational (upbringing) components of the Federal Educational Standards for educational organizations, clarification of directions and mechanisms of implementation of programs of social education and socialization of modern high school students.

Individual issues of the study were:

Current concepts, equal to the theory of collective social education: team, social group, etc.;

The potential of a child-adult community in the upbringing and development of the personality of the modern schoolchild, his values of self-determination and social self-actualization;

Directions and methods of work with the school administration in the framework of the implementation of the program of upbringing and socialization in the Federal Educational Standards for educational organizations.

Purpose of the Study

Is to highlight and reveal meaningful ideas of collective education in the light of the implementation of the educational component of the Federal Educational Standards for educational organizations, show directions and means of their implementation.

Research Methods

The study is based on an understanding of upbringing (social education) as a guidance management of the child's personality development, which can be carried out within the framework of the educational team, engaged in upbringing and by means of children-adult communities (Selivanova, Stepanov, & Shakurova, 2016).

The study design includes the analysis of the scientific literature on the stated issues; the analysis of past and current experiences of teachers within the framework of collective education;

The participant observation for the educational activities of teachers and head teachers, teachers of additional or informal education, working with children's teams and through the reflection of the activities experience with children, children's and adult communities (Stepanov, Parfyonova, & Stepanova, 2017).

The collective education in home education has always taken a leading place. A significant contribution to the study of child collective upbringing problems was made by such scientists as V.P.Vakhterov, K.N.Wentzel, P.F.Kapterev, A.S.Makarenko, V.N.Soroka-Rosinsky, V.A.Sukhomlynsky, S.T.Shatsky, etc. proving that a comprehensively developed personality can be socially educated only under conditions of jointly organized life activities of children, the children's teams. The particular importance for the formation of the theory of collective upbringing belongs to scientists-teachers works of the middle of the last century: M.D.Vinogradova, O.S.Gazman, N.S.Dezhnikova, I.P.Ivanov, M.G.Kazakina, V.A.Karakovsky, A.G.Kirpichnik, Ya.L.Kolominsly, T.E.Konnikova, V.M. Korotov, A.T. Kurakin,H.J.Lijmets, A.N.Lutoshkin, V.I. Maksakova, A.M.Mudrik, L.I.Novikova, S.D. Polyakov, N.L.Selivanova, L.I. Umansky. Revealing the influence of the educational collective identity the topic of the study was the impact of the team on the development of value-the semantic sphere of personality, its identity, the development of individuality in the collective (M.D.Vinogradova, O.S.Gazman, T.E.Konnikova, A.N. Lutoshkin, V.I. Maksakova, A.V.Mudryk, V.A. Sukhomlynsky).

Understanding social educational collective as the unity of the organization and socio-psychological community, variously operating on the position of the pupil and the formation of his personality (L.I. Novikova, A.T.Kurakin, A.V.Mudryk, N.L.Selivanova).

Findings

On representing analysis of the concepts, close to the theory of collective education currently used nowadays there are collective, team, social group.

Collective is a social group united by common objectives and concerned by the implementation of activities important and necessary for all its participants.

A small social group reflects the two entities– the social ownership and the important characteristic for this group in features of culture, behavior, some specific relationships (Tennies, 1957). Participants in the small group can combine not the activity itself, but the attitude to life, including its external, formal manifestations. A small social group can combine itself toward fashion, idols, and ongoing events. Interesting to remark, this group or those groups while staying inside the collective can position itself somewhere outside. The same teenagers can simultaneously stay on different grounds belonging to different small groups, migrating, and so displaying the diversity of their interests. It happens often due to the volatility in values when the form and the external covers its cultural and socially useful content. There can be many of such groups in the classroom and at school. Participants in one of the groups under certain circumstances (in connection with the change of leader and transformation of external values, change of idols and fashions), at the same time, may participate in public life and in the life of the team (Ramey, Lawford, & Rose-Krasnor, 2018).

A few features define the place and the participation of adolescents in different groups (we did not specially consider adolescent companies that occur as episodic random formations):

migration of participants is related to external influences and motifs and, therefore, educators may play an important and special role through organization of attractive activities for adolescents;

faint social behavior and non-participation of adolescents in the life of the team often reflects the stagger and search of an environment that would not only accept, but meet the child’s romantic and socially useless needs yet generating his adrenalin aspirations (Priyanka, 2018);

a large part of small groups are characterized by symptoms of special crops: clothing, lingo, interests of consumption, self-expression not through useful for family and community activities, but through fashionable and pronounced in small group leader habits (selfi, parcour, graffiti, street-tracing, regular consumption of weak alcohol, scandalous behavior at stadiums and schools etc.), the existence of the informal leader and his role in the group;

there are groups that are united by their love of nature, art, poetry; they may not be very bright in studies and educational success, but their love for book, high music, theatre, gradually teach them to respect family, people, lives (Valeeva & Demakova, 2015).

In the socio-psychological sense a team takes a special place both in management and in the collective life. If social groups arise from the existence of similarity outside interests and casual circumstances, formation, the creation, functioning and development of a team are due to the strict rules:

First, recognized and successful leader, as a rule the head of the organization, heads any team.

Second, members of the team are not just willing team members, but each team member should be a bearer of some special knowledge and functions.

Third, the terms, rules and regulations govern the work of the team.

Fourth, latent, but crucial task teams is achieve the overall effect and a single result through a combination of talent and skill use and advantages of each participant.

Every team leader following norms and rules distributes rights, duties, tasks, responsibilities and fields of interest so that their intersection and interaction should provide a "synergistic" effect for his team.

Team members become cluttered with assets, and it is fine, because it allows every participant and teacher to determine his own place in the common program, the project teamwork.

The leader should constantly and always strive for the three mandatory things: teamwork should be provided with the necessary information and documented; each team member should participate in the task setting and know what performance criteria, process and results should be achieved; naturally it is important to know what incentives objectively will match successful work performed.

If the command does not define and register the success, the contribution, the role and benefits of each, then the effect and team wellbeing reduce the participation of team members in a common cause.

The team has no success without psychological compatibility, without confidence, without deep reflection and search of optimum decisions in collective search of true findings.

At school if there are powerfully working amateur, professional and pedagogical, artistic organizations, there may arise multiple teams, and they can, working offline do not overlap and do not affect the overall result, but innovative and system management approach allows to provide a wide range of tasks, through organizational forms and through the integration of various teams. With this approach, the team would be composed of the headmaster, his deputies, heads of structural divisions, the school ombudsman, and heads of the socio-pedagogical units, unions, parents and child assets.

Look at the concept of children's and young adult community, defining its role in the upbringing and development of the personality of the modern schoolchild, his values of self-determination and social self-actualization.

The approach presented in the works of L.I.Novikova and A.T.Kurakin has not yet lost its relevance; it defines that any children (children's and adult educational) team has a dual structure: it serves as the formal link system and relations, while at the same time as a common-system detected the psychological and emotional connections and relationships (as cited in Shustova, 2018).

Really, it is hard to characterize children's collective as a community or organization, because any organization has some features of community and informal communion seeks to organize and acquire its own structure. Accordingly, such pedagogical phenomena as educational staff and children and an adult, each children's and adult community communication of the educational team can emerge when it reproduces its socio-psychological characteristics, informal communication and relationships. The phenomenon of children's and adult community shows that you can understand upbringing through the mutual development and mutual social education of adults and children within the scope of their joint activities.

Currently, in the practice of education it is important to understand and shape pedagogical conditions conducive to the formation and operation of the educational team as a certain child and adult commonality with a system of informal linkages and relationships between the teachers and pupils. In the overall value-meaning space of intersecting interests and personal meanings of participants that emerge in cooperative activities.

A special challenge for the educational components of the school is reflected in the school life of vibrant content of affairs and events (at various levels), based on the lively interaction of teachers and students. Here pupils can experience, understand and accept universal values, they become relevant and gain personal priorities (Mudrik, 2017).

Children's and adult communion (based on the co-existence of adults and children, their trust and respect each other) is an important part of education, it displays the participants to a new understanding of themselves, the world of others, accommodation and acceptance of the values and meanings. It creates conditions for the manifestation of each position, create a basis for the overall value-semantic space, and this is the exact situation where all good together, but where everyone can "sing your song" realize and manifest itself, its position in open communication, to show his best.

Children's and adult commonality implies children and adults shared in a common cause, event, taken as an overall experience. Adults are not only educators (teachers subject teachers, class teachers, school psychologist, etc.), but other adults (parents, graduates invited celebrities, chefs, etc.); it is important that they would be referent, valuable for participants and openly demonstrate their positions.

Revealing the upbringing potential of children and adult commonality, it is important to treat it as an open system of social education and children and adult interaction, where the pupil is equal in partnership; he has the ability to clearly demonstrate its position. It is important to provide children with the opportunity to demonstrate initiative, free self-realization, leave them the right choice and find their position and their ways.

Selivanova (2016) identifies the following aspects that define the nature and level of influence the class treat a school kid: the level of development of the high school collective; the position, which takes a school kid accepts in the system of inner class relations;

the nature of the relationship with the class teacher; the situation in the classroom which his friendly small group gains; the presence of a single school social educational system; the significance of the class for each adolescent (Selivanova, 2016).

Novikova and Kurakin (1975) noted that the child is always a member of multiple groups, and each of these small groups has specific features and content, each pupil takes several different positions in the inner class system relations. All this defines non-identical effects of different groups at the education of the individual, something it coincides, and something one complements the other, something stays in contrary to the influence of one team that may even deny the influence of another or neutralize it.

The children's and adult community, appearing and functioning inside a team or a small social group, can be considered the source and condition of occurrence of subcultural characteristics in purposefully “cultivated” commonality that teacher shapes together with the children. Such community has characteristics similar to a subculture:

is an informal commonality; it provides for the single value-semantic space inside the group, it has a system of values and meanings; it updates the appearance of group norms and special life style in the group;

it creates conditions for the identification of the participants with a group that generates a sense and a feeling of “we”; it creates the conditions for an open interaction positioning, the conditions for the free self-realization and self-determination of every participant.

It is important to understand and determine where adults define themselves within the community. There are three such places or psychological positions for the adults:

the adults are over the children’s collective implementing directive, control actions, forcibly recruiting children of the team to match their own adult views and engage in the plans and games written and organized by the adults;

the adults play an advisory, launches, supporting, coordinating role, being outside the community, but supporting it with their attitude, their actions, their organizational efforts. Here an adult can be a coach, organizer, consultant (Nurkhan, 2011);

the adults and children form a converged environment, where children with their goals and interests, come together with the interested adults in collective actions and being united by a common purpose.

Formally and administratively created by children and adult associations or collectivity get satisfying adult asset, but since the actual unity, important for children activities and related to it motives does not really exist, the creation of a team here is for formal reports, it is ephemeral. And in an entirely different vein blooms opportunity for children and clever, interested, qualified adults to form joint teams acting on a parity basis and grounds, and participating in the analysis, the design, organization, correction of the life and activity of the team.

Now we describe directions and ways of work with the school self-government within the framework of realization of the program of education and socialization of the Federal Standards. The student self-rule is not a new theme, the origins of it goes deeply back in history. So, you can find references of attracting students to the school management in the world of pedagogical science back in the 16th century. In our country, the elements of self-organization of students were laid by the Lomonosov (1758) in the “Regular rules of the Moscow gymnasiums” of 1758, whereby the order of the classes in the gymnasium is supported by the gymnasium students themselves.

However, there is still no absolute and commonly adopted recipes of pupil autonomy in any of educational organization. Moreover, there is no commonly accepted and unambiguous understanding of what children's self-government. They understand self-rule as a process or a form, or some qualitative characteristic of the process control. All this makes to get back to the issue of child self-government, as a phenomenon of successful experience in organizing children's self-government, but how to extend this experience so far is not very successful.

The children's self-rule is seen when the children organize a significant part of the team affairs, rather than adults, who can help children but not do anything themselves. It reveals when the children themselves or with adults determine what needs now their collective faces. For example, to purchase some supplementary equipment or to conduct a social project in the orphanage, to arrange evening of author's song etc.), and decide the emerging issues and distribute orders. It goes when the children have an opportunity to influence the way forward for the development of their own team.

The question is why do you need self-rule if and is it quite possible to live without it?

First, the self-rule allows your child to try new, unaccustomed role of the organizer, and gain some necessary organizational experience, seemingly fruitful in his future professional activities. Educational activities gives the school kid very little opportunities in this field.

Secondly, the self-rule helps nurture children's sense of responsibility. When the student becomes leader, he begins to see that due to his laziness and flaws inflict problems not only to him, but he is blamed by his stuff as well.

Third, self-government creates motivation for personal growth of children. Be considered an honorary leader, and the higher the position, the more esteemed it is. In general, it reminds any power vertical. But the higher the position, the more difficult it is to work with it.

Fourth, it teaches children to be proactive. When the self-rule is real, any student can offer the team his idea and implement it if it is accepted.

It is important to teach students to self-rule. “Teaching self-rule means to create a collective vision and plan the ways for its realization. This means learning to organize joint activities, adequate planning. It means to teach everyone to assess the results of this work and develop an overall assessment. This means learning to see each personality that reacts in its own reality has his own individual tastes and needs and looks forward to an attentive and careful attitude (Bishop, 2018). It means to teach kids to feel those relationships that exist or develop in their environment, responsive to these relations, to seek their harmonization”, writes famous educator, academician Novikova (Novikova & Kurakin, 1975).

When organizing self-rule (self-management) at school the activity-oriented approach first identifies the level of activities, which is divided among the pupils, and then the children's community is prepared for this activity implemented together with their teacher.

Here are just some of the requirements of the children's community:

Collegiality. All decisions in the team should be taken together, by vote or debate in the general assembly. If after the vote there is no general solution, it is necessary to find a compromise in order to take into account the interests of all.

Criticism and self-criticism. It is important that each child has the right to comment on any issue, and so he should be ready to accept when indicated his cons. There is one “gotcha” here: it should be done so as not to hurt each other, and that constructive criticism will not pass in personal insults. We criticize the work and defects, not the man himself; we point out flaws and give recommendations on how to fix them (Peterson & Roberts, 1991).

Freedom of speech. The child must be heard and understood. Never allow a child afraid to express their thoughts. If this happens, work on the creation of the atmosphere in the team, every member of the team is free to express his thoughts and not be afraid to be laughed at or misunderstood. Without the fulfillment of this requirement the self-rule is impossible.

Result orientation. Each action should end with the result. Monitor achievement of results helps to reporting. Each assignment or case to the child need a deadline (deadline by which it must be completed), after which the child reports on the work done (Belyaev, Alieva, & Kruglov,2018).

The self-rule in the student collective is one of the most meaningful ways to develop upbringing. According to V.A. Karakovsky, if we want our school was humane and democratic, we cannot go without serious professional activities to develop self-rule (as cited in Khaykin & Grigoryev, 2014).

Conclusion

In conclusion, let us denote the substantive ideas of the theory of collective education, which it is important to consider when organizing educational process in the modern school.

The collective social education assumes that the adolescent is directly involved in activities of a number of multiple communities, social groups, collectives of different (by origin, size, relevance, duration, existence, the nature of the activity and communication, etc.).

In each age period pupil involved in a variety of communities and groups, each of which is formed by a unique socio-psychological situation of interpersonal interaction, special conditions for their upbringing and development. The pupil belonging to a community is the measure for his involvement, activity and awareness of it and it is the necessary social development situation in which the formation of personal qualities take real place. In different communities, the nature of the interaction is changing, a new role, status, and emotional state form new ways to self-realization of a pupil.

All this defines non-identical effects of different groups at the education of the individual, something it coincides, something one complements the other, but something goes contrary to what is the influence of one team and it may even deny the influence of another or neutralize it.

It is important to understand the social educational potential of various children's and adult communities, children's communities and teams, social groups that can act as formal groups (classes, club sections, associations of additional education etc.) and children's communities a new type (network community, a group of volunteers, with a short-living period community, an inter-age group) emerging in the modern conditions. It is important to use this resource in the process of education at school.

Upbringing of pupils is unthinkable without affecting their values and meanings of self-determination, their ability to understand and exercise their own position, to understand and support the position of another. It is possible only in the context of communities consisting of children's and adult educators, due to their open position interaction, display on the awareness of values and meanings, manifestations of a common value-semantic space.

Acknowledgments

The work is performed within the framework of the State Task for the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia in the year 2019 (No. 073-00086-19-00) on the topic: 1. “Developments of scientific-methodical bases for development of the educational component of the Federal State Educational Standards for General Education and mechanisms for its implementation”.

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Shustova, I., Belyaev*, G., Kruglov, V., & Lizinsky, V. (2019). Meaningful Ideas Of The Collective Upbringing Theory For The Social Education. In & S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 69. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 813-823). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.02.91