The present study considers the objective factors inherent in information and communication space transmitting information about the marriage and family relations in “polyparadigmality” of modern society forming family consciousness of youth as well as subjective factors based on the internal position of the individual developing conscious attitude to information flows. The information content, despite its diversity, can be structured in a range of pro - and anti-family strategies. Being a significant factor in the family consciousness formation such information, refracted through the prism of a particular person, makes a significant contribution to the transformation and “completion” of the components of family consciousness of the young. The lack of awareness among the young about how to create a strong family contributes to the emergence of maladaptive stereotypes of marital behavior leading to different demographic problems. In this regard, the main aim is to enrich the information and communication space with positive family information, as well as to help young people to form a stable internal in solving life-meaning problems relating to inter-sexual and marriage-family relations in the context of pedagogical support, the result of which can form family consciousness, implying the ability of a person to make a choice in the conditions of existential dichotomies in relation to the ways of inter-sexual and family interaction, in the range of human rights.- and anti-family values and focus on the conscious reproduction of a family man's lifestyle.
Keywords: Family consciousnessinformation and communication space
Modern information and communication space plays an increasingly important role in the formation of youth as a category of the population that is the most exposed to social influence, leading life values, meanings and priorities. The latter include ideas about the forms of gender relations before marriage, as well as models of the family and role stereotypes of interaction in it, in the context of this study considered from the perspective of family consciousness. Family consciousness is an internal construct, including the deep unconscious, sociocultural, interpersonal, substantial personal levels, defining the basic gender interaction strategy before marriage and family model and family role stereotypes. Communication is an essential phenomenon of human life and society as a whole, which is now increasingly associated with the information component.
Information and communication space is essentially an open self-organizing system, transmitting massive information flows on the principle of dissipation (dispersion), passing through the bifurcation points and structured along narrow "corridors" – structural attractors. Using terminology of Prigogine in the context of the theory of synergetics (Prigogine & Stengers, 1986), it can be noted that, despite the diversity of information ("chaos"), broadcast by the media about the variability of ways of gender relations and the construction of marriage and family relations, all of it eventually builds up in the range of Pro-and anti - family values and stereotypes ("order"), inevitably affecting the formation of the family consciousness of youth, actively involved in information flows (Internet sites, news portals, social networks, television, radio, print media).
Current “information polyparadigmality” in relation to key issues of gender relations, largely due to the fact that representations of young people about family and marriage are often characterized by fragmentation, inconsistency and heterogeneity. This trend is reflected not only in the dominance of ideas about the permissibility of free premarital relationships ("common-law marriages"), but also in the emergence of a new reality, which is expressed in virtual Dating, long-term or short-term relationships, ending even virtual marriages. In fact, there is a virtualization of consciousness, which is one of the most serious "challenges of time". As a result of the use of such practices, there is impoverishment, emasculation of relations between the sexes, which ultimately generates a total loss of the youth's ability to family life and determines the need to find ways to overcome this problem.
The main problem of this study is to answer the following questions. What is the role of information and communication space factors in the formation of family consciousness of youth in modern conditions? What can contribute to strengthen the family of creative strategies of boys and girls in the context of the dominance of virtual reality as an objective reality?
Are as follows:
1. To consider the basic features and structure of informational and communicative space as a carrier and translator of information on the family and the relationship between the sexes. 2. To identify significant objective factors of information and communication space that affect the formation of the family consciousness of youth. 3. To analyze the main content that provides information about the relationship between the sexes and the marriage and family sphere of human life. 4. To substantiate the internal (subjective) factors inherent in youth, allowing to form a conscious attitude to information content and build family-forming behavioural practices.
Purpose of the Study
On the basis of interdisciplinary analysis to analyze the influence of factors of modern information and communication space on the formation of the family consciousness of youth as the basis of the way of life of a family man.
In the context of this study, a set of theoretical methods was used, including: theoretical analysis of scientific literature, reflecting the study state of the problem; analysis, synthesis, systematization, forecasting, used to justify the objective and subjective factors of the formation of family consciousness of youth.
Information and communication space is a set of information arrays, including Internet sites, news portals, social networks, television, radio, print media, carrying a variety of information about the family and family lifestyle that is supported by the researches of scientists all over the world (Kuchmaeva & Rostovskaya, 2016; Nevostrueva, 2017, 2016; Selivanov & Selivanova, 2016; Coates, Pusser, & Gudman, 2016; Knowles & Nixon, 2016).
If in the 20th century the creation of the information society was considered in the context of an assumed possibility (Toffler, 2002), in the 21st century, such a possibility has become a reality, increasingly acquiring the status of ontologization of consciousness. Through the media there is "completion", construction, retouching of reality, which in this version forms the worldview, values and consciousness of modern man.
Mishchenko (2014) emphasizes that the information space is not only a set of information carriers, but also the content of the information itself, represented in the minds of target audiences in the form of iconic models, images, a set of stereotypes, assessments presented by the media.
The concept of information and communication space includes two important parameters: communicative distance, understood as the length of information and communication space and the density of communication. And if the first parameter is today all-pervasive, having no spatial restrictions, the second indicator, from our point of view, can be determined in the range of semantic loading / emptiness; subjective significance / insignificance of content for its consumer, which in its essence is an expression of the internal position of the individual, inevitably entering into dialogue relations with the mediating function of the media.
The general features of the dialogue taking place within the information and communication space include mediated communication by technical means; mass audience, the ability to communicate with large social groups; multi-channel, variability of communication means; anonymity of communication; the admissibility of multiple explication Image / image of a communicant.
From the point of view of Lasswell and McDougall (1988). the media perform the functions of organization, management, information, education, entertainment, ideological, political influence, maintenance of social community. Thanks to this multifunctional nature, the media are a powerful factor in the formation of socialization of the younger generation that, according to McLuhan (2007) occurs regardless of the content of broadcast information, especially in the context of virtual reality the concept of which was introduced into scientific use by many researchers (Bordieu, 1970; Blanchot, 1998; Badiou & Deleuze, 2004).
Virtualization of communication changes not only the inner world of man, but also his ability to socialize in the real environment, impoverishes, emasculates interpersonal relationships. Kabrin (2011) rightly notes that virtual communication should not be considered only in the context of the spread of the Internet. This trend, from the point of view of the researcher, is only the "tip of the iceberg" – part of the overall process of virtualization, the deification of society. And, if in the modern era the objective reality of society, dominating the social reality of the individual seemed obvious, in the postmodern era, characterized by the uncertainty of borders, chaotic, dissipative communications and behavioral strategies, the objective reality of social institutions is changing to virtual reality. According to J. Baudrillard, the modern world in the postmodern era is a world of signs, symbols, images and similarities (as cited in Bordier, 1970).
Let us add that the co-existence (superposition), both in the public and in the individual consciousness of several opposing, sometimes mutually exclusive pictures of the world (in the context of this study, correlated with the traditional, modernist and postmodern variants), directly related to the marriage and family sphere of human existence, generates a value bifurcation, as well as serious existential difficulties that lead to the disorganization of the individual, the loss of the ability to adapt, first of youth, as the most exposed to such influences of the category of society.
Nowadays Internet communication occupies more and more space in the reality of human existence. Nowadays the Internet has become more intensive but it hides deep problems called by Frankl (1990) "existential vacuum", which generates the need, including through virtual communication, filling the void, which is predominantly spiritual in nature, simulations – surrogates, "patching" existential "gaps" in the personality of the participants of virtual communication. In essence, genuine, existential commonalities that arise in real relationships of real people are substituted with pseudo-relationships inherent in virtual communication.
From the point of view of Kabrin (2011), the process of virtualization of consciousness is based on the gradual transformation of the real into the virtual, the replacement of the "real" reality associated with material objects, virtual – intangible reality. The leading role in this intangible reality belongs to the presentation of the "I" image, its arbitrary design and modeling. On the one hand, such an image, often far from reality, is a consequence of the protective mechanisms of the individual, protecting the fragile Ego of the communicant from possible psychological trauma, on the other hand, its essence displaces the true image of the individual age.
Thus, having clarified the essential characteristics of the influence of the components of information and communication space on a person and the peculiarities of interaction of subjects in virtual reality, we turn to the analysis of the content of the content, transmitting information about inter-sexual relations and the marriage and family sphere of human existence, which is currently one of the leading factors in the formation of family consciousness of youth.
As noted by Evstafieva (2017), the media are not only a channel for broadcasting family values, but can contribute to their rooting in human consciousness.
In fact, the media form standards of behavior, which are a guide, a model for building inter-sexual and marriage-family relations. From our point of view, the following objective factors of information and communication space are the most important determinants influencing the formation of the family consciousness of youth:
1. the content of Internet resources, carrying the information about the family and gender relations;
2. standards of femininity and masculinity, inter-sexual and family behavior broadcast by the media;
3. legitimate models of family and gender relations broadcast by the media;
4. gender interaction in social networks;
5. value-semantic and moral contexts of premarital, inter-sexual and family behavior, broadcast by the media.
These and other factors influence the formation of the components of family consciousness, largely determining the content of the substantial personal level (family values, attitudes, meanings, expectations from the family, behavioral practices, etc.), which is ultimately expressed in the formation of family-forming or family-destroying strategies.
Let us turn to the analysis of media content, which includes information about the family and gender relations. Mishchenko (2014) emphasizes that the share of positive information about the family in the media devoted to family topics is only 2.6% of the total content; there is no social advertising, including the promotion of family values.
The work of Tuchkova (2012) shows that the content of materials about the family in the modern media is quite monotonous, there is a formal approach to the family topics coverage. The researcher draws attention to the low proportion of materials on "family and education", "family and medicine", "family and religion", "family and lifestyle", "family and intergenerational relations". The media mostly broadcast information about the benefits of families, state family policy, the problems of large families and foster families, etc., which is not valuable for the category of "youth". Much attention is paid to the problems of violence and family problems, which also does not contribute to the formation of family-forming dominant in boys and girls.
From the point of view of Tuchkova (2012), members of the Federal Assembly, representatives of religion, culture and art play a relatively small role in promoting family values. Although, as the researcher emphasizes, these groups of factors have serious potential and influence on the younger generation.
In general, there is a tendency to blur the normative image of the family, based on love and loyalty, family traditions, large families as a social norm. Often the media presents the family image on the basis of the permissibility and legitimacy of an unregistered Union of a man and a woman – "marriage" and cohabitation. At the same time, there is a constant opposition on the evaluation scale of progress and regression: "common-law marriage" – free relations, the path to self – improvement, and registered-degradation. Among the socially approved relationship between the sexes – "guest" marriage, adultery and, as a consequence, children born out of wedlock.
Female images broadcast by the media often characterize such features as sensuality, impulsiveness, selfishness, focus on the realization of desires "here and now", sometimes at any cost, orientation to the outside of life, which often does not "fit" motherhood; often "sound" masculine features, manifested by self-sufficiency of the fairer sex.
Male images are also quite contradictory and reflect such features as infantilism, irresponsibility, femininity, partly narcissism as a desire for constant self-admiration; images of "macho" or "Casanova" are not uncommon. Pay attention to the fact that fatherhood as a meaningful family value is not practically represented the modern media.
Vivid examples of the broadcast of such samples of male and female behavior, broadcast media, are not so long ago popular transmission of the series "House-1", "House-2", "Behind the glass", "lie Detector", "Kid", etc., in General, "teaching" lessons permissiveness, connivance vices, understanding shame and chastity as atavisms. In the same vein, numerous television series ("Famous in love", "Shame", "Shadow hunters", "University", etc.), which popularize the freedom of morals and pluralism of value orientations in conjunction with distorted female and male images, carry information about the relationship between the sexes.
A special role, as noted above, among boys and girls currently plays a virtual communication, which is often focused on the erotic aspects that do not imply deep, long-term interpersonal relationships. Contact virtualization allows you to transcend spatial boundaries, enter into relationships from the comfort of your home, experiment with your own image, easily get out of relationships that are not binding, and enter into new ones. This ease of virtual relationships often goes into the plane of the real, which also just stop at the discrepancy between the virtual and real images. Thus, the virtualization of contacts contributes to the translation of stereotypes of free, non-binding relationships, based mainly on the erotic component.
Print media, as a component of the information and communication space, also often carry ambiguous information about the relationship between the sexes and cultivate interest in the "glossy", the outer side of the life of movie stars, pop music, in fact acting as standards – carriers of Pro - and more often anti-family values. Examples of such printed products are illustrated weekly or monthly publications ("Hairpin", "Witch", "SHE", "Cool girl", "Bully", "Hammer", "Youth non-stop, etc.), creating appropriate behavioral and semantic guidelines for the younger generation.
Despite the above-mentioned negative trends inherent in the modern information and communication space as a carrier of information about the family and gender relations, it should be noted the positive aspects that are now emerging in a stable Pro-family trend.
First of all, this applies to a variety of competitions and festivals that promote traditional family values at the all – Russian, regional and interregional levels (all – Russian film festival of short documentaries "Family of Russia"; "Sanctity of motherhood"; Nizhny Novgorod region competition of journalistic works in four categories: "Miracle of motherhood", "Home filled with warmth", "Family protection and support", "Good family traditions"; Samara region photo contest "My family", etc.).
A significant role in the creation of positive Pro-family content begins to play book printing products focused on youth and carrying information about the traditional family, built on strong spiritual and moral grounds (E.V .Shestun "Orthodox family", "How to save the family"; E.A. Morozova "Dialogues about family and marriage", "What is it important to know before marriage"; three-volume "History of Russia in family legends” published by the Fund of Andrew the first-called, etc.).
More and more popular are about family actions ("Fathers of Russia for a large family"," For life"," “You are not alone", etc.), having the main dominant revival of the family lifestyle. It should be noted and not so often, but the TV programs that guide the viewer to familiarizing with the family values verified by time (Samara – "the Return of the image", "Family values"; "Family hearth", "Love for salvation", etc., broadcast on the TV channel "My Joy"). Internet projects aimed at creating positive family content ("Love. Family. Happiness").
Such actions is a serious step towards creating an information environment enriched with valuable information about the ways to create and maintain a family in the modern world. The results of studies conducted by the public opinion Foundation in 2016 confirm the relevance of family lifestyle for young people (Guidelines and values of young Russians. What is important for young people?, 2016). Respondents as priority values, along with material wealth and health, indicated the importance of family relationships, respect and affection, respect for the traditions and customs of the family, romantic relationships, cultural family vacation. The results indicate a trend towards the revival of family life, which can be more facilitated by the media, which carry positive information about the family and gender relations.
Along with the objective factors that shape family the consciousness of the youth, pay attention to the importance of subjective factors associated with the internal position of the individual, consciously develop their own attitude towards the information coming from the outside about marriage and family sphere of human existence and the relationship between the sexes. From our point of view, in this context, the largest share is occupied by the following positions:
1. discernment of information experience and recognition of semantic predictors;
2. susceptibility of the individual to broadcast standards;
3. personal approval of legitimate family models and gender relations broadcast by the media;
4. experience of building life models in virtual space;
5. experience of a stable position in the choice of values and moral evaluation of content.
These positions can be developed in the context of pedagogical support, as a way of participation in the solution of life problems facing by the youth. The purpose of social education, in relation to the specifics of the information society, can be formulated as the formation of internal reflexive culture, flexible self-consciousness. So, it can help to develop an adequate moral-oriented and family-forming position based on a conscious choice and that is a serious step in overcoming demographic problems.
Summarizing the analysis of the problem of formation of family consciousness of youth in the modern information and communication space, the following conclusions should be made.
1. Modern information and communication space plays an increasingly important role in the formation of youth as a category of the population most vulnerable to social influence, leading life values, meanings and priorities, which include ideas about inter-sexual and marriage-family relations, in the context of this study considered from the perspective of family consciousness.
2. Information and communication space is essentially an open self-organizing system that broadcasts massive information flows through media, which include Internet sites, news portals, social networks, television, radio, print media.
3. Currently, Internet communication occupies an increasing place in the reality of human existence, acting as an indicator of a priori present features of consciousness, contributing to its deep transformation in virtualization.
4. The mass media shape standards of conduct, which is the reference, the model of sexual and matrimonial relations, primarily for youth. Objective factors of information and communication space influence the formation of components of family consciousness, largely determining the content of the substantial personal level.
5. There is a tendency to blur the normative image of the family, based on love and loyalty, family traditions, large families as a social norm, instead of which "free" relations, distorted images of femininity and masculinity are promoted.
6. Currently, the information and communication space is marked by the formation of a stable Pro-family trend, which is expressed in various formats.
7. Along with the objective factors that shape family the consciousness of the youth, there are subjective factors associated with the internal position of the individual, consciously develop their own attitude towards the information coming from the outside about marriage and family sphere of human existence and the relationship between the sexes.
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18 December 2019
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Shestun, E. V., & Morozova*, E. A. (2019). Family Consciousness Formation Among Youth In Modern Information And Communication Space Conditions. In & S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 69. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 804-812). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.02.90