Health Creation Training Of Bachelors Of Education In Informational Society

Abstract

To establish the content of health-creation training of bachelors of pedagogical education in the informational society the authors of the paper carried out the configuration of knowledge and methods accumulated and used in various social - human and natural sciences. It is argued that individual and social health is being under serious threat in the informational society. On the one hand, in this society there is a danger of physical and intellectual degradation of the person (in connection with a sedentary lifestyle, the fact that many mental operations were delegated to machines, etc.). And, on the other hand, a person, his or her basic needs being satisfied, is tempted to "kill time", to have a questionable lifestyle (in terms of physical, mental and moral health). The authors believe that the health-creation training of teachers at the undergraduate level should be structured as an element of a systematic response to the challenges of the informational society. That is, the competence of its subject in the field of health-creation activities should be "in-built" into the system of competencies that allow the education to really become the key to the welfare of the individual. Based on this, the supra-professional (universal) health-creation competence should consist in the ability to strengthen and increase the natural (genetically transmitted) potential of a person and turn it into a basis for achieving professional and social success, personal self-development.

Keywords: Lifelong learninghealth creation activity

Introduction

Human civilization is now experiencing an era of great changes. It enters a stage called by scientists in different ways: the post-industrial society, the informational society, the society of knowledge, and others. Yet considering the existing theoretical and methodological differences, the researchers are united in the main thing: the emerging society is qualitatively different from all its historical predecessors. The unpredictability of the future increases, there are constantly various risks (Giddens,1991; Beck, 2005), there is "the intensification of novelty" (Neklessa, 2016, p. 4), and, most importantly, there is a new development resource. Namely, the moving "engine" of socio-economic and technological progress are the abilities of a person, the competence and skills in processing an increasing amount of information. From this it follows that an individual who wants to "succeed", not to mention such a minimum task as "to survive in a competitive rivalry", will have to "learn, learn and learn again" – throughout his life. The need for such education was declared almost fifty years ago by an international organization (OECD, 1973), encouraging Russian and foreign scientists to discuss its pedagogical, cultural, social and economic aspects.

Problem Statement

Meanwhile, another important aspect of lifelong learning needs special analysis, namely, the formation of awareness of the need to maintain an appropriate level of the "natural" education base – health. In this regard, special attention should be paid to the problem of health - creation activities training of those who form children and young adolescents’ readiness for it — teachers of preschool, primary and basic general education. We shall explain that the term "health-creation" is for the phenomenon, which some authors designate as "creating health" (A. G. Madzhuga (Madzhuga, Samorodov, Filipenko, & Malyarchuk, 2017), Orekhova (2015) etc.), "health-forming / health-developing activity" (Le-van & Fedorov, 2017).

With the mentioned terminology researchers (and we join them here) emphasize that health is not a person’s fixed state, but is a product of his/her creative activity, it turns out to be a cultural phenomenon that reflects the existing ideas about the effective living of life in a particular society (Le-van & Fedorov, 2017; Madzhuga, Samorodov, Filipenko, & Malyarchuk, 2017; Novikov, 2018; Tret'yakova, 2014). That is, when we talk about health-creation, we mean the need to form a conscious and active attitude to the problem of health – an attitude based on internal motivation.

The problem of health-creation training of a teacher acquires a special meaning today, as in the informational (post-industrial) society, individual and social health is under serious threat. And it is created largely not by traditional factors (malnutrition, unfavorable environmental environment, lack of awareness in the sphere of hygiene, social inequality, etc.), but the "downside" of the opportunities offered by post-industrialism. On the one hand, in a society in which a person as a subject of production is increasingly replaced by robotic devices and artificial intelligence, there is a danger of his physical and intellectual degradation (in connection with a sedentary lifestyle, machines performing many mental operations, etc.). And, on the other hand, a person, with his basic needs satisfied, is tempted to "kill time", to indulge into a questionable lifestyle (in terms of physical, mental and moral health).

Research Questions

As a result, pedagogical theory and practice face the need to answer a number of interrelated questions. Among them, we’ll highlight the following. What should be the content of health-creating competence acquired by the future teacher at the first stage of his training (Bachelor's level)? What is the true imperative of the new era for the teacher: "a healthy lifestyle formation" or "the formation of the program for health-creating (health-forming, health-producing) activities"?

It cannot be said that the researchers were not looking for answers to the above-mentioned and related questions. On the contrary, there is a large number of works devoted to strengthening the biological potential of the educational process subjects. They can be divided into three groups. The first are studies doing with the procedural (technological) provision of health improving component in the content of pedagogical education (I. G. Andreeva, L. A. Vashlayeva, E. N. Dzyatkovskaya, L.S. Elkova, T.N. Le-van, etc.). The second group is made up by the works analyzing various aspects of education and health interrelation. They analyze the development of continuous (lifelong) education in the context of educational modernization (Latov, 2014), differences in attitude to health depending on the level of education (Cutler & Lleras-Muney, 2006; Cutler & Lleras-Muney, 2010; Low, Low, Baumler, & Huynh, 2005; Ross & Wu, 1995), the role of medical awareness raising in changing social practices (Cottrell, Girvan, & McKenzie, 2009; Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008; Green & Kreuter, 1999), social and biological foundations of public health in terms of its role in strengthening human potential (Latyshevskaya, Davydenko, Slivina, & Belyayeva, 2016; Lokosov, 2015; Blane, 2006; Smedley & Syme, 2000; Schoeni, House, Kaplan, & Pollack, 2008). The third group of studies includes publications, developing a conceptual framework of health creating (health-forming, health-preserving, health-promoting) education. However, despite the presence of a large scope of scientific articles and monographs both the question of the structural organization of health-creation training of teachers at the first stage of their continuous professional development (Bachelor degree) and the question of what is the structural element of this training are still debatable.

Purpose of the Study

Based on the above, we’ll define the purpose of our study: to establish the content of the competence of the pedagogical education Bachelor, allowing to form the students’ willingness to strengthen and develop their health in the emerging informational society.

Research Methods

In order to achieve this purpose, the configuration of knowledge and methods accumulated and used in various social, humanitarian and natural science studies was carried out. Among them: a) the concepts of globally-stadial development society; b) a holistic approach to the design of pedagogical systems; c) ideas about the subject of health-creation activities as the goals and value of pedagogical education; d) axiological, personal-activity and holistic approaches to health. This interdisciplinary synthesis allows you to integrate knowledge about health-creation activities, "scattered" over various scientific disciplines.

Findings

The analysis of both official Russian statistics and sociologists' research leads us to admit that a significant part of primary and secondary school teachers still do not have sufficient training in the field of health-creation care. This conclusion is supported by the problems in the health of children and adolescents. Thus, according to the results of the all-Russian medical examination in 2010, only 32% of 30 million children were recognized as healthy, 52% had functional abnormalities, and 16% were recognized as chronically ill. And with the achievement of official marriage age (18 years), the population of Russia "loses the congenital stock of health" altogether which promotes "deterioration of newborns’ health in process of motherhood aging". As a result, 80 to 85% of Russian newborns, according to current observations of pediatricians, "are born with deviations in physical and psychological development" (Rimashevskaya & Popelsky, 2016, p. 15, 16). It is characteristic that the proportion of healthy or relatively healthy children decreases in the process of school education. If 60% of newborns are such, then at the age of 15-17 years – already 30% of adolescents are healthy, while by the end of school – there are 10% of healthy children. And this trend does not seem to be changing (Rimashevskaya, 2011, p. 11). It cannot be broken, in particular, because children and adolescents have not formed the proper health-creation culture. The latter phenomenon is an over-biological program gained in the process of purposeful socialization which encourages the person to maintain and increase their natural resources in the interests of its self-building in accordance with the consciously chosen ideal (Novikov, 2018, p. 40). If such a program were available for a significant part of Russian children and adolescents, we would not observe a large number of diseases associated with practices that lead to individual degradation and, in fact, to slow suicide. So, if in 1990 the number of patients who were registered in medical and preventive treatment organizations, in connection with drug addiction at the age of 15 – 17 years was 7.6 people per 100,000 population of corresponding age, in 2015, it increased to 17.1 people. The decrease of the latter figure in 2016 to the level of 13.5 people is only a little reassuring in view of the 1.78 times excess of the quarter century ago data. Official statistics shows the rise in main classes diseases incidence with children 0-14 years (Rosstat, 2016, p.223, 225; Rosstat, 2017, pp. 215, 217).

Since all children and adolescents in the Russian Federation are socialized in educational institutions, the main teaching staff of which, as a rule, must have a qualification of not less than a Bachelor, this level of teacher training seems to us a key one in continuous pedagogical education in general and health-creation, in particular. It’s also necessary to emphasize that the health-creation education of pedagogical education bachelors is an aspect, "a qualitative characteristic of a specially organized integral pedagogical process" (Orekhova, 2015, p. 63), which involves the formation of the readiness of the purposeful socialization subjects to constantly engage in the strengthening of their health, considered as a natural foundation for the implementation of their chosen life strategy.

Based on this, we believe that the content of health-creation training of future teachers at the undergraduate level should allow them to educate not just a "person of the XXI century " but the subject of the informational society. That is, the content of this training cannot, firstly, be reduced to the formation of one personal and professional quality and, secondly, be formulated in the spirit of the industrial society competence (in which the individual was, to a large extent, an addition to the machine, a part of economic production). In other words, modeling the health-creation training of a pedagogical education Bachelor, it should be remembered that the informational society (post-industrialism), on the one hand, imposes new requirements onto the subject, and, on the other, makes it possible to form and display new traits that need to provide them with the appropriate state of his body.

Therefore, health-creation training of Bachelors should be built as an element of a systematic response to the challenges of the informational society. This answer is, in particular, "to show the young man the way of cognition, to form an interdisciplinary vision of the world, and not to fill his consciousness with specific knowledge and skills" (Ivanova & Bokova, 2017, p. 94-95). In other words, competence in the field of health-creation activities should be "built" into the system of competencies that allow learning to really become a means of human evolution (Laszlo, 2016), the key to its well-being. According to the international reports (OECD, 2018; WEF, 2016), the successful functioning of the individual in the informational age is provided by the formation of professional (“hard”) and over-professional ("soft") competencies.

Among the latter there is the health-creation competence, which consists in the ability to strengthen and build up the natural potential and turn it into the basis for professional and social success, self-development of the individual. As for the professional competence of a pedagogical Bachelor's degree graduate, it should consist in the ability to offer the student a strategy of turning the resource opportunities of health into a means of gaining the life meaning and conscious self-construction of the individual.

Are such competencies formulated in the State Federal Educational Standard of higher pedagogical education at the Bachelor's level? At first glance, the answer to this question cannot be positive. Indeed, in the standards of different generations, there are requirements, involving the formation of the teacher’s competence in the sphere of health promotion of the educational process subjects. However, they are formulated in the words of "life safety" and "health saving ideology". Identified in the State Federal Educational Standard 3 ++ (year 2018), universal (in fact, over-professional) competences (UC-6, UC-7 and UC-8) are aimed primarily at maintaining the existing health of the Bachelor graduate. In addition, among the general professional competencies, we do not find what could be assessed as a requirement to work at the creation of health (FGOS, 2018).

Typically, in the professional standard "Teacher (pedagogical activity in the field of preschool, primary general, basic general, secondary general education) (educator, teacher)" only "formation of students' culture of healthy and safe lifestyle" and "regulation of students’ behavior ensuring a safe educational environment” are among the "labor actions" mentioned (Rosmintrud, 2013), which fits into the "ideology" mentioned above.

We believe that such an approach is a necessary but insufficient condition for the formation of the informational society subject. A much more important role in this process is given to the problem of meaning, in the name of what a person should take care of their health. That is why we insist that the training of a pedagogical education Bachelor cannot be reduced mainly to the technological aspects of preserving and improving the health of students. It needs to be done around what it means to be human, to stay human. In other words, the emphasis should be shifted to the formation of health-creation culture as an artificial, non-instinctive program that sets the content of activities in the field of preservation and promotion of health in accordance with the challenges of the informational age.

The structural organization of health-care training of the pedagogical education Bachelor cannot but coincide with the structural organization of the named culture and activity. And therefore, it should include the development of the following system of actions: the transmission of health-creation knowledge to students (both about the human body, and about the basic principles and methods of its recovery); the formation of value orientation to health strengthening as the natural basis of a comfortable state (cultural and psychological); providing students with thoughts about the proper, about the ideal of health, motivating them to make efforts to strengthen their health; encouraging children and adolescents to implement health-care goal-setting; mastering the technologies of transferring to students of knowledge, skills and abilities in the field of health-creation; proposal for the implementation of sustainable patterns of behavior; to teach to reflect life from the perspective of ideal health (Novikov, 2018, p. 41). The core of this training is the ideal of health creation, allowing you to turn health care activities into something emotionally attractive (the means of implementation of the author's project of the student on the creation of himself).

Conclusion

Summarizing the above, it should be noted that the health-creation training of pedagogical education Bachelors in the informational society should be aimed at the formation of health-creation culture, which is manifested in the willingness and ability to preserve and increase the inherited natural potential of students, to organize the development of personality in accordance with the chosen health-creation ideal.

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Latyshevskaya, N. I., Novikov*, D. S., & Novikova, E. I. (2019). Health Creation Training Of Bachelors Of Education In Informational Society. In & S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 69. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 496-503). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.02.57