At the present stage of improvement of general education quality objective independent evaluation of the achieved personal and socially significant educational outcomes is required. The purpose of the research article is to discuss the content, the indicators and the bases for assessment of personal educational outcomes of high schools students. Research methods: a method of theoretical analysis of the stated problem, a method of focus groups, a survey, a content analysis, an observation, and a method of provocations. The novelty of the research article lies in the fact that it presents the experience of the staff of Institute for Education Development of Zabaikalsky Krai on the development of ways of assessment of personal educational outcomes. Advanced training courses, scientific and practical seminars, conferences, webinars for teachers of Zabaikalsky Krai were held, methodical materials were developed and offered, the bank of control and measuring materials was compiled; basic platforms on the basis of the educational organizations were created. During this work a number of difficulties among which insufficiency of professional competence of teachers in the field of formation and personal learning outcomes assessment, irrelevance of content of the implemented programs of professional education were revealed. This fact, according to the authors of the given paper, updates the need of justification and development of new ways of assessment of formation of personal educational outcomes by allocation of measurable indicators.
Keywords: Personal education outcomeslearning outcomes assessment
Problems of quality of Russian education, conditions of training and education at modern school attract the attention of the state and it fixed the requirements to educational outcomes of training of school students and set up Federal State Standards for primary, basic and secondary general education. From the subject, metasubject and personal outcomes of education which are offered in these documents – achievement of personal outcomes is the most important and at the same time the most difficult process for understanding, diagnostics and development. However, the problem of allocation of indicators of personal educational outcomes and the assessment of outcomes is one of the least elaborated aspects of FSES implementation today.
Personal educational outcomes of Federal State Education Standard include readiness and ability of students to self-development and personal self-determination, formation of their motivation for training and purposeful cognitive activity, the system of the significant social and interpersonal relations, values system reflecting personal and civic positions, social competences, legal awareness, ability to set the goals and to make vital plans, ability to awareness of the Russian identity in multicultural society. Despite rather accurate list of the planned personal outcomes of education, teachers and psychologists of the educational organizations distinguish the insufficiency of practical ways and means in activities for assessment of formation of personal educational outcomes of school students at different training levels.
It is known that the assessment and the analysis of formation of personal educational outcomes allows a teacher to correct psychological and pedagogical conditions of training and education of school students in due time, but the following questions are still open. How is it possible to measure personal educational outcomes in Federal State Education Standard? On the basis of what indicators can a teacher estimate personal educational outcomes of a pupil? At the same time it is necessary to consider the requirement of Federal State Education Standard that total assessment cannot be made by personal educational outcomes.
Purpose of the Study
To consider the content, the indicators and the bases for assessment of personal educational outcomes of high school students.
The methodology of the research relies on the system and activity approach which is the cornerstone of Federal State Education Standard allowing marking out the main outcomes of training and education.
The research is aimed to solve the following tasks: 1) to specify the content of the concept “personal educational outcomes” making the theoretical analysis of the problem in psychology, pedagogics, sociology and interdisciplinary sciences; 2) to describe the main difficulties of teachers in the field of assessment and the analysis of personal educational outcomes; 3) to consider the bases of measurement of personal educational outcomes of students; 4) to develop the ways of assessment of personal educational outcomes. In order to achieve the set goals the methods of the theoretical analysis of the problem in the psychological and pedagogical approaches disclosing the essence and characteristics of personal educational outcomes, the principles of monitoring and theoretical bases of their measurement, method of focus groups, survey, content analysis, observation, method of provocations were used.
The list of the planned personal outcomes of education presented in Federal State Education Standard dictates personal development of a school student as the main aim of modern school.
The personality is one of the most difficult and multiple-valued concepts of psychology and pedagogics. There exist a set of various and even contradicting definitions of this concept. Nevertheless, it is necessary to distinguish several conventional provisions: the personality is not set since the birth; it is formed only in society while communicating with similar individuals; the personality represents a complex system of the steady individual and psychological features defining the behavior and activity peculiar for the person; the personality is unique and dynamic; the originality of the personality is defined by conditions of education and training. Personal development of students is the long-term complete process which demands special educational conditions.
Personal educational outcomes which are conditionally subdivided into a personal position, personal meanings and personal attitudes are target guidelines of educational work at school (Borytko, 2017).
Personal outcomes represent the readiness and ability of school students to self-development and personal self-determination created in educational process; motivation to training and purposeful cognitive activity, the system of the significant social and interpersonal relations, value and semantic guidelines reflecting personal and civic stands in activity, social competences, legal awareness, ability to set the purposes and make vital plans, ability to get the idea of the Russian identity in multicultural society.
Today the requirements of Federal State Education Standard to personal outcomes defined the criteria the content of which is thoroughly developed and described in pedagogical and psychological sciences. “Self-development”, “self-determination”, “outlook”, “identity”, “motivation”, “internal position of the personality”, “value and semantic guidelines”, etc. can refer to them. For these criteria there is the whole arsenal of methods, diagnostic means which are used for their assessment within the created system of assessment of personal outcomes achievement. However, the number of approaches does not always mean efficiency of their use. The absence of unified or at least comparable measuring instruments does not allow realizing the unified effective system of assessment of achievement of the planned outcomes of the main educational programs development, allowing assessment of personal outcomes (Basyuk & Mukhacheva, 2018).
The analysis of the literature (Ilyasov, Selivanova, Kudinov, Sevryukova, & Sharukhina, 2017; Mikhaylenko, 2017; Rybakova, 2018; Khakunova & Reutova, 2016) showed that one of the most topical issues in modern educational practice is the problem of fixation and measurement of students’ personal outcomes. As Basyuk (2017) writes, in the course of evaluation of personal outcomes of the students’ acquisition of the main educational programs there are the following difficulties or problem areas: difficulties of involvement of parents in evaluating activity; long absence of the regular psychologist; difficulties in performing diagnostics of students and subsequent psychocorrection; lack of methodical recommendations about the matter; large volume of documents of fixing of outcomes; overworking teachers, respectively, the growing negative tendency of not carrying out classroom hours, low-quality work of “the psychology and pedagogical unit”, construction of “time-consuming” diagrams of growth; the process is integrated into process of the general assessment, therefore, personal outcomes are considered indirectly (in connection with motivation, the organization of cooperation, etc.); lack of optimum diagnostic tools; teachers badly realize the need of high-quality monitoring of personal outcomes of pupils; the portfolio of pupils’ achievements as an assessment procedure of a child’s personal development is used not fully as the interaction of a pupil, parent and teacher is not reached fully; in personal outcomes evaluation there is the greatest risk of subjectivity or unreliability of judgment than in evaluation of subject and metasubject outcomes of the acquisition of the main educational programs; limited communication because of the small number of students, the problem of correlation of the outcomes of monitoring and questioning carrying not personified character with personal features of the certain pupil; lack of qualified specialists (for example, for conducting projective tests).
The existence of these problems is confirmed by the research of teachers’ ideas about personal educational outcomes, carried out by Lubovsky and Plesnevich (2017). According to the received outcomes, a modern teacher shows incompetence, insufficiency of knowledge of the ways and methods of formation and assessment of personal outcomes of education.
Not only Russian but foreign researches as well are anxious to develop reliable methods of evaluation of formation of students’ personal educational outcomes (Garcia & Martínez, 2016; López & Mazarío, 2016; Nhorvien et al., 2016; NurulAsyikin & Suhaila, 2018; Ríos-Carmenado, Sastre-Merino, & Jiménez, 2016; Williams & Mangan, 2017).
BadiaValiente, Cazevieille, and Navarro (2016) emphasize the students’ increasing attention to the study through filling of questionnaires in mobile devices, the increase in their academic outcomes. There is a set of web applications for holding polls which allow creating questionnaires for collecting relevant information via electronic devices in the online mode. In such conditions the need of moving away from the traditional evaluation system and the search of authentic ways of personal outcomes assessment is realized.
The relevance and the importance of this direction of work was reflected in the content of work of temporary multidisciplinary group (further TMG) of State Institution of Further Professional Education “Institute for Education Development of Zabaikalsky Krai”. The TMG established the programs of professional development, methodical materials, the bank of control and measuring materials; basic platforms on the basis of the educational organizations were created; scientific and practical seminars, conferences, and webinars were held. Over period of three years (2016, 2017, 2018) 545 students of further education courses from 7 areas of Zabaikalsky Krai completed the curriculum of a training program according to the additional professional program “Evaluation Activity of the Teacher”. In 2016 the group of teachers consisting of 25 people was trained. In 2017 175 teachers from 5 municipal districts of Zabaikalsky Krai, such as Ononsky, Borzinsky, Aginsky, Mogoituisky and Chitinsky were trained. In 2018 345 teachers of such districts as Krasnochikoysky, Chitinsky, Ononsky, Mogoituisky, and the city of Chita were trained. The cooperation agreement on the development of evaluation means fund including personal ones is signed with two districts (Krasnochikoisky and Aginsky).
In these courses teachers are offered to develop tools for fixing personal educational outcomes. For this purpose sociology methods are offered to them: method of focus groups, poll or survey method, content analysis method, observation method and also method of provocations. The essence of these methods is in formalizing the obtained qualitative information for the purpose of receiving measurable indicators of personal outcomes formation.
The results of the analysis prepared by the teachers during the course preparation of the tools revealed some problems. Teachers have no properly created skills of the analysis and interpretation of the obtained data necessary for achieving the set goals; they are inattentive to the requirements of drawing up tools, owing to that fact the validity of tools and objectivity of the research decreases. Not the procedure of measurement itself but the process of the analysis of the obtained data causes difficulties; there are no accurately established levels of formation of this or that personal educational result.
Thus, summing up the results, it is necessary to draw the following conclusions.
Personal educational outcomes are the requirements for the personal development of a school student fixed in the Federal State Education Standard. One of the major problems in modern educational practice is the issue of identifying and evaluating measurable indicators of the development of personal educational outcomes.
At implementation of activities for assessment of formation of personal educational outcomes of school students teachers and the staff of the educational organizations face numerous difficulties among which the need of allocation of measurable indicators, deficiency of qualified specialists at school, absence of the regular psychologist, the need of justification and development of fund of evaluation means and methodical materials as they say actually from scratch.
The experience of practical activities of the staff of State Institution of Further Professional Education “Institute for Education Development of Zabaikalsky Krai” showed the demand of advanced training courses for teachers in the field of studying and the analysis of personal educational outcomes formation. Special activities for ensuring activities for assessment and the analysis of formation of personal educational outcomes on the basis of basic platforms of the educational organizations were organized; scientific and practical seminars, conferences, webinars were held. At the same time such methods of training as focus groups, the content analysis, observation, method of provocations and others were actively used. In advanced training courses teachers participated in justification and development of own funds of evaluation means.
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18 December 2019
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Dagbaeva*, S. B., Kimova, S. Z., & Yudina, N. A. (2019). Personal Educational Outcomes And Their Evaluation. In & S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 69. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 251-257). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.02.30