The article is devoted to the analysis of the existing social infrastructure as a factor in the development of the educational potential of the family. The modern state of development of the economy and society put high demands to the younger generation. First of all, it means the need to obtain a diverse education, the presence of broad common culture, the ability to navigate in a significant information flow. This is the key to further success of the young man in the labor market, a stable high income, contributes to his further professional and creative self-realization. The authors make extensive use of statistical and sociological information to assess the state of the social infrastructure of Russian society at the present situation, as well as in dynamics. Based on opinion polls, the authors were able to assess the family’s need for social infrastructure in the future. Summing up, the article summarizes that, despite the relatively high provision of social infrastructure, its accessibility to the modern family and the full socialization of children is insufficient, primarily because of the material problems existing in society. Analyzing the complex of social infrastructure, the authors conclude about the leading role in this structure of educational organizations, which is associated with their key role in the process of education and training of the younger generation.
For many centuries, the family has been a key element in the socialization of children and teenagers. Socialization is the process by which a child learns the experience of the social relations in which he fell at birth and in which he grows. This process is multifaceted and constant, it happens gradually and religiously. A person acquires and actively reproduces social experience, a system of social connections and relations in his social experience. In the process of socialization, a person acquires the qualities, values, beliefs and socially approved forms of behavior that he needs for a normal life in society. Socialization eliminates the passive position of a person in life, it implies the necessary active participation in the development of human culture, human relations, in the formation of certain social norms, roles and functions, the acquirement of skills and abilities (Moskal & Schweisfurth, 2018). The success of the child’s socialization directly depends on the educational potential of his family (Kuchmaeva, Petryakova, & Sinelnikov, 2010).
Under the "educational potential of the family" is meant the real, actual ability to raise children, taking into account the specific social constraints, the balance of the material and intangible resources of the family. In contrast to the "educational function", the concept of "educational potential" allows us to characterize the possibilities of the family, both real, fixed, currently used, and not used for any reason (Kuchmaeva et al., 2010).
In the 21st century, the role of branches of social infrastructure in the process of bringing up a child, his socialization, and joining universal human social and cultural values is fundamentally changing. Previously, these functions were performed by the family, passing on their experience and knowledge of life. Children largely inherit the perceptions, norms, and values of their parents. Currently, children are not so much in need of life experience and knowledge of parents, due to the acceleration of social processes in society, rapid changes in ethical and moral norms and values. Many parents admit that they simply do not know how to bring up children in the current contradictory and rapidly changing conditions (Kuchmaeva, Maryganova, & Petryakova, 2013). By social infrastructure, we understand the totality of units of the regional economy, the functioning of which is associated with the normal functioning of the population and man. It is customary to include in the social infrastructure: health care, education, housing and utilities, leisure activities, catering, consumer services, labor exchanges, etc. "As a result of the effective development of the social infrastructure of the region, the following must be met: meeting the comprehensive needs of the population, improving living conditions, expanding opportunities for human development" (Smirnova, 2014, p. 87).
At present, the most important global task of mankind is the formation of a society based on knowledge. We are talking about a significant change in the socio-economic situation and structure of society, the possession of knowledge and information in all spheres of human life (Korolenko & Kalachikova, 2017). By the beginning of the third millennium, Russia was among the most educated countries in the world. According to the census, in 2010, the literacy rate of the adult population was 99.5%. According to the results of the 2015 microcensus, 304 per 100 citizens of Russia had a higher education, another 21 - incomplete higher education, 449 - specialized secondary education, another 52 - basic general education (Russian statistical yearbook, 2018).
In Russia, only 5.8% of the population had in 2015 general education level or lower, whereas in the USA this indicator is 10.5%, in Great Britain - 20.9, in Italy - more than 40% (Russian statistical yearbook, 2018). According to the same source, more than 30% of the population of Russia have higher education, it is in principle quite close to the indicators of developed countries or even exceeds them (in the US - 34%, in the UK - 33.4%, Germany - 27%, France - 19%).
In 2016 in Russia, there were 2868 thousand students, which is significantly less than in 2010 (a reduction of 9.2% is due to the fall in the birth rate in the 1990s, that is, the number of young people in Russia is much smaller).
As it can be seen from the statistical data, that Russia has an impressive educational potential for the formation of an economy based on knowledge, as well as the existence of very high demands from society, especially young people and parents, for higher education, because without it successful socialization is impossible in modern society.
It should be mentioned that improving the quality of education, turning it into a continuous process, creates very significant positive "external effects" in society. The high level of education of the overwhelming majority of citizens contributes to the unity of the nation, strengthening social unity. As you know, people with high level of education are more law-abiding. They lead a healthier lifestyle, resulting in improved levels of health and longevity. Thus, if the family and the state through joint efforts create an opportunity for children to receive the highest possible level of education, everyone will benefit: the youth, parents and society as a whole.
At the same time, the Russian education system is in deep systemic crisis, the cause of which is the residual principle of financing and the insufficient material base, and most importantly, the system itself does not fully comply with the demands of society, and the attempts at reforming. This system does not bring positive results. To these problems, added complexity, due to the significant socio-economic stratification of the population and the growing inequality of opportunities for obtaining quality education in the face of increasing payment.
Public expenses on education in Russia in 2016 amounted to 3.6% and this figure continues to decline. In 2005 it amounted to 4.6%, in 2010 -4.4. In 2017 595 billion rubles was spent on education in Russia, in 2016 - 603.9 billion rubles, in 2015 - 610.6 billion rubles.
The formation of a post-industrial society sets the family the task of receiving a child’s education, which will provide him with future employment opportunities and a high quality of life.
This process in Russia is accompanied by an increase in paid education services (even in schools where formal education is free, parents have to spend additional funds on education). Higher education is also increasingly becoming paid. At the same time, most of the expenses (due to the underdeveloped educational system on credit, low scholarships, etc.) are forced to bear the family. Therefore, in the context of the stratification of society by income level, inequality of opportunities for obtaining quality education for families of various types is increasing. There is an increase in the amount of paid services in the field of education. In 2015, their volume amounted to 539.7 million rubles (in 2014 -486.5 million rubles). However, in comparable prices, it is almost 4% less. 1573 rubles were spent on 1 household member per year on education services, which is 10.9% less than in 2014. In more than half of the household expenditures on education services account for higher education.
The main task of the authors was to study the development of certain aspects of the social infrastructure (this article practically does not consider the health sector, since its analysis is a separate and very important scientific problem and its study is not possible within the framework of this research work), its availability, and the transformation of family requests to the activities of social infrastructure institutions.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of social infrastructure in the socialization of the modern child and its impact on the educational potential of the family.
The analysis is based on statistical data, the results of the census of 2002 and 2010, 2015 and relies on the results of a number of sociological, psychological, educational, economic, cultural studies and statistical studies, including those conducted by the authors according to a specially developed methodology. This article uses statistical and logical methods of analysis, the method of comparison, and also the sociological method of analyzing information obtained during mass polls of the population is widely used.
The system of pre-school educational institutions occupies a very important place among public institutions that assist the family in the implementation of its educational function. Despite a number of measures taken by federal and local authorities, the need for services of pre-school educational institutions is higher than the number of these services. This is largely due to a significant increase in the birth rate in the period 2010-2016, the massive closure of departmental pre-school educational institutions, due to the ruin of many Russian enterprises. But many mothers of preschool children are forced to work in order to provide the family with a normal level of existence. First of all, it concerns single mothers, whose number is very large. As a result, there is a shortage of pre-school institutions, accompanied by an increase in the cost of maintaining their children.
Among all children under three years of age, more than 53% need a device for preschool education, while about 80% are on the waiting list, the rest are not even officially placed in the queue. As a positive moment, it should be noted that more than 90% of children have the desired organization of pre-school education in the immediate vicinity of the house.
In order to improve preschool education, various areas of work with children are actively developing in kindergartens. The content of preschool education is being improved, its personality-oriented character is intensifying. The results of the experiment to introduce the experience of short-term stay of pupils in kindergarten show that such groups are economically viable, give more children the opportunity to receive pre-school education and provide for them a “single start” when they enter school (Obrazhey, 2016).
At the same time, family spending on the maintenance of children in kindergartens is growing. As shown by data from the monitoring of the economy of education, commissioned by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, more than 64% of families with children of preschool age invest in repairs, security, and the purchase of materials and equipment for preschool institutions; 13% of families pay for preparing children for school in preschool institutions; 23% - for classes not related to such training; another 13% of families pay for preparatory classes organized at school; 66% of families pay for tours, holidays, buying gifts in kindergarten (Russian statistical yearbook, 2018).
The most important direction of improving the quality of general education is its differentiation in terms of forms, as well as types of institutions, allowing to satisfy the various educational needs of students. In accordance with the law "About Education", study programs can be mastered in full-time, part-time (evening), and correspondence forms. The forms of family education, self-education, external studies, as well as combinations of various forms of education can be used. Total for the beginning of the academic year 2016/2017 in Russia, there were 42.8 thousand educational organizations providing education in primary and general secondary education programs, which is 15% less than in 2010. The reduction is primarily due to the elimination of small village schools, where very few children study and the optimization of educational expenses. However, as a result, some children living in remote regions are forced to part with their families for a long time, which, of course, leads to a weakening of its educational potential. The number of students amounted to 15705.9 thousand people, which is 11% more than in 2010. This is due to the increase in the birth rate in previous periods.
It should be noted that the majority of schoolchildren 99.2% attend any educational organization, 0.4% study at home and are attached to an educational organization, 0.1% do not study for health reasons, and another 0.2% do not study reasons. A little more often (the difference in the percentage) the children from the families of the unemployed or families where one of the parents has a disability do not study. In addition, there is a serious problem in the country with children who find themselves outside the education system. Their number is estimated at about 300 thousand people. In most cases, the reason for children not attending school is family trouble and extremely serious health problems. A significant proportion of these children are homeless and neglected. The existence of such a problem in a developed country is an indicator of social disadvantage (Comprehensive survey of the living conditions of the population, 2017, Korolenko & Kalachikova, 2017, Maryganova & Shapiro, 2018).
Despite the ongoing process of optimizing the education system, the problem of work of organizations carrying out educational activities in educational programs of primary, basic and secondary general education in two and three shifts remains relevant. So, at the beginning of the 2017/2018 school year, the number of people involved in the second and third shifts in primary education programs (grades 1-4) was 1.2 million, or 17.2% of the total number of students in these programs, in the basic general education (grades 5-9) - 748.6 thousand people (10.5%), for secondary education programs (10-11 (12) classes) - 10.3 thousand people (0.8%) (Russian statistical yearbook, 2018).
These problems require active measures to preserve and improve the educational potential of the country. At the state level, there has been a change in educational policy, expressed in the declaration of education as one of the main priorities of Russian society and the state, as well as the development of programs to reform the education system.
The quality of education is assessed by federal, regional and municipal education authorities. The quality and level of knowledge gained by schoolchildren is monitored. The main instrument for controlling the quality of general education is the development of a state standard for general education and the creation of a state certification service monitoring the implementation of this standard. It should be noted that, unfortunately, in international monitoring the results of Russia's indicators on the quality of secondary education have not been very high in recent years. Thus, in accordance with the data of the PISA program (Program for International Student Assessment), the purpose of which is to assess the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds in leading industrialized countries, Russia never occupies a leading position either in the middle of the list of countries or next to the end . We study not just the knowledge of students in reading, mathematics, natural sciences, but their ability to apply this knowledge in real life situations.
The system of higher education has its own serious problems. The first half of the 1990s was characterized by such phenomena as the mass release of qualified engineering and technical personnel, a sharp decline in the salaries of specialists of both technical and humanitarian specialties. As a result, specialists began to travel abroad or move to other sectors of the economy - business, trade. Young people felt that education, with the exception of several professions (bank clerk, economist, lawyer), does not guarantee success in life.
By the mid-1990s, young people gradually became aware of the importance of education. The fact that the prestigious, i.e. high-paying work can be obtained only with a diploma. Commercial structures prefer to take even people with higher education for technical positions. Now orientation to higher education is present in almost all segments of the population. At the same time, more than half of parents (56%) would like their children to get a higher education, 15–17% secondary vocational education (their share slightly increases in incomplete and large families (up to 21%), and does not have an orientation towards a child’s vocational education less than 1% of parents (Korolenko & Kalachikova, 2017).
Most of all, getting a higher education is the aim of parents with 1-2 children living in full families. This is largely due to the fact that in conditions of almost complete payment for higher education, these families can provide it. The lowest orientation is towards receiving higher education for parents from large families and families with a non-working disabled person who are economically in the most difficult situation (Comprehensive survey of the living conditions of the population, 2017; Zolotareva, Gruzdev, & Loboda, 2015, Skilbeck & Connell, 2004).
It can be stated that in recent years, education has been increasingly regarded as the basis for success in life (Maryganova & Shapiro, 2018; Boyd, 2014). The costs of education are considered not only as acceptable, but also as priority. A survey of parents and students of graduate (9th and 11th) classes of urban and village schools in several regions showed a willingness to bear the costs associated with the education of children in school. It was confirmed by 56% of the respondents, and there is practically no dependence between the willingness to pay for education and the level of welfare of the population or the level of intraregional income differentiation. The majority of young people currently receiving higher education belong to families with a relatively high standard of living. However, relatively low income is not yet an insurmountable obstacle to studying in universities. According to the data of the monitoring of the economics of education, about a quarter of families from two groups of the population with the lowest income have children who receive higher education; in two groups of the population with the highest incomes, the share of families with children studying in universities is 56%. However, a further increase in tuition fees while reducing the budget places in universities can cut off the overwhelming majority of children from low-income families from higher education (Kuchmaeva et al., 2013, Bradley, Kirby, & Madriaga, 2015).
Accessibility of higher education depends on the place of residence of the family. The chances of children entering the university from regional centers are estimated at 50:50, from regional centers - 1: 2, from villages - 1; 3. It should be noted that the introduction of a unified state exam and taking into account its results upon admission to the institute increases the chances of students from the regions upon admission to universities. However, the question of ensuring the quality of education remains open (Moskal & Schweisfurth, 2018).
Additional educational institutions play an especially important role in the cultural and physical education of children (Timperley, Wilson, Barrar, & Fung, 2007).
Employment of students of educational institutions in leisure time in its essential part is organized by the system of additional education of children. As of January 1, 2016, there were 14.272 thousand educational institutions of additional education for children of various departmental attachment in the Russian Federation.
Additional education of children is actively developing on the basis of secondary schools and other types of educational institutions. Currently, more than 11 million children from 5 to 18 years old (72.6% of those enrolled in secondary schools) are constantly engaged in their favorite activity - artistic, scientific and technical creativity, teaching and research activities, ecology, physical culture and sports, tourism and local history (Van de Kaa, 1999). Number of students in the system of additional education since 2010 increased by 37%, partly due to the increase in the birth rate and the number of children in the population, and partly due to the increasing need for it.
Behind the data on the increase in the number of people involved in children's associations are the problems associated with the aging of the material and technical and didactic base and, for this reason, the disproportion in the coverage of the age groups of children and teenagers. An increase in the number of associations for younger schoolchildren is observed, and it is declining for more adults, which practically indicates a degradation of a number of areas of children's and youthful creativity.
An important place among the branches of social infrastructure is occupied by the sphere of culture and art. This industry is designed to help the family to perform a socio-cultural function: to preserve historical, national traditions, to acquaint children with national and world achievements in the field of art, to educate a cultural, humane person (Maryganova & Shapiro, 2018). It is also universally recognized that one of the most important indicators of a high quality of life is the possibility of full-fledged leisure, in accordance with the needs, interests, and aspirations of people.
Previously, clubs were the focus of cultural life in a separate area of a large city and village areas. But the current network of club institutions is not able to meet the growing needs of children and young people. This problem is particularly acute in rural areas, where clubs are the only cultural and leisure center. Over the past ten years there has been a moral and physical deterioration of the resources of clubs and cultural centers. There is a reduction in organizations of the club type, in 2016 there were 41.3 thousand, which is 11.4% less than in 2010 (Russian statistical yearbook, 2018). Village clubs are particularly in a difficult situation, for whom funds are not allocated for carrying out mass work. Two thirds of rural settlements have no club facilities.
The most important function in introducing children to culture is performed by library institutions. Currently, there are about 38.2 thousand public libraries in the Russian Federation, of which 77.5% are located in rural areas. However, they are small, with a small library fund, among the registered users of rural residents only 31% are rural residents. There is a significant network of libraries of secondary schools, lyceums, gymnasiums. More than half of the children use specialized children's libraries.
The children's library turned out to be an exclusively adaptive sociocultural institute. In recent years, it has gradually been transformed into an open system, actively cooperating with many government and public organizations — schools, creative unions, book publishers, etc. On their basis, circles, sections, various festivals and competitions are being developed. However, there is a shortage of children's libraries and the increase in the children's population.
However, it must be admitted that in Russia at present, the sphere of culture and leisure is going through difficult times. The volume of government funding is small. The state budget expenditures on the development of culture, cinematography, and the mass media in recent years accounted for 0.5% of the state budget expenditures. Cultural institutions are forced to earn money for their maintenance, raising ticket prices, introducing payment for classes for children in clubs and sections. However, in recent years, the attendance of museums has significantly increased 123.5 million people in 2016, which is one and a half times more than in 2010 (Russian statistical yearbook, 2018).
Costs for cultural and leisure activities and recreation were slightly reduced and amounted in 2016. 6.7% of total expenditures of the population (this is approximately the level of 2010), and in the pre-crisis 2014 this figure was 7.1%. However, if the least well-off group of the population spends only 3.4% of its already insignificant income on rest and leisure, then the most well-to-do is 8.5%.
The most significant impact on the crisis in Russia was overseas holidays, the number of outbound tourist trips in 2016 decreased compared to 2014 by 26.2% and amounted to about 31.6 thousand. This is not a large number compared to the total number of Russian families. The inability to go abroad rather worsens the self-awareness of families, but also to some extent reduces the educational potential of the family due to the impossibility of expanding the horizons of children.
The number of holidaymakers in sanatorium-resort organizations, holiday homes and tourist centers has slightly increased. The number of vacationers in all kinds of spa and tourist facilities in 2016 was 3881 thousand people, or 18% more than in 2010 (Fund Public Opinion database, 2013).
Separately, it should be said that the number of children's camps and recreation centers decreases (from 50.2 thousand organizations to 43.7 thousand or by 12.9%) and, accordingly, the number of children rested in them (from 4893.9 thousand in 2010) up to 4422.5 in 2017, or by 9.4%) (Comprehensive survey of the living conditions of the population, 2017). On the one hand, this indicates that children can spend more time with their families; of course, such rest together with a family will significantly increase the educational potential of the family (Boyd, 2014). On the other hand, were these children left without rest at all if parents could not afford to pay for a trip to the camp, which leads to deterioration of children's health, as well as limited impressions from new trips and acquaintances, which undoubtedly impoverish socialization of children.
The number of children's sanatoriums is slightly reduced from 550 in 2010 to 525 in 2016, and the number of beds in them, on the contrary, increased from 120 to 139. The number of children rested in sanatoria increased compared to 2010 by 12%.
According to the Fund Public Opinion polls, about 36% of Russians spend their holidays at home, but among them low incomes have 43%, high incomes - 29%, 19% rest in Russia, 15% - in the country, only 7% - in foreign countries (among those with relatively high incomes already 16%) (Fund Public Opinion database, 2013).
In recent years, the main forms of leisure become publicly available options that do not require additional funds or special features: reading, watching TV, chatting with friends. 25% of Russians spend their free time "in front of the TV", another 10% stay at home: "I'm on the couch." In addition, people like to spend their leisure time with family, children and grandchildren, to read, to sit at the computer, go for a walk and meet friends. And respondents are most often satisfied with the way they spend their free time (66%), not dissatisfied (14%) (Fund Public Opinion database, 2013).
As a result of the study, it was confirmed that the underdevelopment of the social infrastructure, that does not meet the demands of the current stage of development of the economy and society, reduces the educational potential of the family. To the directions of increasing the educational potential of the Russian family in modern socio-economic should be attributed: providing support for family education, promoting the formation of a responsible attitude of parents or legal representatives to the education of children; increasing the effectiveness of comprehensive support for vulnerable categories of children (with disabilities, left without parental care, socially at risk, orphans), contributing to their social rehabilitation and full integration into society; providing conditions for increasing the social, communicative and pedagogical competence of parents.
In recent decades, family functions have been weakened, family relations have been deformed, the family has lost the historically established foundation in the spiritual and moral education of children. The decline in the level of culture and upbringing in families, and the lack of spirituality of a significant part of young people who marry and are unable to build relationships in the family due to the lack of positive experience in the family life of their parents are cause for alarm. Many young people have no idea what qualities modern parents should possess. The educational and socio-cultural potential of the family is not fully realized, which exacerbates the systemic crisis of the family. After a brief review of the main indicators characterizing the socioeconomic status of families at present, the following conclusion suggests itself: many of the problems (including family education) facing the modern family run into its low standard of living and the poverty of a significant part of Russian families (Kuchmaeva et al., 2013).
Families cannot afford to pay for additional extracurricular classes of foreign languages, music, visual arts, and other subjects that exist in many schools, pay for a number of necessary health care services, and rest outside. This significantly impoverishes the socialization of children and teenagers. Insufficient development and accessibility of the social infrastructure adversely affect the educational potential of the Russian family, provoke family distress, both in the present and in the future. Children, who grew up in such families, are deliberately deprived of opportunities to receive quality education and rest, which further negatively affects their employment and social success in the future. Moreover, and this is one of the most important problems, such children, having become adults, often transmit the experience of insufficient socialization to their children, i.e. the situation repeats. As it seems to us, a lot is being done to overcome this problem, primarily with the help of family and measures in social policy taken by the state, but, it’s still not enough for them in the conditions of the economic crisis in which Russia is situated. The authors emphasize the need and significance of targeted actions by the state, regional and municipal authorities in order to develop the social infrastructure accessible to families with children in future.
The article was prepared within the framework of state assignment No. 073-00092-19-00 for 2019. FSBSI "ISCFE RAE" under the project "Scientific basis for family and social education of children and youth and pedagogical support for the development of education and socialization of children in the education system".
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18 December 2019
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Borisova*, T. S., Petryakova, O. L., Novgorodova, V. S., & Nikiforova, T. I. (2019). Social Infrastructure As A Factor Of Development The Family Educational Potential. In & S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 69. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 197-207). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.02.24