The process of reformation from the industrial to the post-industrial information society in Russia causes the growing challenges to the system of human socialization. To create parental education system becomes one of the actual and demanded problems. This system would help a person to be capable to build up his own strategy in the question of bringing up children through clear understanding the goals of education, ways of their implementation, and consequences of all the decisions which have been made. One of the important trend in the process of parental education is the educational activities with younger generation. The key side of the state family policy in the Russian Federation is the assertion of the family and family lifestyle value, the revival and preservation of spiritual and moral traditions in family relations, family education and the formation of responsible parenthood of citizens. The concept of modernization in Russian education emphasizes the exceptional role of the family in solving the problems of upbringing. At the same time, the successful solution of many emerging problems is possible only under the coordinated interaction of the family with institutions of additional education, schools and society. Therefore, the fruitfulness and effectiveness of the educational process directly depends on the consistency of goals and pedagogical efforts both family and teachers. The presented article reflects the theoretical aspects of the problem and analysis of the implementation of the tasks considering psychological and pedagogical education of parents on the example of educational organizations in the Moscow region.
Preparing young people for marriage and future family life is an integral part of the general education system of the younger generation upbringing. Not long ago, it was believed, that a young man reaching a certain age is fully ready to start a family. However, the cultural changings in the social dynamics of social relations do not exclude the conditionality of changings in the family, but also imply the necessity for special training of the younger generation to create a family and family life. Since over the past decade there have been a number of alarming trends indicating crisis phenomena in family life, affecting marital and parent-child relationships (Evdokimova, 2018).
Numerous sociological, pedagogical, medical and psychological studies show that such phenomena include a demographic picture, which is getting worse, the increasing in the number of divorces, and the increasing in the number of so called civil marriages. Another problem is associated with an increasing number of children left without parental care. In most cases it is related to the unwillingness of the family to give birth to a child and as a consequence, the rejection of it later (Prokopieva, Diakonova, & Popova, 2018). A common symptom of dysfunction of the modern Russian family is the disharmony of family relationships, which is formed due to the lack of knowledge among young people about the patterns of functioning of the family system, because of the insufficient level of positive communication skills development and the ability to resolve family conflicts, sometimes due to psychological incompatibility of young spouses (Kochergina & Kirjushina, 2018).
It should be noted that in foreign studies a number of authors draw attention to the issue of interaction between the public, family and educational organization in the questions of training and education of children (Hyde & LaPrad, 2015; Fuertes, Sousa, Lockiewicz, Nunes, & Lino, 2018; Nolas, 2015; Jeynes, 2018). Moreover, the family life opens up the boundaries for a young person to grow personally, gain a sense of satisfaction with life and feel like a happy person. At the same time he has many requirements from life, which he knows and takes into account and this all creates the basis of youth’s awareness and readiness to start a family. and responsible parenthood (Chaviano, McWey, & Lettenberger-Klein, 2016; Becher et al., 2019). The experience of foreign researchers in the field of forming family relationships and their correction by teachers is very valuable (Frank, 2017; Grzywacz & Allen, 2017).
Taking into account the key postulates of the state social and family policy, as well as the strategic vectors of the transformation of the education system in the Moscow region, parental education and work with young people in preparation for conscious, responsible parenthood were intensified (Orders, 2014-2015). In the year of 2015, for the first time, a survey of territories was conducted on the number of planned courses and a conference was organized with a presentation of the best regional experience in working with parents. At the conference, there were municipalities which were the first to present their experience: Korolev (City Parent Club), Sergiev-Posad (elective course “Ethics and Psychology of Family Life”), Podolsk (family counseling conducted by the Center for Social and Psychological Aid "Youth"), the city of Zhukovsky (interaction with municipal mass media on parental education), Stupinsky municipal district (the project "Path to home" for parents of children "at risk"). Following the conference, it was planned to organize courses for parents in 422 educational organizations. However, the plans were not implemented in full. As shown by repeated monitoring, currently courses are conducted only in 23 municipalities in 29 educational organizations. The results of the monitoring conducted in educational institutions of the Moscow region showed the lack of the optional classes for schoolchildren in the region,and in some places their total absence. At the same time, in Lyubertsy and Sergiev - Posadsky municipal districts, in the town of Mytischi, Reutov, these classes are held with students of 10 classes of secondary schools under the program "Ethics and Psychology of Family Life." The main form of collaboration with parents is still the parent meeting and the organization of lectures on various issues of concern. In preschool educational organizations, the most common form of work with parents are the clubs. Most of the territories of the Moscow region practice courses and adaptation schools for substitute families.
It seems appropriate and actual in the style of this article to consider the theoretical aspects of the problem and, based on the analysis of monitoring studies, identify trends in the implementation of the tasks of psychological and pedagogical education of parents using the example of educational organizations in the Moscow region.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose is the actualization of the formulated problem, the study and synthesis of the experience of creating a system of parental education in educational institutions of the Moscow region.
dynamic and contextual analysis of the activities of educational organizations of the Moscow region, analysis of documents and materials in the context of the identified problem, direct and indirect observation, surveys and questionnaires of participants in the educational process.
In the Ministry of Education of the Moscow Region, a meeting was held on the questions of the parental education arrangement, after which a decision was made to organize activity on parental education in the Moscow Region on the basis of the Moscow State Regional University (hereinafter referred to as MGOU) and State University of Humanities and Technology "(hereinafter – GSTU). Therefore, based on the results of the event, an initiative group was formed of teachers from preschool and secondary educational institutions of the Moscow Region, as well as from the teachers of the State University of Humanities and Technology and Moscow State Educational Institution for the further implementation of the project. A group of teachers of the GGTU organized a regional round table talk “Organization of parental education in the territory of the Moscow region” to discuss programs of preparing for parenting of high school students and students, as well as programs and modules for advanced training courses for teachers in the region to introduce questions of parental education in educational institutions. The initiative to develop the national Parent Education Program was launched by the National Parent Association. Advisor to the Minister of Education of the Moscow Region A.V. Gusev identified the main tasks facing the participants of the event: to identify the best experience and the best areas for parental education in the region and to replicate the existing experience; develop general requirements for the organization of parental education; develop and discuss programs for implementation in educational institutions of the Moscow region.
In accordance with the tasks outlined above, the organization of work on parental education and the preparation of young people for parenting has the following objectives:
- ensuring the rights of the family to development, personal self-determination and self-realization, to professional support in the upbringing and education of children;
- expanding opportunities to disclose the diverse interests of children and adolescents through improving the quality of family education;
- increasing the importance of the family itself for modern youth and the formation of readiness for marriage, creating a family with children and interest in their upbringing.
On this basis, the key objectives of the project are specified:
- monitoring of the territories of the Moscow region on parental education issues, analysis and identification of best experience;
- presentation of the best ones of the Moscow region in working with parents in the Moscow region;
- creation and introduction into practice on the basis of pilot schools of an optional course program on preparing pupils for parenting, which would contribute to the formation of skills of positive interpersonal communication, spiritual and moral interrelations of the sexes; the formation of basic knowledge of family law;
- the creation and introduction into practice an optional course program on preparing students for parenting on the basis of open vocational education and higher education institutions of the region. This programme would contribute to the formation of skills of positive interpersonal communication, spiritual and moral interrelationship of the sexes; building basic knowledge of family law, raising awareness of young people about sexual behavior; creating a more realistic view of family life, a sense of responsibility for loved ones. During the preparation for the Round Table Talk, a working group on the implementation of this project based on the Resource Center for Teacher Education of the Moscow Region reviewed the existing regional practices and identified the best parenting sites in the region. At the event, for the first time, the experience of conducting courses for parenting, courses for parents on the basics of pedagogy and psychology, special and elective courses on family studies taught in educational organizations, family clubs, non-profit organizations implementing programs was presented. The successful solution of many problems is possible only if the family, institutions of additional education, schools and society interact as a whole. The event raised questions about the revival of the traditions of family education, providing parents with opportunities to obtain affordable educational and psychological assistance on the issues of parenting. Constructive dialogue of the participants of the Round Table Talk allowed to identify the main priorities in parental education programs. The event was presented with discussion of two draft programs on work with young people on preparation for parenthood, in particular: the program “Preparing young people for family life and responsible parenthood” (optional course for students in 9-11 grades, 36 hours); the program of the discipline "Psychological and pedagogical bases of preparing young people for family life" (elective course for students of vocational education and higher education, 36 hours). The analysis of the current situation allows us to single out several of the most promising forms of work with parents and teachers, which are carried out in the Moscow Region:
1. Schools for parents. In MADOU №40 of Elektrogorsk for parents of pupils the program of pedagogical education “School of young parents” is implemented, in MDOU TSRR “Kindergarten No. 41 “Fairy Tale” of Balashikha the program “School of Young Mother” is implemented, in MBDOU №8 of Noginsk municipal district functions "Parent University", in MBDOU CRR №84 "Mother's School." Parent schools of this kind also operate in the Schelkovskiy municipal district, Dubna, Kolomna. The content of their activities differs from the work of clubs and lecture halls in a systematic and structured modular program. The program “School of Responsible Parenthood”, implemented in the school № 4 of Dubna, is aimed at pedagogical education of parents and the provision of timely highly qualified psychological and pedagogical assistance in organizing family education for various categories of students. The non-state school “Yuna” in Dubna has a “Parent school”. The course of group psychological classes for parents was developed and implemented by N.Yu. Frantsuzov and M.V. Balaeva. Classes in the club are organized once per month (last Friday) in order to activate and increase the pedagogical potential of parents.
In the private educational institution Orthodox Classical Gymnasium "Sofia"of the Klin municipal district for a number of years carried out pedagogical support for families of students. Educational work on the education of students is carried out within the framework of the School for Parents. Classes are monthly held by priests and teachers of the gymnasium. The classes address issues of age psychology, Christian anthropology, problems of the modern family, sex education, and other aspects of the education of students. A series of lessons on the theme “Educating the Soul in Russian Classical Literature” was developed. In MBOU Secondary school № 8 in Ivanteevka a comprehensive program "Parent School was implemented. The program consists of 7 modules, each of which involves a cycle of classes with parents of children of different age categories, including theoretical and practical parts. The program is designed for a total of 72 hours. Separate classes are also provided for substitute families. Additional education institutions, psychological centers, social protection centers, and methodological centers also work with parents. Such work is practiced in many municipalities of the Moscow Region. An example is the State Budgetary Educational Establishment of the Moscow region “Yantar Psychological Center” of the Schelkovo Municipal District. The institution organized group classes for parents in the "School of parental skills." Moreover, this is not a separate program, but part of a complex work with parents of children of preschool and primary school age who are engaged in the programs “Adventures of Cheerful Little Men” and “In the World of Emotions”. The programmes include the lessons with children and activities with parents. The most traditional forms of work within the “School for Parents” are lectures, thematic and ethical conversations, parent meetings, joint holidays, individual counseling, business games, discussions, debates, questions and answers, sharing of parental experiences, parent reading, joint events with children, family councils, etc. The pedagogical team of institutions pays great attention to the information support of the events, namely, information boards were created, brochures, booklets, etc. were developed; propaganda media are being actively introduced (leaflets, wall newspapers, posters as a means of social advertising, etc.).
2. Webinars (online seminars). In recent years innovative forms of working with parents appeared, for example, webinars or online seminars. While the web conference, each participant is at his computer, and the connection between them is maintained via the Internet. This form of work with parents has the advantages, because does not require a direct visit to an educational institution. This form of work is actively practiced in the Schelkovo Municipal District, the city of Orekhovo-Zuyevo, and the city of Khimki. As an example, in MBOU Secondary school №2 named. S.I. Rudenko” Monino on the online platform Teaching younger students on new educational standards: opportunities and prospects ”https://my.webinar.ru/record webinars are presented from the cycle “Enlightenment ”to parents!”: “Music lessons in school. What can they give to my child? ”,“The role of the family in learning: we read and think with the child ” etc.
3. Special courses for students’ parents. It is worth noting the existence of educational organizations where courses focused for parents are held. For example, the Saltykovskaya gymnasium MBOU, Balashikha, have introduced and actively implements an optional course “Educational work among parents on building a culture of healthy eating”. In this case, the range of issues of communication is very wide and the choice of the problem is a joint matter of the teacher and the parents. So, there was a course of lectures, conversations, round table talks with parents on the topics: “Basic principles of the organization of rational nutrition at younger school age”, “The importance of vitamins and minerals in the diet”, “Regime of the day for younger schoolchildren”, etc.
In "Gymnasium №41", Lyubertsy, in order to improve the pedagogical culture of parents, improve family education, ensure the unity of the requirements of the educational institution and the family, the program "Cooperation" was created. Its main goal is to increase literacy in the field of age psychology and pedagogy; the formation of a new attitude of parents to the upbringing of their children, which can improve the quality of the child’s personality, facilitate the child’s adaptation to the educational process at different levels, and alleviate difficult family conditions.
4. Clubs for parents. The results of the monitoring showed that the most common form of work with parents is still clubs. In the overwhelming majority of cases, work is organized with parents of preschoolers and younger students, and in 15% with parents of high school students. A very large number of clubs operate on the basis of educational organizations in Lyubertsy, Dubna, Kolomna, Orekhovo-Zuyevo, Podolsk, Protvino, Schelkovskogo, Noginsk, Dmitrovsky municipal districts. An educational society "Psychological Club" has been working since 2014 in MESU Secondary School No. 14" in Balashikha. Monthly the Club conducts various thematic classes. Since September 2015, the school takes an active part in cooperation with the Petrarch Center for Family and Youth Aesthetics in the pilot project “Family as a value of present and future generations”.
5. Lectures for Parents. According to the results of the monitoring, the traditional form of interaction for pedagogical team of the educational organization with the parents was and remains for today parent meetings and parent lectures. As a rule, they are implemented almost by directors, head teachers, social teachers, educational psychologists, educators and class teachers in all educational organizations in the Moscow region. In preschool educational organizations and schools, cycles of lectures, educational programs for parents (psychological and pedagogical problems, legal aspects, information, etc.) are actively developed and tested.
6 Professional training of teachers. It is important to mention the experience of the Schelkovo municipal district in organizing courses for teachers. Teacher-psychologist MAUDO DOOPTs "Neptune" E.A. Oskina conducts a series of educational seminars for psychologists "Organization of educational work with parents." This kind of work is also being carried out at the Educational and Methodological Educational Center. Improving the qualifications of young teachers contributes to the development of confident behavior, overcoming anxiety and tension in communication, the formation of practical skills necessary for organizing and conducting individual or group classes with parents at meetings, meetings, working in parent clubs, etc.
7. Let us note the great work on the interaction of preschool educational organizations with parents, which is carried out by the Association of Teachers of Preschool Educational Organizations of the Moscow Region: a podium discussion “The Role of the Parent in the Educational Process of the Modern DEP” (based on the Moscow Regional Center for Pre-School Education); regional action "Crane of the World"; the festival of pedagogical ideas “We Grow Patriots of the Moscow Region” (joint creative projects of parents, teachers and pupils of the Moscow Regional Educational Institutions for moral and patriotic education); regional action in the framework of the project "Muscovia - the country of health"; videoconference "New forms of interaction with the families of pupils" (with the demonstration of practical materials on the basis of pre-school educational organizations in the city of Khimki); problem parent-meeting-discussion held online "Teaching cannot play", etc.
At the same time, it is necessary to point out a number of significant shortcomings in this direction, including:
- the lack of systematic work: the most common forms of work – parent meetings and lectures, which are unsystematic in nature, are aimed mainly at preventing asocial phenomena;
- the work with parents of children of middle and senior school age is carried out in 80% only at parental meetings and through individual counseling;
- the lack of government programs aimed at working with parents, including on the basics of child psychology and pedagogy;
- the lack of a modern special course program or an optional lesson in the preparation for parenting of high school students and justifying the possibility of its use in extracurricular activities;
- The main work in the field of parental education is conducted by educational psychologists, main teachers, and teachers of preschool groups.
In general, the monitoring study showed that in the region:
- 23 general education organizations practice courses for preparing for parenting (courses for parents on the basics of pedagogy, psychology, other issues of family, development and upbringing of children), the total number of parents enrolled in courses is 2,994 people;
- 24 basic forms of parental education are used, the most popular of which are: individual counseling, various forms of interactive education, developing trainings; the following forms of organization are developing (parental clubs, parental councils at institutions, children's centers), or parents' self-organization (various social structures);
- direct courses for parents on various aspects of family relationships and parenting are held in 21 municipalities, another 14 are holding legal seminars on topical issues of family law;
- the main work in the field of parental education is carried out by educational psychologists (in more than 80% of cases) and only in 20% cases we can speak about the elements of self-organization when the parent community is involved in the process of education;
- in the overwhelming majority of cases, work is organized with parents of preschool and junior schoolchildren, and only in 23 municipalities systematic work is carried out with parents of teenagers, leaving the parents of children of early adolescence unattended.
Thus, it can be stated that in Russia and the Moscow Region favorable prerequisites have begun to be created for a significant change in the field of parental education. In this connection, the task of public recognition of the need for substantial qualified assistance to parents of an educational, educational and advisory nature, aimed at replenishing the knowledge of skills and competences in the field of child care, upbringing and education, is particularly actualized; the formation of ideas about their rights and responsibilities, the ability to choose the trajectories of child development and the means to ensure their implementation; the formation of the necessary knowledge in the field of the needs of children of different ages and child psychology, the laws of child development.
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Akhmetshina*, I. A., Loseva, A. А., Zemsh, M. B., Gulevich, T. M., Selezneva, E. V., & Egorova, G. V. (2019). Psychological And Pedagogical Education Of Parents In The Educational Institution. In & S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 69. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 9-17). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.02.2