The article analyzes the implementation of the idea of event networks creating on the initiative of the educational organization that broadcast the educational interaction between an adult and a schoolchild, thus creating conditions for a student to form a further educational path. The features of modern schoolchildren, that determine the characteristics and difficulties of high school children in choosing their professional and life path, are described. This article presents common difficulties and mistakes of high school children when choosing a further path associated with the use of inadequate information sources, with inadequate self-assessment of their capabilities, the choice of the next step in education based on positive emotional perception of certain personal or non-professional qualities of a person, region, nationality, denomination, etc. The problem of the content of educational activities with young people in the educational organization, in the family, and other social and cultural institutions has been outlined. The idea of the network event management, created on the educational organization initiative, with an assessment of the impact on the outlook and schoolchildren's activities of event-related events, the formation of an active, subjective position of young people and their readiness for independent choice of a further path, is considered. Such an approach creates conditions for building an individual educational path for a person with the participation of not only traditional educational institutions, but also of a wide range of organizations with educational potential, but located in other sociocultural fields.
Keywords: Interactionnetworkcommunityself-determinationevent management
The modern multicultural society of the Russian Federation and other CIS countries is characterized by the dynamics of social processes, intensive changes in all spheres of life. These processes are accompanied by negative processes in the sphere of vital interests, goals and values of modern youth. In this regard, we have suggested an event-based approach to creating conditions for building an individual educational path for a young person, involving not only traditional educational institutions, but also a wide range of organizations with potential in upbringing and education but located in other socio-cultural fields.
The article actualizes the problem of education and upbringing of a person, who is capable of self-determination and self-realization in accordance with their own abilities and interests in conditions set by the needs of society and state (Selivanova, 2013). In this regard, the educational policy in the development of the state education system provides the creation of conditions in every educational organization for the human development and the formation of its further continuous educational path.
However, real problems have emerged in this area at present. For example, about half of the working-age population of the Russian Federation do not work according to their professional profile.
There are a lot of reasons for this. One of them is the lack of readiness of young people for professional choice.
Distinctive features of modern schoolchildren, which are: the free development of imagination; clip thinking; interweaving of the real and the fictional on the basis of fantasy, emotional perception; game, research nature of cognitive activity; conscious transfer of the game into business relationships with people; a wide, dynamically changing field of life choice - all this determines the features and difficulties of high school students in choosing their further educational path. The most common difficulties and mistakes of high school children are associated with the use of inadequate sources of information, with inadequate self-esteem of their capabilities, choosing the next step in education based on positive emotional perception of certain personal or non-professional qualities of a person, region, nationality, denomination, etc. In this regard, the question arises about the content of upbringing and educational activities with young people in an educational organization, in a family, and in other sociocultural institutions for building a continuous educational path.
Today, building an education system based on the principles of continuity and openness can be singled out as a trend (Chornaya, 2013). The main aspect of openness of the system is the ability to use resources in education not only of its own territory, but also the territories of partners involved in the organization and activities of educational networks and space, built with the support of network infrastructure. Such an approach creates conditions for building an individual educational path for a schoolchild and an adult with the participation of not only traditional educational institutions, but also a wide range of organizations with educational potential but located in other sociocultural fields. The construction of an individual educational path actualizes the problem of managing the interaction of social and cultural institutions.
To characterize the problem field of research, a conceptual apparatus has been formed. Such challenges of time as uncertainty, diversity, complexity have created a paradigm shift associated with a change in the essence of the concepts traditionally used in pedagogy: the concept of “event network” is used instead of the concept “network as geography”; the notion of “community”, “event community” (with an individual approach to its participants) - instead of the notion “collective”; the concept of "practice" - instead of the concept of "technology" (with a clearly defined sequence of actions). In these conditions, special attention is required for the combination of methods, technologies and practices which are used. For example, a simple combination of actions, slogans, one-time events can give negative results in the field of education.
Analyzing the problem field, we chose to form event networks created on the initiative of an educational organization and transmitting the educational interaction of an adult (teacher, parent) and a schoolchild (Krylova, 2010), contributing to the student's personality disclosure, self-determination and self-realization and preparing schoolchildren for living conditions in a highly competitive environment, for the conscious realization of their life plans (Chistyakova, Rodichev, & Sergeev, 2016). Information about the social and socio-pedagogical activities of the educational organization is presented in the works of V.Bocharova, L.Bayborodova, A.Mudrika, T.Romm (Bayborodova, 2019). Information about the possibilities of innovative educational institutions is represented in the works of O.Maximova, I.Timonin, I.Chechel. The phenomenon of “self-determination”, understood in pedagogical science as a conscious choice, manifestation and self-affirmation of a person’s position in various problem situations, is considered by researchers when studying the possibilities of building a life program (N.Soboleva, A.Vinokur, N.Pryazhnikov).
Methodological pluralism of modern domestic pedagogy, as a reflection of polyparadigmism, allows us to focus the study of the stated problem on the use of the following methodological approaches. Event-based approach, representing the event as a characteristic of dialogue interaction between social partners- adult- high school student, contributing to the development of subjectivity of a high school student in the process of emergence, transformation, change of events reflected in a person’s thoughts and feelings, actions and deeds (N.Krylova, D.Grigoriev, L.Novikova, N.Selivanova, I.Shustova, M.Yakushkina) (Shustova, 2013). It is associated with the change in the activity of a teacher from influencing a student’s personality to an event-based change in the sphere between an adult and a student. Personality-oriented approach (K.Ushinsky, K.Rogers, I.Yakimanskaya, N.Sinyagina), determining the priority of goals and values of the development of the student’s personality when building the education system, maximum consideration of their individual, subject, personal characteristics. The socio-pedagogical approach to self-determination as a result of the schoolchild’s socialization, their occurrence into the social structures of society, the assimilation of the values, norms, attitudes, behaviors adopted in society has made it possible to establish the correspondence of different types of self-determination to different social spheres of human life on the way to adulthood (moral, family, professional) (S. Chistyakova, T. Antopolskaya, D. Bespalov, V. Pedan) (Pedan, 2017). Self-determination of personality is considered here as a complex of different forms. The Federal State Educational Standard of the general education is oriented towards the formation of a system of upbringing in each educational organization (the activity of teachers within classes in clubs, communities, and other groups). Partners significantly expand its capabilities.
The role of non-material motivation of participants in this field of activity, for example, event management, increases when developing strategies and tactics for the development of social partnership in the field of education and upbringing of young people. An event (Wikipedia, 2019) is interpreted as a performance on a theatre stage, in cinematography, on TV, sport stadium or venue, a circus arena using plot moves, visual techniques, color and light equipment, information and computer graphics, etc. (Thomas, Jacques, Adams, & Kihneman-Woote, 2008); and also as a process during which a certain specific event is planned, prepared and created. It covers data collection, analysis, assessment, situation determination, coordination and management, control of time, finance, condition of the facility, and other resources, including identification of participants in events and other parameters in accordance with the targets of the process under study (Shumovich, 2008). The word “event” has been used in Russian relatively recently. Its analogue is the notion of “cultural and educational meeting” (of children and adults, subjects, etc.); in Soviet times, the notion of “mass cultural event” was used more often. Thus, the concept of "event" includes an event, gathering, ceremony, show, etc. (promotions, press conferences, corporate parties, round tables, presentations, exhibitions, open-door days, opening ceremonies, master classes and training seminars, etc.). It can be said that events influence the development of the education system, the formation of subjects of educational networks, the educational space of a certain territory, etc. (Vineet, 2012). Each event is unique because it takes into account the specific cultural, educational and spatial-temporal situation, preparedness for the management of events of teachers and other specialists, encourages the freedom to choose the event by its participants, etc. Events can be classified by target, participants, terms of implementation, principles of organization, etc.
The introduction of the concept "event management" is a debatable question. Kaverina (2014) believes that event management is a process consisting of a pre-planned sequence of actions, events, that fulfill specified goals, correspond to the chosen strategy and tactics, serve predetermined tasks. Event management is a full range of actions for creating corporate and public events according to Kopylova (2018).
In general, the task of event management is to make a memorable “event” out of a traditional event of little importance to an adult (or a child). Haltsbaur, Yettinger, Knause, Moser, and Zeller (2007) believe that the essence of event management is that management is practically used in the design, conduct and organization of events and gatherings. From the point of view of Bliznyak (2010), event management can be viewed as an organization for managing events, forming a certain direction in the interests of the participants, as well as a special type of PR communication and a certain technology of the event. Its prototype is a congress, a conference, an institutionalized meeting which are carriers of information communications. In the process of developing the theory and practice of event management, awareness that the human factor is the main element of effective management was formed. This, in turn, made it possible to substantiate the importance of studying the motives of individual actions of participants in a particular controlled activity (D.Mack-Gregor, F.Gerzberg). Acknowledgment, a positive result, an adequate goal, a competent leader, self-activity, earnings, a cohesive team, awareness, a clear statement of tasks, etc. act as motivators of actions (Thomas, Hermes, & Loos, 2008). Demotivators include criticism and lack of recognition, incompetence of the leader, lack of information, overload or underload, failure to work, lack of clarity of goals, functions, etc. Event management is also considered as a technology of influencing a group of people, communicating information to it, creating conditions for the formation of active life position among the participants, the formation of group members as subjects of a system, of a space (Wysocki, 2012). Therefore, event management is not actually a management technology (management is a function of strictly or rigidly organized systems, ensuring the preservation of the structure of the system, the maintenance of a particular activity, the implementation of programs or projects). This technology is complex in terms of tools, methods, participants (Khashkovsky, 2005; Saidmamedova & Solovyova, 2017). The concept of event management is directly related to the phenomenon of a special event, i.e. social practice, widely used in political daily practice, socio-cultural communications.
Event management in education can be defined as the practice-oriented area of pedagogical research, the space of informal practices (Lemer, 2016), aimed at planning, conducting, managing (coordinating) special events (practices) in the field of education (Godlblatt, 2012).
Interaction in the framework of the event-based approach is carried out through mutual change and enrichment of processes, communities, organizations, etc. (Yakushkina, Ilakavichus, Shaposhnikova, & Myasnikov, 2018), because in this case, the organization itself stimulates the inclusion of a person in creative activity, deepening the understanding of the purpose, meaning and value of life (Yakushkina, Ilakavichus, Zhirkova, Goncharov, & Shaposhnikova, 2018), contributes to the formation of project competencies (the ability to choose a goal, select the necessary means to achieve it, evaluate your own actions, compare them with general orientation of the organization’s activities and / or personal orientation, human, national, other values), forms a wide range of knowledge, skills and abilities in a certain area of life, the system of values (human, national, empirical: life, liberty, knowledge, culture, labor, communication, and co-creation), the state of confidence, joy of an adult and a student.
Purpose of the Study
is to characterize the event-based interaction of schoolchildren and adults, managing the event-based networks that are formed on the basis of interaction.
It is suggested to use the following set of methods to solve the scientific issue: analysis of domestic and foreign literature on the issue, modeling, studying and summarizing the experience of teachers of Eurasian countries, sociological surveys, interviewing, observation, public examination method.
We have identified three levels of "events" for high school children that affect the worldview and activities of high school children: life events affecting their worldview, perception of the surrounding space (meetings with famous people, visiting museums, game-classes, drama-classes, presentation-classes, workshops); memorized educational events where schoolchildren have mastered new competencies; activities that are useful for the development of their independence, relationships, personal qualities. The essence of the phenomenon of "event network" has been defined.
The conditions for the formation and implementation of active subject position by schoolchildren are defined. First of all, it is the presence and awareness of the purpose of events by all their participants. The formation of a subjective position is based on taking into account personal interests and preferences of schoolchildren in school event societies. Any educational organization should create conditions for effective informational interaction of students, their parents, teachers, social partners, employers. In our opinion, today the result will be the creation of an educational organization of the event network, considered as a dynamic network of interrelated pedagogical events created in the event environment, the dialogue of schoolchildren and teachers with the efforts of different participants using educational technologies: design, "Portfolio", etc.
We emphasize the fact that the success of creating an event network depends on the conditions under which high school children from the passive position of the consumer of educational services acquire an active position as a subject of activity to solve the problem of their self-determination.
As a result of the study, it was substantiated that instead of a unified system of upbringing in educational organizations that does not affect the activities and worldview of high school children, an event network can be created, in which the impact on the worldview and activities of schoolchildren is evaluated and subjective position of youth and its readiness for the independent choice of a further path is formed. Event networks are not designed to obtain a predetermined, optimal result, but are a means of building an educational path. Thus, the interaction management process acquires a prolonged, eventful character.
For the successful development of event networks it is proposed to use 3 management models. The first model shows the authoritarian style of leadership, which implies impeccable subordination of all resources and processes to the leadership of the territory. The main principles are: the formalized management structure enshrined in contractual partners relations, the individual nature of decision-making and responsibility, individual strict control by the administration of the territory. The second model takes into account the impact on the management of the interaction of institutions, communities, structures of group behavior of their representatives. In this case, 4 management options are possible: orders, advertising, consulting, teaming. The third model is coordination; it does not have special management structures, personal responsibility, or accounting for the activities of each participant in the interaction. It should be emphasized that management here involves the creation of a system of event coordination that guides the processes of educational interaction between schoolchildren and adults.
In order to create conditions for the upbringing of a person who is ready in accordance with his/her abilities and interests for self-determination and self-realization in the context of the given needs of the society, the state, it was proposed to create networks of event (or event) interaction “adult - schoolchild”. Today, events are becoming increasingly popular in education and education management. Managers understand that in order to build effective management of an organization, an open system, upbringing space, it is necessary to ensure the availability of management for employees, facilitate the involvement of employees in the management decision-making process, adjust the systematic internal information flows, conduct regular monitoring of employees those or other actions of management and other employees.
The research carried out within the framework of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) grant №18-013-00435.
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30 September 2019
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Ponomarev, P., Pedan, V., Smirnova, A., Pshenko, K., & Yakushkina*, M. (2019). Event Management Of Educational Interaction Networks Of Children And Adults. In S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 69. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1000-1007). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.02.113