Administrative Skills of Modern School Administrators


The purpose of this study was to define and analyse administrative skills of modern school administrators. This paper used content analysis method in order to explore potential administrative skills of modern school administration. The important skills for the development in the management of modern schools to the 21st century were needed. The school administrators must have learning skills, analytical thinking and creative thinking skills, problem solving skills, communication skills, teamwork skills, technological skills and digital use, judgement skills, skills focused on achievement, human relation skills, and moral ethics. Modern school administrators must have a variety of characteristics in the management of education while educational administration is constantly changing in order to keep pace with occurring events. This research results revealed that the modern school administrators must not only have management and technical skills, but they must also have excellent human resource management skill. Especially, communication and listening skill was a key skill that new generation executives must pay attention to and develop effectively because it will inspire and empower people, and lead the organization to overcome the volatility and rapid changes of the current situation and the 21st century.

Keywords: Administrative skillsmodern school administrators


The world situation in century 21 between 2001-2100 was changed and affected to organizations and also the world citizens in every part; such as economic fluctuations, elder society, innovation and technology that changed with rapidly, climate variability, the degradation of natural resources, more severe disasters, etc. Therefore, organizations should adapt for survival and rely on that situations (Office of the National Economics and Social Development Board, 2015).

Administrator, in the name of organization leader should change themselves also to organization as well for successfully, especially, educational organization administrator who has a role to manage the resource of education with efficiency and balancing to be successful. However, administration concept was applied to education management in educational careers since there was educational revolution (Sudarat 2007).

These changes are related with modern administrations that focus on participation and decentralization to practitioners. The holistic developments cover all of organizations. So that, educational administrators are important for educated management or educational quality development because of the success must depend on administrator abilities and administrator skills that related with the opinion of Drake and William (1986).

The definition of administrative

The scholar and academician was definite the meaning of skill and administrative skill in the followings.

Sombat (1999) was defined that the skill mean ability of the personal who show them expertise with professional, correct, rapidly and suitable show that from body and mind till it accepted among the public.

Suthathip (2003) defined that the skill means the ability of personal can do one expertly or professional.

Naowarat (2004) was referred that the skill mean the personal who has knowledge or ability to do one expertly or can be operate with rapidly, correct and was accepted among the public. Saithong Ponamthiang was defined that the skill mean the personal who has knowledge or ability to do one expertly and was accepted among the crown. Katz defined that the skill is mean ability to change knowledge and understanding to be action.

It can be concluded that skills mean the ability of personal who can work with expertise and professional that affected to operate in any organization with efficiency and successful.

The definitions of administration were defined as following;

Wiroj (1999) was defined that the administration is process of the operation to get the goal of any organization that depend on there are 4 factors of administrative concept consist of plan, management, apply and control.

Kesana (2000) was defined that administration mean science and arts or the process to use resources to do any activities to get the goal of an organization that all of activities are from the personal more than 2 peoples which join hand together.

Wittaya (2003) defined that the administration mean process of planning, organization, apply, command and control an organization resources to get the goal.

Saithong (2007) defined that administration mean management any resources with systematic to get the goal.

Therefore, it can be concluded that administration mean knowledge and methodology to manage any resources of organization with valuable and also to get the goal of an organization with efficiency. In summary, administrative skill mean the personal ability to use knowledge, expertly and professional to manage any resources of organization with valuable and get the goal with efficiency and successful.

Administrative skill

The successful management in an organization or educational institution can be consider with the successful and efficiency of organization or educational institution. Moreover, the successful of school administrator can be assessment with school administration efficiency. The factor of administration successful is administrative skill that from knowledge, ability and expertly to use with efficiency. So, an administrator management skill cannot come from awareness by respond to their operation only but also come from their practice or development with efficiency. Katz argued that these skills are quite different from traits or qualities of leaders. Skills are what leaders can accomplish, whereas traits are who leaders are a technical skill is knowledge about and competency and proficiency in a specific work or activity. For example, the use of certain computer software packages, such as MS Excel or Access, is an advanced technical skill. A human skill is one that enables to work with people. It is different from technical skills which the human have to do while they are working. These abilities help us to get along with people and to communicate within team works. Conceptual skills are abilities to work with ideas and concepts. These skills enable us to understand and better decide the actions and measures that they have to be taken in a particular field of work.

Based on his observations Katz stated that the level of importance of each set of skills (technical, human and conceptual) was directly correlated with the level that the person has in the organization (Katz, 1974)

Wirat (1995) argued that the successful of the administrator depend on the ability or administrative skills as well. The important of administrative skill are different from the responsibility level of administrator. Good administrator with efficiency is not easy to be but depend on there are 3 factors consist of technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills that can get from practice but not from personality or born to be.

Sajeewan (2016) studied adout “Best Practices in Supevision of the 21st Century Fortifying teacher ‘s leadership for Occupational Teaching experience Trainees at Rajabhat University” The one of research result found that the world – class standard school have Teaching and learning to emphasize learnings skill in 21st century to learning organization for aecademic excellence depend on sufficiency Economy Philosophy by cooperative with parents and communities.

Sermsak (1996) argued that in the past accepted that there are 3 skills for administrator with Kart concept which are technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills but now a day it is just not enough for 3 factors only. There are more than these 3 skills for the administrators who manage cover with teaching, curriculum, educational program and assessment. The administrators should have 5 skills which consist of following skills. 1) Conceptual skills is the ability to think creatively about, analyse and understand complicated and abstract ideas. Using a well-developed conceptual skill set, top level business managers need to be able to look at their company as a holistic entity, to see the interrelationships between its divisions, and to understand how the firm fits into and affects its overall environment.2) Human skills, or human relational skills, which are necessary for managers, these skills involve communication and attention to relationships with others. While human skills are important, management theorist Daniel Katz recognizes that they can't stand alone. He partners them with conceptual skills and technical skills. 3) Education and instructional skills is usual for administrator in the name of educational leader who must has knowledge and understand on teaching and studying also to be a good scholar. 4) Technical skills are the abilities and knowledge needed to perform specific tasks. They are practical, and often relate to mechanical, information technology, mathematical, or scientific tasks. Some examples include knowledge of programming languages, mechanical equipment, or tools. 5) Cognitive skills are the core skills your brain uses to think, read, learn, remember, reason, and pay attention. Working together, they take incoming information and move it into the bank of knowledge you use every day at school, at work, and in life.

It can be concluded that administrative skills are important and highly usual for administrator in any level and every organizations because the successful administrative should have there are 3 basically skill which are technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills that must to practice but school is educational institution where are different from other organization. School administration has target for student development. Therefore, school administrators should have these 5 skills which consist of conceptual skills, human skills, education and instructional skills, technical skills and cognitive skills as factors for success.

Problem Statement

Administration is the process to get a goal of any organization. The successful administrator must be the leadership who aware on personal competencies to get the goal with efficiency. From the National Education Act B.E. 1999 and Amendments, Second National Education Act. B.E. 2002, the school administration is complicated more. Especially, the rapid change in any part now a day that affected to the educational also to educational administration. Administrator should has ability and knowledge both with science and arts to manage with efficiency that it depend on ability to administrate and administrator quality. Administrator should have knowledge and understanding in order to develop the competencies and skills as well with professional in any career.

Administration skill is the expertise in any kind of works. In the school, administration skill is expertise to manage the educational institution with efficiency. Administrator must have management skills because of skills are can be change the knowledge and understanding with action and expertise. The administrator should have management skill for success which it depends on ability and skills to manage as well.

Research Questions

School administrators are important persons of quality education and the influence to the personnel in educational institutions. Administrators can be set the policy direction, promoting and supporting the operation of the school for success and applied modern management requires in the changing world.

This research question were:

  • What are the elements and administrative skills of modern school administrators?

  • How are the operational guidelines of administrative skills for modern school administrators?

Purpose of the Study

The purposes of the study were to define administrative skills of modern school administrators and to analyse and present the administrative skills of modern school administrators.

Research Methods

This research is qualitative research that was collected and searched from various sources, such as textbooks, journal, article, thesis and research to understand and create new knowledge by collecting and analysing from the literature reviews 20 papers that were published in database. The research sampling was selected by purposive sampling from the purpose of the study.

The research tools for analyse, synthesize and process were data recording form and data analysing form assessment of research tools experts.

Data analysing were 2 parts consisted of

Part 1 the process of status of knowledge by descriptive statistic to conclude general property and important characteristic of topic of the study.

Part 2 synthesize the research by content analysis and to process and conclude discovery by logical analysis concepts and theories involved.


This study found modern school administrators skills and administrative skill development as the followings.

Modern school administrator skills

Modern skills is important characteristic of efficiency leader. Educational administrators who are the leader of an organization must develop their skills for efficiency school administration. The scholar was showed their opinion on modern school administrator skills which consisted of articles on Management Skills for the 21st Century and Preparing School Leaders: 21st Century Skills and National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) (2013) , and 10 Skills for Successful School Leaders. The 21stcentury Modern School Administrator skills composed of the followings skills: 1) critical and creative thinking skill, 2) problem solving skills, 3) communication skill, 4) technological and digital literacy skills, 5) organizational management skills, 6) personal management skills, 7) teamwork skills, 8) learning innovation skill, 9) setting instructional direction skill, 10) sensitivity skill, 11) adjustment skill, 12) results orientation skill, 13) interpersonal skill, and 14)ethical-moral skills (Avis, 2016; National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), 2013).

Lertdao (2012) argued that modern administrator should has career characteristic, strong leader, especially, changing leader can be motivate the personal to operate for getting the goal and also to has vision, has the educational target, has work plan, creative, aware on the highest benefit to develop the learning of all students. Moreover, follow up the new knowledge that knowingly the change of the society.

The administrator who has personal characteristic as a role model of other personal in the educational institution has good personality, has talent, good decision and can solve all of problem, good relationship, good responsibility, open them mind to listening to other opinion, honourable, justice, has ability to communication, good to speech and operation, be alert, love for society service, healthy, respect in national religion and cultural institution, love natural and environment that related with labour and occupation who interest in morality are important as a good governance for any business. So that, should to brainstorming, has ethics of administrator to be a role model for working.

Concluded that personal in any career should has personal characteristic consist of: 1) faithful to the career by respect the organization and administrator, 2) aware on justice and keep the benefit of any part, 3) keep look and has stand point in the name of employer that aware on benefit both with employer and employee as well, 4) respect in the law or organization rule, working agreement on other agreement between employer and employee with strictly, and 5) has good attitude to anyone.

It can be concluded that modern administrators must have skills and hard skill which consist of technological and digital literacy skill, learning innovation skill, soft skill, communication & listening skill as a main skill that modern administrator must interest and develop themselves also inspire the staff and organization through all of trait among Thailand 4.0 campaign in the 21stcentury and in the future.

Administrative skills development

For modern administrator in century 21 only the Designed leader cannot be successful in a lot of duty that Darling-Hammond (2007) the educational scholar of Stanford University noted that High-performing principals are not just born, but can be made which depend on trading program or develop the important skills such as: 1) High expectations, School leader should has vision to be successful and try to get that goal with confidential. Student will challenge with Rigorous curriculum which extremely support for progression or other subject for study on collage and lifelong education.2) A focus on the fundamentals school is learning centre but in the same time learning has basic goal are important more than other indicator because everything all would love to get that goal. 3) A talent for collaborative problem solving. Participation can be innovation and the successful of talent leader will be a part of any level of school to join hand to solve any problem and finding for new opportunity. 4) An inventive mind that aware on technology and bring new innovation to apply with student learning, curriculum development, assessment, financial and other factors. Can said that the leader who expert in technology. 5. The ability to read data’s story that school leader should aware the value of good data to develop them organization that can be rapidly to analysis and operate. 6) A gift for directing time and attention that aware on Time management and also Delegation because of school has any responsibility cover with financial, personal, student, family, occupation, technology and other but all of that with heart for student successful.


Administrative skills are important to administrator in any level and every organization because of successful administrative depend on basic skills in administration are knowledge skill, conceptual skill, technique skill, teaching skill and humanity skill. The administrator should has all of 5 skills that can be administrative with efficiency can has skill in the 21stcentury for continually, especially, technological and digital literacy skills, learning innovation skill, communication and listening skill.

All above are skills that modern administrators should aware and develop which they can be inspire other also to bring organization through the trait and rapidly changing in Thailand 4.0 period. However, researcher was concluded modern administrator skills which are the management skills of the new school administrators that will be in the 4.0 and 21st century are skills of knowledge and expertise in management science. Skills in managing composed of four basic factors: people, money, raw materials and process management, including problem solving techniques and strategic tactics.

Education and teaching is a good scholar creative thinking: analytical, critical, and synthetic thinking which is a broad-based perspective. They should understand the essence of the problem or obstacle, and then find a systematic solution to the problem. It helps to work effectively with other people.

Leadership skills and knowledge of psychology are essential for organizational management in order to achieve organizational success, such as focusing on creating and improving organizational culture that suits the goals of work, effective communication, the selection, development and retention of qualified and qualified personnel, reward and motivation. These processes are small, but it is a challenging for modern school administrator in order to link these key management processes together.


The scholarship for this research publication was granted by Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand.


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Sonsaard, S., & Darbavasu, S. (2019). Administrative Skills of Modern School Administrators. In C. Tze Haw, C. Richardson, & F. Johara (Eds.), Business Sustainability and Innovation, vol 65. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 522-529). Future Academy.