The article is devoted to modern approaches to the formation of communicative competence of teachers in conditions of a modern information society in the aspect of continuous professional development. The necessity of development of communicative competence is proved: including arguments based on the results of input diagnostics of professional competence level of students of advanced training courses at the CIRATT. The purpose of this paper is to offer some recommendations to leaders of an educational organization for managing development of communicative competence of teaching staff, taking into account processes of updating the modern educational system, based on theoretical studies and accumulated practical experience. As a mechanism for managing professional growth of a teacher in terms of the development of communications, a model for the development of communicative competence with the inclusion of a media education component is presented. Existing experience in building communicative personality traits in advanced trainig courses based on the material taken from famous “Rossiyskaya Gazeta” newspaper, within the media educational component. This newspaper covers educational issues and actualize solution of the following tasks: analysis and interpretation of newspaper texts, understanding of their context; interpretation of moral values outspread by the media (perception and understanding of mass media information in order to use it in communications). The result of implementation of the model of communicative competence development will be formed competencies necessary for the implementation of communications: socio-psychological, technological, moral and ethical, aesthetic.
Keywords: Competencecommunicative competencecontinuous professional developmentmodel of communicative competence development of a teachermedia education development component of the modelindicators and criteria of communicative competence
High mobility of social development processes determines the need for constant renewal of all spheres of society. In the education system, the dynamism of development actualizes the continuing education of teachers, and constant increase of their professional competence. According to Khutorskoy (2013) competence is a set of knowledge, skills, abilities, ways of activity as interrelated personality traits defined in relation to a certain field of activity. As for Khutorskoy (2013), competence of a person is ability to have relevant competence, including personal attitude to it and the subject of activity. The list of competencies that the teacher should possess is laid down in the professional standard of a teacher. Thus, the generalized function “Pedagogical activity in design and implementation of educational process in educational organizations of preschool, primary general, basic general and secondary general education” of the professional standard “Teacher” includes the following necessary communicative skills and labor activities: communicate with children, taking them as an individuals; support a favorable psychological climate in children's team; be a person to interact with other teachers and specialists in solving problems of training and education; formation and implementation of standards and values of social behavior, behavioral skills in virtual reality and social networks, formation of tolerance and positive patterns of multicultural communication. Due to the above information we understand competence as ability to carry out professional activities in accordance with the requirements of the teacher’s professional standard on the basis of professional knowledge, skills and labor actions, as well as willingness to take responsibility for these actions. A key mechanism for assessing the level of professional competence is certification of teaching staff. The new model of certification in the framework of NSTPG (national system of teacher professional growth), which is currently undergoing testing, is an independent assessment of teacher qualifications based on the use of UFAM (uniform federal assessment materials). UFAM include subject, methodological, psychological, pedagogical and communicative competences (Milekhin, 2018). The results of scientific studies prove that most of the teacher’s working day is spent in a situation of communication between a teacher and students and other participants of educational relations. The prevailing conditions for professional activity of a teacher made the problem of developing communicative competence as the professional value of a modern teacher particularly acute. A lot of researchers were engaged in the studies of communicative competence of a teacher. Bodalev (1996) was one of the first Russian scientists, who used the concept of communicative competence as the ability to build effective interaction with other people with the knowledge and skills as internal human resources. Andreeva (1996) considers communicative competence as communicative communication, which involves exchange of information between individuals, solution of communicative problems, construction and understanding of speech patterns. The system of internal resources of a participant of communication, necessary for construction of an effective communicative action in a certain circle of situations of interpersonal interaction, determines the communicative competence. Zhukov, Petrovskaya, and Solovyeva (1997) proposed a detailed definition of communicative competence as a psychological characteristic of a person being a personality, who manifests himself or herself in communicating with people: Competence in communication involves the development of an adequate orientation of a person in himself — his own psychological potential, potential of a partner, in a situation and task with the aim of establishing and maintaining the necessary effective contacts with other people. Kuzmina (2006) believes that communicative competence is a complex of knowledge, linguistic and non-linguistic skills and communication skills acquired by a person in the course of natural socialization, training and education. An important role is played by natural data and potential of an individual (Dorofeeva, 2018). In the generalized version we define communicative competence in the conditions of modern education as a motivated ability to set and achieve goal of communication: to receive, comprehend and adequately process necessary information; to represent and defend their point of view in dialogue, discussion and public speaking based on pluralism of opinions and respectful attitude to other people, to find effective solutions in conflict situations, both in real and in virtual environment.
Systematic work on the continuous professional development of teachers is implemented, primarily, through additional professional education. The experience of working with trainees at the advanced training courses at the Chelyabinsk Institute of retraining and advanced training of teachers (CIRATT) reveals the problem of the communicative competences formation. This statement is based on the results of studies that were conducted on the basis of CIRATT in 2018. It involved five groups of trainees of advanced training courses (142 people). The category of students is pedagogical workers of educational organizations of the system of general education of Chelyabinsk and Chelyabinsk region. The respondents were 27 to 72 years old. Statistics shows that the majority of teachers have a total school work experience from 10 to 30 years (58%). The purpose of the study is to ascertain the level of professional (including communication) competence of teachers, to find out professional deficiencies of employees and reasons for their occurrence. In the course of the work, we used the questionnaire method, the input diagnostics, with which the training at the advanced training courses begins (The evolution of the formation of the terms communicative competence and communicative competence, n.d.). The input diagnostics result analysis of one of the groups showed that for 87% of respondents there is a significant need for knowledge replenishment in order to build effective pedagogical interaction with students. It is noteworthy that only 32% demonstrate signs of a healthy “I-concept”, an adequate attitude towards themselves and their health (competence “interaction with myself”). As a result of this screening, we received information that a negative trend was observed in all groups. The results of the study of input diagnostic questionnaires also give us the opportunity to identify the reasons for the such a situation. In the list of reasons, we denote the following: lack of individual experience of interactive teaching; limited ideas in the field of personality psychology, age psychology and pedagogical psychology, which determines insufficient formation of communicative, interactive and perceptual competences. So, in one of the groups only 49% of respondents formed knowledge on most issues of personality psychology, which are important from the point of view of pedagogical activity. 21% of students find it difficult to apply psychological knowledge in own professional activities, and only 54% of respondents understand importance of being able to work in interactive environment. We observe a contradiction between the regulatory requirements for the level of communicative competencies inherent in professional standards and a real situation in practice of teachers, which indicates the existing professional deficiencies in the field of communications. Resolution of this contradiction requires a systematic approach to the organization of the process of communicative competence development, which is absent in 82% of educational organizations (Abramovskih, 2017).
In our opinion, the process of continuous professional development of a teacher at the present stage of development of the educational system becomes a priority and occupies a key position in the system of methodological work of an educational organization. It should be focused primarily on the development of ways of professional and personal development and ways of professional communicative behavior, as well as on increasing motivation for innovative educational activities. In the conditions of the modern information society, communication can be mastered both through direct communication and in the Internet through e-mail, social networks, network communities, interactive programs, forums, chats, blogs and other information resources. An open pedagogical system, formed on the basis of various informational educational resources, modern information and telecommunication means and interactive technologies aimed at the formation of communicative qualities of a creative, socially active person, is called digital educational environment (Baranova & Borchenko, 2015). Digital educational environment of an educational organization should become integrated communication space for all participants of educational relations. A modern digital environment of an educational organization necessitates formation of media competencies as an integral part of communicative competence, which determines current direction of professional development of an educational organization's personnel — media education, which involves studying “diverse connections with the world, society and a person” through the media and communication in the pedagogical aspect of their manifestations (Fateeva, 2015). This understanding of media education defines media as a tool for gaining communication experience, which is formed in the process of: studying the history, structure and theory of the media; mastering the skills of independent selection and critical analysis of information coming through various channels; formation of ability to find the meanings of a read text, as well as independent creation of messages using various information technologies, ability to conduct a dialogue through information resources.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this paper is to offer some recommendations to leaders of an educational organization for managing development of communicative competence of teaching staff, taking into account processes of updating the modern educational system, based on theoretical studies and accumulated practical experience.
As a fundamental recommendation, we present the designed model of the development of communicative competence of teachers of an educational organization. The methodological basis of the developed model consists of the principles and approaches of communicative competence development activities. We are guided by the following principles: science, novelty, supervision, situational relevance, speech and thought activity. The complex of approaches includes system, activity and competence. The specified set of approaches is necessary and sufficient to achieve the goal. A systematic approach provides a problem statement and a comprehensive study of the process of communicative competence formation; the essence of the activity approach lies in the disclosure of the content of an activity as a system ensuring achievement of the planned result. The purpose of the competence approach is to review and systematize the components that determine the directions and technologies of activities for the communicative competence formation.
The designed model of the communicative competence development includes recommendations for determining of the components, basic directions and current technologies of activity by an educational organization. A possible addition to each component of the model may be recommendations on the organization of individual processes of communicative competences development, which will make the system for managing this area of work holistic and dynamic. However, this is a field for further research. In this aspect, within the framework of the media education component, we will show the existing experience in the formation of communicative qualities of an individual in refresher courses. Classes on the development of communications include working with the material of the famous newspaper "Rossiyskaya Gazeta", which covers educational issues. This type of work with students actualizes solution of the following tasks: analysis and interpretation of newspaper texts, understanding of their context; interpretation of moral values outspread by the media, perception and understanding of mass media information in order to use it in communications. In modern daily newspapers and most online publications, news texts are the most common, as they allow readers to quickly obtain information and find the meanings of what they read. We pay attention to the fact that the development of modern technologies has led to the following situation: if the news is not presented within the next one and a half hour, nobody will need it, because it will instantly be spread throughout the network (Amzin, 2013). More important in the current environment is the presentation of information, the art of conveying it to the audience, whose attention must be kept. The dominant verbal written or oral text began to give way to sound, picture, music, animation. We note that in modern journalism, new and very productive formats (longrid, snowfall, multimedia stories) have spread, which represents synthesis of verbal and visual components (Simakova, 2017; Simakova & Isakova, 2017; Kiuru & Simakova, 2018). An essential element of working with students in these classes is the experience of journalists using audio and video illustrations when covering multidimensional educational problems in “Rossiyskaya Gazeta” (online version). Video illustration is considered as a kind of video in the media in the format of short clips related to a certain part of a text or multimedia article. This video needs context and can also serve as an illustration of a note. The example is a video about emergency case at a school in Sterlitamak as an illustration to the text by Ishberdina (2018). That event had a great resonance in the pedagogical environment. As a result, it generated a stormy discussion among teachers. The result of an active conversation, which is based on newspaper and visual material, will be listener's communicative experience, precedents of social behavior of teachers in collaboration with colleagues, parents, and students. Audio illustration is interpreted as a minimally short piece of audio recordings related to a specific part of the text. This fragment is intended to illustrate the part of a message in which the sound component carries a semantic or emotional load, when the tone and expression with which the key thoughts were pronounced play no less a role than words, for example, to Ashirova’s (2018) text “To the sounds of the horn” about the history of the radio program "Pionerskaya Zorka", audio recording of the radio program "Pionerskaya Zorka" of the 70s. Audio illustrations can be used in courses on mastering of additional professional programs based on the analog model. “Rossiyskaya Gazeta” has RG-Video and RG-Audio headings, which contain a selection of audio and video illustrations of the main events of the day. Communications of all participants of educational relations.
The result of the implementation of communicative competence development model will be formed competencies necessary for t implementation of communications. Socio-psychological ones include ability to invite to communicate, to produce a favorable impression, to reflex, to understand peculiarity of each interlocutor and a group, to use verbal, non-verbal, psychological mechanisms of communicative influence. Technological ones include ability to use methods, techniques, tools, style of leadership communication, pedagogical tact, ability to combine communicative and substantive interaction. Moral and ethical ones include ability to build communication on a humane, democratic basis, guided by the principles and rules of professional ethics. Aesthetic ones include ability to harmonize internal and external personal manifestations, to be artistic, aesthetically expressive (Petrova, Stegacheva, Zvereva, Zavolskaya, & Kurdyumova, 2014). The teacher’s use of an information resource and technology for analyzing and interpreting media texts will contribute to the development of certain personal qualities and skills of students in advanced training courses, which we call communicative competences. Socio-psychological competencies include communication activity in the process of analyzing materials, which generates attention and interest to other teaching staff, ability for extra-operative communication, formation of social emotions and behavioral motives (video and audio plots in the presented experience contribute to the development of emotional attitudes of students towards themselves and others, sensitivity to the effects of media texts). In the course of the work, self-esteem takes place (as my personal qualities characterize the feelings and emotions that have arisen as a result of perception of newspaper’s material in comparison with other people), assessing my own communicative abilities and identifying the reasons for my practical difficulties. As a part of the development of technological competencies, the experience of using media materials in cooperation with children and parents, and teaching staff is shaped. In order to form the ability to make decisions in a particular situation, it is possible to master new methods and techniques of communication: the mechanism of the “emotional pendulum”, which makes it possible to evaluate event by alternating positive and negative blocks of information; media representations, which involve implementation of tasks aimed at the development of predictive skills and pedagogical tact (for example, in our case: to determine further or previous events of emergency in Sterlitamak). The development of moral and ethical competencies occurs through the formation of a culture of perception of media texts (learn to understand the conditional codes of the text, which the author lays, and then proceed to the interpretation of the text, defining its meaning). This process is also carried out through the formation of readiness for self-education (in order to interpret the texts, it is necessary to master the literary and media languages) and the implementation of standards of social behavior (for example, analysis of the plot development about a 9th grade student of Sterlitamak secondary school who turned into a teenager-killer; discussion concerning special features of the characters, definition of values in their actions and deeds, their assessment, the ability to choose semantic and target setting for their actions and deeds). Finally, the formation of aesthetic competencies is determined by the presence of interest in one's own I-concept in the aspect of its professional development (for example, the formation of an “I-concept” by analyzing and interpreting the media text is due to the fact that an advanced training course student, analyzing a newspaper article, relates his experience and the experience of others with its content and issues, discusses the identified problems with colleagues, forming their own ideas about how the content of the analyzed media text will contribute to optimizing the relationship with the participants of educational relations, his colleagues, parents, teaching staff and students). The formation of aesthetic competencies is evidenced by the skill of self-presentation (to be convincing when presenting your point of view using various means of expression: language, mimicry, gestures, posture, tone of voice, style of speech and behavior, etc.)
The professional standard of a teacher, which is the basis of the personnel policy of a manager, assumes the technology of “incrementing” in the aspect of mastering professional competences, including communicative ones. The individual strategy and tactics of the teacher’s professional development is implemented according to accumulation system and begins with the definition of professional deficiencies. The head of an educational organization can develop a system of communicative competence development within the framework of team management. Let us present a description of the analog model of communicative competence development of teachers in an educational organization, the purpose of which is to form the ability and willingness of a teacher to carry out interpersonal and professional communications. The structure of the model includes seven components and each of them defines directions, forms and methods of activity. Let us describe each of the components and their meaningful content. The first component is diagnostic. It defines the level of development of communicative competence of teachers, using the methods of input diagnostics (testing, questionnaires). The information and motivational component are aimed at updating the problem field of a teacher as a factor at the beginning of his or her activity; identification of motivators and incentives for the process of improving qualifications and professional growth of a teacher; formation of psychological readiness for the implementation of communications; formation of the subject position of a teacher in their professional activities. This direction is realized through the analysis of own communicative abilities, which makes it possible to determine the reasons for their practical difficulties in the field of communications. At the same time, active forms and methods are used (conversations, debates, discussions, dialogues), interactive communication technologies (organizing observations of communicative behavior of colleagues when interacting with children, their parents, the administration of an educational organization; compiling and solving communication-based cases on their basis). An interest is emerging in one's own
Criteria consist of the following :
The presented system of work on the development of communicative competence of teachers was developed on the basis of theoretical studies and generalized experience of various organizations on this issue. It outlines only some aspects that are possible in the practice of educational institutions, which were dictated by the professional deficiencies of teachers, identified by input diagnostics in the course of mastering additional professional programs of advanced training courses. The moral and psychological climate in a team, positive communication style, effectiveness of interaction, the effectiveness of communication in terms of problem solving, satisfaction with their professional activities and, quality of education depend on the communicative competence of a teacher.
In conclusion, let us call to memory one of the oriental parables. It tells us how a lord punished one interpreter of dreams and generously rewarded the other for different interpretations of one and the same of his dreams which was terrible. The explanation of the alternatively taken decisions lies in the answer of one of the interpreters of dreams, who said that “everything depends on what is said and what to say” (Not a big difference, 2004). This oriental parable affirms the direct interdependence of the level of communicative competence and the effectiveness of the teacher’s professional activity in the implementation of educational goals.
- Abramovskih, T. A. (2017). Osobennosti otbora soderzhaniya dopolnitel'nyh professional'nyh programm na osnove diagnostiki sub’ektnoj pozicii slushatelej iz chisla rukovoditelej obrazovatel'nyh organizacij [Features of the selection of auxiliary professional programs based on the diagnosis of subjective positions of students from among the leaders of educational organizations]. Nauchnoe obespechenie sistemy povysheniya kvalifikacii kadrov, 3(32), 52-63.
- Amzin, A. (2013). Internet-novosti zhurnalistiki [Internet news journalism]. Retrieved from http://alex-alex.ru
- Andreeva, G.M. (1996). Social'naya psihologiya [Social Psychology]. M.: Aspekt Press.
- Ashirova, E. (2018). Pod zvuki gorna [To the sounds of horn: RG from 19.04.2018 g] Retrieved from https://rg.ru/author-Elmira-Ashirova/ (data obrashcheniya: 20.02. 2019).
- Baranova, Yu. Yu. & Borchenko, I. D. (2015). Ispol'zovaniye instrumentov monitoringa v ramkakh sistemy vnutrenney otsenki kachestva v dopolnitel'nom professional'nom obrazovanii: sbornik uchebnykh materialov [The use of monitoring tools in the framework of the internal quality assessment system in additional professional education: a collection of teaching materials]. Chelyabinsk: ChIPPKRO Publishing House.
- Bass, B. (n. d.) Opredelenie napravlennosti lichnosti (orientacionnaya anketa) [Determination of the orientation of the individual (orientation questionnaire)]. Retrieved from http://psy-resultat.ru/page174.
- Bodalev, A. A. (1996). Psihologiya obshcheniya [Communication psychology]. M.: Izd-vo «Institut prakticheskoj psihologii», Voronezh: N.P.O, «Modek».
- Dorofeeva, T. V. (2018). Formirovaniye tsifrovoy obrazovatel'noy sredy obrazovatel'noy organizatsii v kontekste vnedreniya federal'nykh gosudarstvennykh obrazovatel'nykh standartov [Formation of a digital educational environment of an educational organization in the context of the implementation of the Federal State Educational Standards]. Retrieved from http://it-school.pw/
- Evolyutsiya formirovaniya terminov kommunikativnaya kompetentsiya i kommunikativnaya kompetentsiya [The evolution of the formation of the terms communicative competence and communicative competence]. (n.d.) Retrieved from pandia.ru/text/79/506/20861.php.
- Fateeva, I. A. (2015). Aktualnie problemi mediaobrazovaniya: uchebnoe posobie [Actual problems of media education: a tutorial]. Chelyabinsk: Chelyab. State University.
- Fedorishin, B. A. (1980). Profkonsul’tatsionnaya rabota so starsheklassnikami [Professional consultingwork with high school students]. Kiev: Glad. school.
- Fetiskin, N. P., Kozlov, V. V., & Manuilov, G. М. (2002). Diagnostika kommunikativnogo kontrolya (M.Shnayder) [Diagnostics of communicative control (M. Schneider)]. In Sotsial’no-psikhologicheskaya diagnostika razvitiya lichnosti i malykh grupp. Moscow: Publishing house of the Institute of Psychotherapy.
- Grishina, N.V. (1990). YA i drugie: Obshchenie v trudovom kollektive [I and others: Communication in the work collective]. Spb.: Lenizdat.
- Ilyin, E. P. (2009). Psikhologiya obshcheniya i mezhlichnostnykh otnosheniy [Psychology ofcommunication and interpersonal relations]. St. Petersburg: Peter.
- Ishberdina, G. (2018, April 18). Shkola, podrostok, nozh. Prichina, po kotoroy shkol'nik iz Bashkirii napal na uchitelya i odnoklassnikov [School, teenager, knife. The reason why a schoolboy from Bashkiria attacked the teacher and classmates]. Retrieved from https://rg.ru/2018/04/18/reg-pfo/pochemu-shkolnik-iz-bashkirii-napal-na-uchitelnicu-i-odnoklassnic.html
- Khutorskoy, A. V. (2013). Kompetentnostnyy podkhod k obucheniyu: nauchno-metodicheskoye posobiye [Competence-based approach to learning: a scientific methodological manual]. Moscow: Eidos Publishing House; Publisher Institute for Human Education.
- Kiuru, K., & Simakova, S. (2018). Multimedialongread As A Type Of Creolized Text. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS, Volume XXXIX, WUT 2018 – IX International Conference "Word, Utterance, Text: Cognitive, Pragmatic and Cultural Aspects", 18–20 April 2018, Chelyabinsk State University (pp. 710-718), DOI: 10.15405/epsbs.2018.04.02.102
- Kuzmina, Е. M. (2006). Formirovanie kommunikativnoj kompetentnosti studentov vuza: dis.…kand. ped. nauk: 13.00.08 [Formation of communicative competence of university students: dis. ... cand.]. Nizhnij Novgorod.
- Mamedova, A.V. (2012). Kompetentnostnyy podkhod kak osnova diagnostiki kommunikativnoy kompetentnosti spetsialista [Competence-based approach as the basis for diagnosing the communicative competence of a specialist]. Teoriya i praktika obucheniya v sovremennom mire: materialy mezhdunar. nauchnyy konf. (Sankt-Peterburg, fevral' 2012 g.), 29-33. SPb.: Renome. Retrieved from https://moluch.ru/conf/ped/archive/21/1881/
- Milekhin, A. V. (2018, December 14). Model' attestatsii uchiteley v kontekste NSUR [Model of certification of teachers in the context of the NSSD]. Materialy Vserossiyskoy konferentsii «Sotsial'no-professional'noye obsuzhdeniye novoy modeli attestatsii uchiteley na osnove ispol'zovaniya obshchefederal'nykh attestatsionnykh materialov», Moscow. Retrieved from http://efom.rf/conference
- Petrova, E. V., Stegacheva, N. O., Zvereva, L. S., Zavolskaya, E. V., & Kurdyumova, N. V. (2014). Kul'tura professional'nogo obshcheniya uchitelya [Culture of Professional Communication of the Teacher]. In Psikhologicheskiye nauki: teoriya i praktika: materialy II Internatsionala. nauchnyy konf. (Moskva, mart 2014 g.) (pp. 68-70). Moscow: Buki-Vedi. Retrieved from https://moluch.ru/conf/psy/archive/110/5213/Psihologicheskij praktikum [Psihologicheskij praktikum] Retrieved from https://psylist.net/praktikum.
- Rogov, E. I. (2018). Psikhologiya obshcheniya [Psychology of communication]. Moscow: KnoRus.
- Sidorenko, E. V. (2008). Trening kommunikativnoy kompetentnosti v delovom vzaimodeystvii [Training of communicative competence in business interaction]. SPb .: Speech.
- Simakova, S. I. (2017). Snoufol, kak sintez slovesnykh i vizual'nykh komponentov v publitsisticheskikh materialakh [Snoufol, as a synthesis of verbal and visual components in journalistic materials]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Problemy pechati i publikatsii, 5, 80-89.
- Simakova, S. I., & Isakova, T. B. (2017). Mul'timedia Longridy v samostoyatel'noy rabote studencheskikh zhurnalistov [Multimedia Longridus in the independent work of student journalists]. Vestn. Povolzhskiy universitet. V.N. Tatishcheva. Filologicheskiye nauki, 3(24), 255-267.
- Yusupov, I. M. (n. d.) Diagnostika urovnya empatii [Diagnosis of the level of empathy]. Retrieved fromhttp://docpsy.ru/testy/diagnostika-motivatsii/5058-metodika-diagnostika-urovnya-empatii-i-m-yusupova.html.
- Zhukov, Yu. M., Petrovskaya, L. A., & Solovyeva, O. V. (1997). Vvedenie v prakticheskuyu social'nuyu psihologiyu [Introduction to practical social psychology]. M.: Smysl.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
07 August 2019
Print ISBN (optional)
Communication studies, press, journalism, science, technology, society
Cite this article as:
Kokanov, N., Lushnikova, T., & Abramovskikh*, T. (2019). The Development Of Communicative Responsibility Of The Teacher In Digital Educational Environment. In & Z. Marina Viktorovna (Ed.), Journalistic Text in a New Technological Environment: Achievements and Problems, vol 66. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 555-565). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.08.02.65