Relevance of the research: A serious reformation in modern education in the Russian Federation is being held nowadays: new educational and professional standards are implemented. This leads to necessity of serious changes on the level of realization of professional activity by pedagogical staff. Goal of the research: discovering the specifics of professional self-realization of pedagogical staff, determining psychological resources, providing different levels of its formation. Methods of research: a constantan psychological pedagogical experiment, a method of mathematics statistics: t-criterion by Student - for processing numeric results of the research. Results of the research: Some common peculiarities of self-realization of pedagogical staff disregarding their working experience and specialization were discovered. To put it in detail: medium level of social corporate settings, high externality, low level of socio-centric motivation, formed destructive behaviour as a sign of professional burnout etc. Apart from this, differences in level of professional self-realization depending on professional direction of the specialists (preschool teacher, educational psychologist) were determined. For most preschool teachers non-productive self-realization is indicative, but for most educational psychologists productive one is indicative. Meaning of the research: The research allowed to discover, firstly, an urgent necessity of actualization of integrative mechanisms in working activity of pedagogical staff in pre-school educational institutions (PEI) and to decrease confrontation between different categories of specialists and improving their cooperative interaction and consolidation. Secondly, the research conditioned the necessity of decreasing a tendency pedagogical staff inner antagonism to objective changes in modern educational system of the Russian Federation (RF).
Keywords: Professional self-realizationself-developmentprofessional competencesresource
A serious reformation in modern education in the Russian Federation is being held nowadays: new educational and professional standards are implemented. This leads to necessity of serious changes on the level of realization of professional activity by pedagogical staff. To correspond to changing requirements and build professional self-realization modern pedagogical staff should perform continuous professional self-development. That is exactly why we consider highly important to research an issue of pedagogical staff readiness to effective working activity under conditions of continuous changes in the educational system.
In our work we base on motherland research devoted to issues of self-realization and self-development in professional sphere (Kudinov, 2007; Bazaeva, 2010; Vasyagina, 2015, 2017; Vasyagina, Vasyagina, & Seryy, 2018; Vasyagina & Pochtareva, 2018; Afanasenkova, 2018). This is due to the fact western psychology does not present the term "self-realization" as an independent scientific category. The term "self-realization" is often used by western researchers for description of other definitions close to it, for example, "integration" (Sandoval, 1993), "professional identity" (Korthagen, 2004), "individualization" (Honneth, 2004), "creative potential" (Kornilov, 2018) and others.
Professional self-realization is understood like a result-oriented process of personal realization in professional activity. Self-realization is determined by a common level of personal development and is directed as a process to perfection its potential in the field of chosen activity. it is performed by means of professional competences development. In this process the personality is an active subject of the activity, interaction and self-development (Afanasenkova, 2017; Bazaeva, 2010, 2011; Jegatheva, 2018). This approach reflects two factors conditioning the self-realization process. Firstly, inner traits of the pedagogue's personality, his or her potential abilities and outer conditions of professional activity performance. Secondly, content peculiarities of the profession itself. This way the prior thing in the process of personal development is self-development, and the secondary thing (as a result) is self-realization (Afanasenkova & Vasyagina, 2019). Thus, professional self-realization is determined by inner traits of a specialist, level of his or her professional self-development and psychological resources of a personality. This process is aimed at personal development and perfection in working activity by means of increasing the level of its professional competences. High level of professional competences possession leads to pretty high and productive professional self-realization.
Pedagogical activity supposes that the pedagogue does not only mobilize his or her own inner potential but plays the role of a resource for others. That is, the point of pedagogical profession is consists in "transformation of human resource (as energetic basis of the activity) into different kinds of activity results (inner and outer) (Druzhilov, 2005; Gumirova, 2015; Sviderskaya, 2016). In particular, we mean the results of students' activity: level of education, level of upbringing and so on. These results reflect the pedagogue's professional level and stage of his or her professional self-realization.
It is more helpful to use to the notion "resource field" for difficult and multifunctional pedagogical activity. This is a "combination of potential possibilities, in which everybody serves as a resource for others in a process of realization of a particular activity and interaction, including educational ones" (Afanasenkova, 2018). We should take into account that the process is assured by such inner psychological processes as autonomy - self-actualization - integration preserving personal self-identity, including the professional one (Vasyagina, 2013). This promotes an opportunity for personality exit beyond the borders of its actual "image-I" and its real possibilities in direction of developing the potential ones. This is performed by means of a personality involvement into a particular activity and self-realization in it (Bazaeva, 2011; Pisareva, 2018).
Thus, a pedagogue activates his or her own psychological resources for performing his or her pedagogical activities, the point of which is to transfer the experience collected by previous generations to the modern generation in an accessible and clear form. This is exactly why a pedagogue plays the role of educational resource for other subjects of educational activity. In their turn these subjects play the role of accelerators for discovering the pedagogue's potential possibilities for continuous professional self-development and self-realization. This process of professional integration and self-integration of a personality will be considered as a phenomenon indicative of professions of a pedagogue and an educational psychologist.
Some independent research devoted to professional self-realization of pedagogues (Esterle, 2014; Mangos, Khazova, & Khatit, 2015) and educational psychologists (Kudinov, 2007; Afanasenkova, 2018; Zhuravlev & Nestik, 2018) have been appearing recently. The research show that productive self-realization is connected to a prognostic function in pedagogical activity, that is ability to see prospects of using formed competences and necessity to perfection them in context of future working conditions. This provokes a mechanism of pedagogue's professional self-development and self-realization. Presence of an advancing prognostic function in pedagogical activity can also be considered as a phenomenon directly indicative of professions of a pedagogue and an educational psychologist.
The key issue discussed in the article is the question of how ready teachers are to professional self-realization, to effective working activity under conditions of continuous changes in the educational system. What psychological resources determine successful professional self-realization. What features of teachers are a barrier to their professional self-realization. Are there any differences in the strategies of professional self-development of teachers and teachers-psychologists.
Purpose of the Study
Goal of the research is discovering the specifics of professional self-realization of pedagogical staff, determining psychological resources, providing different levels of its formation.
For realization of the mentioned goal we have used the following methods. A group of theoretical methods: comparative, systematization and conceptualization of scientific ideas. Empiric methods: psychological diagnostics "Multi-dimensional of personal self-realization by S.I. Kudinov", a method of mathematic statistic data analysis T-criterion by Student.
The research was held on two groups of pedagogues of PEI. 73 specialists (38 pedagogues and 35 educational psychologists) took part in the experiment.
Degree of manifestation of self-realization characteristics on the scales has differences for different groups. Young pedagogues mostly have low level of subject corporate settings - 17 people out of 19 (89%). Young specialists experience a period of adaptation for practical teaching activity, find their place in a working group. Because of this they have centration at exclusiveness and competency of their professional "Self". That is, they do not see a benefit of socio-cooperative interaction, ability to be part of a team.
Experiences pedagogues have high indicator on the scale subject corporate settings - 10 people out of 19 (53%). A specialist who is adopted enough in his profession and working group, aims to show his opportunities, experience and abilities not only for self-realization on activity. He or she understands the importance of relationship improvement in a group, personal growth of particular colleagues through their support for increasing general labour efficiency - upbringing a new worthy generation.
In comparison with pedagogues, educational psychologists mostly have subject corporate settings - 9 people out of 17 (52,9 %) of the first subgroup have a medium indicator of scale development, the same is true for the second subgroup - 9 people out of 18 (50%). However, young educational psychologists similarly to inexperienced pedagogues have shown a high level of subject personal settings - 8 people out of 17 (47,1 %). Whatever a professional direction is, young employees of PEI indicatively want to assert themselves as qualified specialists. As for more experienced educational psychologists, their level of social corporate settings prevails that of personal subject ones. This is conditioned by the science research context of a profession of psychologist. Its content presumes understanding of reasons of appearing and progress of some professionally difficult situations and their possible solutions.
Experienced pedagogues mostly have ego-centric motivation in activity - 8 people out of 19 (42.1%) have a high level on this scale and 8 people out of 19 (42.1%) have a medium level. For them the motivating power of self-realization is narrowly personal motives. That is, it is important for them to satisfy their requirements in carrier promotion, financial assurance and authority without much effort and expenses from their side. They expect that their experience and term of work give them right for high external estimate of their professional merits.
Young educational psychologists show more expressed internality - 8 people out of 17 (47,1 %) have the medium value of the scale, than externality - 10 people out of 17 (58,8 %) have low value. Experienced educational psychologists show the opposite result: 12 people out of 18 have low internality (66,7 %) and 8 people out of 12 have medium externality. Specialists with long term of work have a lower threshold of criticism to the results of their professional activity. That is, they absolutize their professional opinion as a result of big working experience. As we see, pedagogues have high points in the externality scale - 6 people out of 19 (31,6%) from the first subgroup have high level of scale development, and a similar number have a medium level. In a group of experienced pedagogues 11 people out of 19 (57,9 %) have a high level of externality. This conditions weakness of their self-control and self-organization in the process of professional self-realization. Such pedagogues have difficulty accepting their working functions, actions, interaction with working group and so on. They prefer to shift responsibility to other people and/or circumstances.
Pre-school teachers mostly underestimate themselves, feel fear, anxiety in new deeds. They suppose an unfavorable result in them. This is strengthened by the following results: 1) low level of constructivity - 16 people out of 19 (78,9 %) with term of work less than 5 years and 13 people out of 19 (68,4 %) with experience; 2) high level of estructivity - 8 people out of 19 (42,1 %) in the first subgroup and 13 people out of 19 (68,4 %) from the second one. Educational psychologists mostly have constructivity regardless their working experience - 9 people out of 17 (52,9 %) in the first subgroup and 8 people out of 18 (44,4 %) in the second one.
The creativity indicator of experienced teachers is at the medium level of development - 10 people out of 19 (52,6 %). The conservatism indicator is more expressed for the majority of respondents in the same group - 12 people out of 19 (63,2 %). Similar results have been discovered for young pedagogical staff of PEI. This evidences about low pedagogues' desire for self-realization and their reluctance for creative forms of its implementation in real activity. This group of the testees do not possess a clear understanding of what they want from their professional activity. That is why pre-school educators build personal barriers in professional interaction. This does not allow them to reach professional self-realization. This result quite corresponds to the scale personal barriers. Experienced pedagogues show medium value on this scale - 10 people out of 19 (52,6 %). This shows that experienced pedagogues have low sensibility to criticism, high constriction and so on. The majority of their less experienced colleagues have a lower level of personal barriers formation - 10 people out of 19 (52,6 %). It is due to the fact that they are getting acquainted with their profession in practice and are not so subject to professional burnout mechanisms.
Educational psychologists have less expressed creativity than pedagogues - 9 people out of 17 (52,9 %) in the first subgroup with a low level and 11 people out of 18 (61,1 %) in the second subgroup have a medium level. Apart from this a difference between educational psychologists with different working experience was discovered on this scale. More experienced educational psychologists find more often new forms and methods of work during the direct interaction with children. Thus, creativity as a professional competence is better formed at this group.
Educational psychologists are less subject to personal and social barriers development in comparison with pedagogues. However, such barriers are rather expressed in experienced educational psychologists. Thus, among educational psychologists with some term of work 11 people out of 17 (61,1 %) have medium level of personal barriers development and a low value of social barriers - 16 people out of 18 (88,9 %). young specialists have low level of personal and social barriers development in general - 14 people out of 17 (82,4 %) for the first indicator and 12 people out of 18 (70,6 %) for the second one.
The next stage of processing the gathered diagnostic data allowed us to discover levels of self-realization for pedagogical employees of PEI.
Harmonic level of self-realization is more developed in young educational psychologists - 10 people (58,8 %) than in their more experienced colleagues and pedagogues. In a group of pedagogues only 3 people (15,8 %) from young specialists have this level of professional self-realization. Such pedagogues can distinguish their inner psychological resources, always aim at professional development and social recognition.
Adaptive level of self-realization as a form of productive professional activity was discovered only in 5 people (26,3 %) from experienced pedagogues and in 11 people (61,1 %) from experienced educational psychologists. Professional self-realization for this group of specialists does not play a prior role in their activity. They try to avoid situations of activation and mobilization of all their psychological resources for getting most effective results in their activity.
Passive level of self-development as a form of non-productive professional activity was discovered in both subgroups of pedagogues: 4 people (21 %) in the first subgroup and 3 people (15,8 %) in the second one. These pedagogical employees do not show any activity in their professional self-development and self-realization. Professional activity for them is just a means of maintaining the optimal level of life. As for educational psychologists, passive level of self-realization is discovered only in 1 person (5,9 %) from the subgroup and 2 people (11,1 %) in the second one.
Irrational level of self-realization as a form of non-productive professional activity is more indicative for pedagogues: 10 people (52,6 %) from the first subgroup and 11 people (57,9 %) from the second one. As for educational psychologists, this level is less presented: 4 people (23,5 %) in the first subgroup and 3 people (16,7 %) in the second one. This group of testes do not show personal activity or interest in issues of self-development and self-realization in profession. Working activity is always combined with difficulty to them, which form stimuli for personal barriers formation. Such employees are actively reluctant to changes and innovations in their profession as they are preliminary convinced in their ineffectiveness.
The final stage of gathered data processing allowed us to divide the following kinds of self-realization. Thus, for educational psychologists the prevailing form is the
As part of study we have come to the following conclusions:
Pedagogical employees have shown the following indicators: medium level of social corporate settings, low externality - high externality, prevailing of narrowly personal motives in professional activity, high levels of personal barriers formation. The weakest part in the system of psychological resources of professional self-development is underdeveloped factor of personal responsibility and initiativity. Intensively changing professional area accumulates the process of active reluctance to changes. In its turn this provokes rather quick professional burnout of specialists.
There are meaningful differences in strategies of professional self-development in pedagogues and educational psychologists. For pedagogues, conservatism, pessimism and passivity are indicative. They experience difficulty with realization of prospects of their professional self-development and self-realization. Educational psychologists possess such features like activity, optimism, creativity. They quite realize and plan prospects in professional self-development. The content of educational psychologists' activity has a research nature. This conditions desire of such specialists to find new solutions in case of professional difficulty.
The materials of this article can be useful for heads of educational institutions, educational psychologists and methodologists as well as for higher educational institutions teachers while enlightening the topic of self-development and self-realization in a structure of personality and its activity.
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14 July 2019
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Psychology, educational psychology, counseling psychology
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Abramovskih, N. V., Vasyagina, S. A., Vedyashkina, J. A., Afanasenkova, E. L., & Vasyagina*, N. N. (2019). Psychological Resources Of Pedagogical Staff Professional Self-Realisation. In T. Martsinkovskaya, & V. R. Orestova (Eds.), Psychology of Subculture: Phenomenology and Contemporary Tendencies of Development, vol 64. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 740-747). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.07.96