Psychological Basis Of Subjectivity Organization And Evaluation In Adolescence And Youth


Social psychological factors affecting teenagers and youth mentality are under research. The main point is subjectivity and educational motivation factors supporting ideas of social determination of superior mental functions by L.Vygotsky and A.Leontyev. Teenagers’ estimation of objects and classmates is considered as a process depending on the social group character, determining estimation categories. Data access for 1243 candidates after matrix analysis showed (t-criterion) that Eastland teenagers’ estimations (Alma-Ata, Kysyl) go more along with the average group estimations. Due to historical reasons the East person is not ready to oppose himself to the group and expects its patronage. Western teenagers’ estimations (Moscow and suburbs) do not so much agree with the average group opinion. During their evolution they often change groups and start targeting their self-appraisal. Parent family type impact on student personality research showed valuable distinctions in personal estimations of students from different patrimonial family types. The more it goes along with the nuclear family the less students tend to organize their activities according to their subjective feelings. Educational motivation in different family types showed that students from patrimonial families try to get profound knowledge and win appraisal of relatives, while students from nuclear families try to get diploma and become a high skilled specialist.

Keywords: Estimation processagencylearning motivation


Considered regional features of personal activities for East and West parts of UIS and found valuable distinctions in teenagers’ estimation and self-appraisal process there (Shabelnikov, 2014).

UIS East region is characterized by destruction of traditional patrimonial family, but the ritual of collective activities is still actual. So, estimation here goes along with group intercommunication strengthening that gives similar estimations for the person and the whole group.

Person’s habitation in West region supposes individual social activity choice. Individual estimation, which is different from social group estimations, helps to strengthen oneself in his group (Shabelnikov, 2014).

The subject for study of agency investigation (Tokareva, 2014) was dependency of youth personal agency on determining influence of parent family (nuclear and extended). It is the first social interaction system which involves a child from his first days. The screening group was formed for the same activity type – studying at a university.

Theory about different family types and different activity motivation types supposes that motivation for studying depends on family type of the youth and his functional involvement in his family. High level of involvement into family relations (patrimonial family) doesn’t help to motivate for studying and starting professional activities. The main interests and activity motivation are connected with family relations and functional involvement into the family.

For nuclear family type supposing high level of individual motivation of family members and family hierarchy destruction youth usually tries to be involved into professional activities more intensively. The problem of functional involvement into professional community is considered as a problem of accepting new functions in a new type of social group.

Problem Statement

Modern world supposes more complex social interaction and co-ordination of different groups estimations. Making of mutual decisions needs certain analysis of personal estimation and taking into account partners’ estimation logic. However, it doesn’t really take place and it produces misunderstanding between subjects and even states. Studying of estimation mechanism, its structure and functional features in different regions will regulate social conflicts.

Reference analysis shows that family, as a determining factor of personal activity organization, is considered by classics of foreign and Russian science. Fundamental role of a family in personal growing up is focused by modern authors. However, problems of family impact on activities organization and education motivation are still unconsidered.

Research Questions

  • How do youth social groups from East and West UIS regions impact on the process of estimation of objects and mates?

  • Do any differences in forming personal agency of students depending on the level of involvement in patrimonial family?

  • Are there any valuable differences of youth educational motivations depending on the type of involvement into parent family?

Purpose of the Study

The first research goal is to make clear the difference between objects and mates’ estimation by teenagers of East or West regions of UIS.

The second research goal is the study of impact of parent family type on organization of personal subjectivity in their life.

The third research goal is to find the interaction between functional involvement into parent family and educational motivation of students.

Research Methods


The research was conducted in Russia, Kazahstan and Kyzyl on base of higher school (form 9-10). General group included 1243 people from regular classes. East teenagers’ selection included 246 and 254 persons. Middle-range age of test-takers was 16.8 years. West group selection was presented by 335 teenagers from Moscow and 396 teenagers from Moscow region. Middle-range age of test-takers was 16.4 years. All teenagers studied in their classes for at least a year and stayed in this region for at least 3 years.

In agency research the selection was 231 2-3-d year students from Moscow universities. Middle-range age of test-takers was 19.6 years.

In education motivation research the selection was 270 3-d year students of MSRU Department of Psychology from Moscow and Moscow region. Middle-range age of test-takers was 18-19 years.


The research included 3 steps: 1) Diagnostics of estimation character for teenager groups from East and West regions of UIS. 2) Diagnostics of test-takers’ agency in different family types. 3) Diagnostics of education motivation for youth with different involvement into parent family activity.

Two techniques were used during the first step, namely “Semantic differential” (Petrenko, 2005) and modification of “Uncompleted sentences” (Rezvantseva, 2012).

The second step was realized by several techniques: “Subject-object preferences in vivid conditions”, “Subjective control level”, “Psychological autobiography”, “Behavior strategies during valuable situations”. A modified technique for determining family type was used (Tokareva, 2014; Shabelnikov & Grigoryeva, 2017).


Estimation features study of teenagers from East and West of UIS

Valuable distinctions between teenagers’ individual estimations and group estimations were obtained (Student criteria, p<0.01 and p<0.05). East teenagers’ evaluations were more coincident with group estimations. In addition, evaluation categories, used by teenager, were under special investigation.

Table 1 -
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Table 1 shows valuable distinctions between using category “beautiful” by East and West teenagers. First are more coincident with group while the least are more individual. As well East teenagers gave more coincidence using estimation categories “beautiful”, “kind”, “warm”, “tender” (Student criteria p<0.01).

Then awareness rate of estimation categories was tested by “unfinished sentences” techniques. The test-taker had to answer, what meant the expression “beautiful man” and so on. For more accurate analysis we considered two groups.

1 group. Group awareness of categories.

  • Typical, tautological definition

  • Linguistic stamps, idioms

  • Altruistic definition

  • Definition of certain situation

2 group. Individual awareness of categories

  • Using creative definitions, additional comments

  • Egocentric definitions

  • Abstract definitions

Feature presence was denoted by 1 point, while its absence – by 0. Comparison of teenagers’ answers made by Student criteria is presented in table 2 .

Table 2 -
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In table 2 all distinctions between using of estimation criteria by East and West teenagers are given in bold. It is proved that East teenagers demonstrate group type of awareness of estimation categories, while West teenagers demonstrate individual type of awareness.

Then self estimation was examined as a special case of estimation for teenagers from different regions of UIS. It is discovered that test-takers from different regions are significantly different (Student criteria p<0.05) for categories “warm”, “brave”, “tender”, “painstaking”, “confident”. It was discovered that coincidence of self estimation of teenager with his group estimation is a significant factor of social estimation components.

Distinctions in lifestyle organization in regions under examinations are characterized by more (East) or less (West) involvement in social activities. Teenagers from Alma-Ata and Kyzyl try to show their loyalty to their group. It helps them to achieve success in this group. Creative estimation of Moscow teenagers helps them to gain a foothold among mates and strengthen their group status.

Agency study of students from different types of families

Empirical research of activities showed (“Question list on subject-object estimations in practical situations”), that students from extended families demonstrate their trend to internal world (559**). They tend to development and changes during practical situations (773**). Meanwhile students from nuclear families demonstrate more activities in planning their life (482**).

Hi-square criteria showed that in nuclear family such a type as “Practical situation user” is presented significantly more frequently (p<0.05). Representatives of this type are persons of action targeted on living success. In extended family we meet such a type as “Practical situation harmonizer”. Such people are open to practical experience.

Subjective control level investigation showed that internality in various life events for students from nuclear families was weaker (194**). Interpreting success (112**), failures (212**), significant family events (276**) and job events (118**) representatives from extended families are targeted at their own actions.

Analysis obtained by “Psychological autobiography” techniques showed that students from extended families are more inclined to reproduce their life (123**), they feel more intensively (187**). For nuclear family representatives former experience is less important (176**). They are devoted to up-to-date life changes.

Analysis obtained by “Question list of behavior activity strategies in valuable situations” techniques showed that students from extended families demonstrate more subjective activity in behavior. They are more targeted on interpersonal relations (114**), (110**) and nonprofessional activity (150**).

Correlation of youth educational motivation and type of family

Students from nuclear families demonstrate internal educational motive “Obtaining of profession”, while students from ancestral families demonstrate internal educational motive “Obtaining of knowledge”. This motive is more important for them because they can use their knowledge not only for professional activity, but for their family as well.


Social-psychological factors affecting the psychology of teenagers and youth, namely their estimation, agency and education motivation, were discovered during the research.

Social estimation components obtained during the research (location, determination groups) help to understand the reasons of different estimations of objects and events by teenagers from different regions of UIS.

Subjectivity of extended families’ representatives is connected with their attention to internal world. Meanwhile nuclear families’ representatives tend to pay attention to external living conditions. It is because interpersonal relations in extended family are more mismatching the student activities, than in nuclear family. Extended family representatives suffer more difficulties with activities beyond their family. Nuclear family representatives are more involved in modern social activities.

Investigation of students’ educational motivation showed, that nuclear family students with low inclusive rate into family relations tend to obtain profession and begin their own professional activity. Patrimonial family representatives tend to organize future professional activity usually with assistance of their family.


  1. Petrenko, V. F. (2005). Fundamentals of psychosemantics. SPb.: Peter.
  2. Rezvantseva, M. O. (2012). Psychology of evaluation in social interaction. Moscow: Moscow state University.
  3. Tokareva, I. N. (2014). Peculiarities of manifestations of subjectivity of students from different types of parental families: monograph. Moscow: MGOU II.
  4. Shabelnikov, V. K., & Grigoryeva S. I. (2017). Family in Educational Process. Moscow: MSRU press.
  5. Shabelnikov, V. K. (2014). Functional psychology. Moscow: Academic Project.

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14 July 2019

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Psychology, educational psychology, counseling psychology

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Baurina, A. B., Grigoryeva, S. I., Tokareva, I. N., Rezvantseva, M. O., & Shabelnikoy*, V. K. (2019). Psychological Basis Of Subjectivity Organization And Evaluation In Adolescence And Youth. In T. Martsinkovskaya, & V. R. Orestova (Eds.), Psychology of Subculture: Phenomenology and Contemporary Tendencies of Development, vol 64. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 620-626). Future Academy.