Study definitions of "information policy" (regardless of its subjective and accessories in accordance with the levels of state, regional, municipal and intra-control), shows that support, methodological and semantic position they advocate the concept of "system" and "activity". The information policy of the educational organization is considered as a purposeful activity of its management, providing: definition of information needs of educational organizations, coming from different categories of users; the formation of focus, structure and content of information in compliance with legal requirements; choose of effective technologies to inform the participants of joint activities and the achievement of the motivating effects of conveying information to different categories of users through the information resources available on the Internet; timely, impartial and competent assessment of the quality of information resources and decision quality control problems of information resources of educational organization. The urgency of the task of expanding the information openness of educational institutions, the need for the design and implementation of educational institutions information policy. The article investigates the existing approaches for the formation of information disclosure and information policy educational organizations. It addresses the issues of solving problems of transparency, as well as methodological issues of designing and developing an open information policy of the educational organization and technology of its practical implementation.
Keywords: Information policyeducational organizationinformation openness
Educational organization is a collective entity of public information and communication activities on the Internet, which implements its information policy. Value-semantic priorities and targets make it possible to build a system of targeted actions, reaching information and motivational effects published on the information resources of educational organization information about their activities. By this, provided the necessary conditions for the formation of constructive social dialogue participants of educational relations and relations in the field of education in the implementation of public and social objectives in the field of education and student-centered education problems. Value-sense guidelines that define the general orientation of the information policy, assist the management of the educational organization to determine the achievement of targets, to which the educational organization will seek, implementing public information activities on the Internet. A clear goal is the basis for the design of the system of targeted actions, selection of optimum conditions in each specific educational organization of methods and technologies to implement them, taking into account existing resource capabilities.
Study definitions of "information policy" (regardless of its subjective and accessories in accordance with the levels of state, regional, municipal and intra-control), shows that support, methodological and semantic position they advocate the concept of "system" and "activity".
As a system that combines a variety of ingredients, offer, for example, consider the state information policy (Nisnevich, 1999; Baluev & Chekulaev, 2010). Researchers define it as a set (system) of targets, reflecting the national interests in the information sphere, strategy, tactics, governance problems, administrative decisions and implementation methods, developed and implemented by the state authorities to regulate and improve both processes of information interaction in all spheres of society and the state, and processes to ensure such cooperation.
Through complex (system) measures, which is formed, implemented and controlled by public authorities and administrations in the implementation of national interests in the information and communication sector, aimed at meeting the information needs of society, the management of the various spheres of human activity, regulation of public relations, effective interaction between government and civil society, protection of information considering information policy Vetrova (2014).
The urgency of the task of expanding the information openness of educational institutions and the choice of effective strategies for action in this new educational institutions of public information and communication activities on the Internet, the need for the design and implementation of educational institutions information policy.
Tasks expansion of information transparency for the implementation of the information needs of participants in the educational, professional communities and society.
Purpose of the Study
Conduct problem-oriented analysis of existing approaches to the formation of informational openness and educational organizations policy.
Determine the methodological aspects of the formation of an open information policy of the educational organization and technology of its practical implementation.
In the course of work used methods of theoretical research, systematization and classification, method of comparative research, system-activity approach.
The definition proposed by Ustinova and her colleagues, information policy is presented as a set of organizational, legal, informational, methodological, software and hardware components, providing information processes in the state and municipal management system (Barbakov, Kurashenko, & Ustinova, 2015).
Zolina (2010), based on the study of Kravchenko (2009), believes that "such an understanding of the state information policy allowed the scientists to conclude that there are two approaches to the study of the state information policy: 1) informative: the study of priority subjects and the state ideology; 2) technological: study of information technology governance" (p. 2).
Along with the information policy definitions as the system stand out studies in which this notion is considered from the standpoint of "activity" category. According to Zubareva (2016), belongs to the most concise definition of Rakitov (1994), that information policy is a special activity aimed at achieving socially significant goals.
In a study of Likhtin and Kovalev's (2017) information policy is presented as an activity for the production, dissemination and interpretation of information, the result of which should be the synthesis of the interests of the state apparatus and civil society.
Thus, as shown by the examples of definitions of "information policy" is presented with a fundamentally different methodological positions of the research object of study, speaking on the one hand, as a system, and on the other hand, as an activity. Considering the methodological approach as a "fundamental methodological orientation of research, as a point of view, which is considered the object of study (a method for determining the object) as a concept or principle governing the overall strategy of the research" (Yudin, 1997, p. 69), it should be suggested that the study of the concept of "information policy "methodological have different orientations, which are based, in one case, a systematic approach and in the other case - the activity approach.
Sharing the opinion of Asmolov (2012) of imaginary opposition between systematic approach and activity approach to the study of the concept of "information policy educational organization" is proposed as the leading methodology based on the principles of system-activity approach in the design of social systems.
Thus, the methodological orientation of research the concept of "information policy of educational organizations" in the context of system-activity approach includes two complementary lines, the first of which is determined by the explanatory principle activity that serves as a value-semantic and intentional-objective bases of designing the mission and targets of the social system. The second relates to the representation of the projected activity as targeted system having a specific structure and organization (Figure
As the methodological tools of system-activity approach, used in concrete scientific research methodology and design of social practice, Asmolov (http://asmolovpsy.ru/ru/ideas/121) suggested the following systems analysis plans:
- and, finally, the
All of the above analysis of the activity plans are important "anchor" questions that should be asked in the course of the study and design activities of the social object. Feature of system-activity approach is not only in the fact of raising these essential questions, but in the order which is to be observed. To indicate the sequence "transitions" issues from one activity to another analysis plan, a schematic "ladder" (Figure
It should especially clarify, that the "subjective" plan cannot and should not be on the "step", following the resource operations plan analysis. Positioning the subject not as a performing system resource, namely, as a "carrier" of meanings, the director achieve the objectives of the decision-making about what ways and with what resources, it will act in the specific conditions of realization of the objectives is the principal basis of system-activity approach.
Educational organization is a collective entity of public information and communication activities on the Internet, which implements its information policy. At the same time, the area of the organization of competencies related to the information policy of the design refers primarily to the governance and its ability to complete perception of information policy as a system.
Thus, the management of the educational organization will have to think about the next:
- Will the information on the activities of the organization, which is located in the public domain, to reflect the need for information on the activities of all participants of educational relations, representatives of the professional community and society, or only the higher authorities and the supervisory authorities?
- Will users of information only objects of information alerts, or they become motivated subjects communication interaction mediated by an open and accessible information on the activities of the organization, the subjects used in their individual and group educational, pedagogical and administrative purposes?
- Will the information on the activities of the organization, which is located in the public domain, a structured and coherent? And whether this structure of information contribute to a holistic perception of the various areas of activity, creating conditions for the formation of a positive image in the educational, professional, managerial communities in different sectors of society and in the state and municipal government agencies?
- Will information about the organization's address, capable of its content and ways of its transmission to respond to the diverse information needs of users and to take into account the specificity of perception of the published information the participants of educational relations, representatives of the professional community and society?
Answers to the above identified issues motivational analysis of the plan are the basis for the transition to building information policy targets.
- Will the information policy goals only limited objectives of informing, a landmark achievement of which is the availability of the publication of information in the public domain? Or targets are defined in terms of achievement motivational effects participation and involvement of participants in joint activities with the ability to have free access to relevant information about the organization?
- Will the information policy objectives are limited placement in open access format only formal, legal required information about the activity? Or target benchmarks activity becomes the formation of a single information and communication space educational organization representing the diverse range of activities in the direction of the organization and the subjects of this activity in the public space "Internet"?
- Will the goals of information policy in its information component focused on the fact of placing the necessary information without taking into account the specifics of its perception by different users? Or targets will be reflected in the direction of achieving the result of understanding the meanings and values important to all participants information activities that contribute to the meaningfulness of actions and interactions of subjects of joint activity?
- Will the information policy objectives are focused only on the impact of information? Or targets as a result of advances is determined the need to create a feedback system with users of information contributing to the clarification and understanding of the objectives and content of the published information on the activities of the organization, providing an opportunity for discussion and reflection, individual and collective reflection and evaluation of published information by participants in shared activities?
- Will the information policy goal in its communication component focused only on the fulfillment of the requirements for the placement of necessary information and receive satisfactory answers from the regulatory authorities, regulatory legislation execution in the form of the organization? Or targets will be reflected in the direction of the result of the formation of a constructive social dialogue, including the interaction with the participants of educational relations and relations in the field of education?
Presented a set of answers to the most important methodological issues of value-semantic / motivational and target / intentional action plans forms the basis of the conceptual development direction of information policy, highlighting in it, along with information priorities, the priorities of motivation associated with an explanation, clarification of meanings, achievement of understanding of the importance of information for all participants in the activities, with the possibility of discussion and reflection, evaluation and reflection of published information. It is a motivational component of information policy lays the foundation for the achievement of meaningful action and interactions of subjects of constructive social dialogue, for which, in fact, and should be the information policy of the educational organization.
Value-sense guidelines that define the general orientation of the information policy, to help guide the organization in the implementation of goal-setting and determination to achieve targets, to which the educational organization will seek, implementing public information activities on the Internet. A clear goals are, in turn, the basis for the design of the system of targeted actions, selection of optimum conditions in each specific educational organization of methods and technologies to implement them, taking into account existing resource capabilities.
Methodological toolkit of system-activity approach is not only the basis for the design of the conceptual foundations of information policy and the actions of its phased implementation of the program, but it makes the process of problem-oriented analysis highlight problem areas that emerged in the practice of educational organizations in the process of solving the problems of information openness (Asmolova & Ovchinnikova, 2018).
As practice shows, educational organizations, to whom the law was given the task of ensuring information transparency (ROSOBRNADZOR Order from 29.05.2014 №785), began to deal with it, focusing primarily on the goal of official websites, the relevant regulatory requirements, using the most common and best site building techniques (Figure
The consequence of such "information policy", the horizons of which many leaders have been limited to the format of the regulatory requirements to the official websites of educational institutions and the publication of official data on educational organization, has become a focus for organizations of a single information resource on the Internet to information requests states to open information about the organization's activities. At the same time a large number of heads do not see the need to develop an information policy educational organization, limited fulfillment of the requirements, which, in fact, from the regulatory environment moved into the category of administrative activity goals.
At the same time, many managers, for whom the expansion of information disclosure and the formation of the public image of the educational organization in the Internet is becoming an important administrative and social-oriented task, see the need to develop an information policy of the organization, but it is experiencing serious difficulties in designing motivational target dimensions this area organization.
Along with the problem of limited information resources only official website and not by sight the prospects for expansion of information transparency for the implementation of the information needs of participants in the educational, professional communities and society, highlighted the problem of demotivation of teachers and management organization.
In this aspect of motivation and target activity is not only the basis for the expansion of horizons of meaning and orientation of the target in terms of reframing as a new understanding, a new vision of information and motivational image of an educational organization, but also regarded as the most important motivational factor, to encourage all staff to design and implement their own goals of information policy, forming a "news person" educational organization in the public space of the Internet.
In this regard, one of the pressing issues of management training and supplementary education are not only issues of technological and resource support solving problems of transparency, but also methodological issues of designing and developing a coherent and targeted information policy educational organization and technology of its practical implementation.
Research carried out in the research work of the Federal Institute of Education Development RANEPA "18.09. Development and testing of competency models for professional and personal growth of the system of administrative and teaching staff on areas of competence, aimed at promoting information policy", commissioned by the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration on 2019.
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14 July 2019
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Psychology, educational psychology, counseling psychology
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Asmolova*, L. M. (2019). Methodological Aspects Of The Information Policy In The Educational Organizations. In T. Martsinkovskaya, & V. R. Orestova (Eds.), Psychology of Subculture: Phenomenology and Contemporary Tendencies of Development, vol 64. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 46-54). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.07.7