Methodological Approaches To Development Of Social And Communicative Personality Development Programs
In the article the basic scientific and methodical approaches to the development of educational programs and technologies that ensure the social and communicative development of the child's personality, starting with pre-school education. In order to maintain overall positive moral and psychological climate in educational organizations and health of children, parents and the teaching staff the need to balance the positive and negative emotions, ensuring the maintenance of balance, comfort and safety. Violation of emotional balance contributes to emotional disorders lead to a deviation in the development of the child's personality, to a violation of his social contacts, to misunderstanding on the part of his peers and adults. Of particular importance in this context acquires the communication culture of the educational environment, which affects not only the child's emotional well-being, but also on the formation of a realistic picture of the World, which is an integral part of the world of another person, a peer or adult. Socio-communication medium can be an element developing educational environment. However, its educational function it acquires only when meaningful for the child an adult (parent, teacher, etc.) gives it to develop these qualities. But the same environment can be hostile towards the child. And then it will need all the pedagogical skills to open in the educational space of developing potential communication environment that allows the child to live in the modern understanding of the world with peers and adults.
Keywords: Social and communicative developmentsoftware and technologyeducation
One of the main objectives of education in favor of design education as a resource for dialogue between all participants in the educational process, tolerance, mutual understanding and create a safe educational environment. Significant opportunities of education to compensate for the potential risks of socialization of the younger generation with the introduction of open programs and technologies that ensure the social and communicative development of the child's personality.
Modern psycho-pedagogical education of the individual technologies should meet the requirements of the scientific validity, systematic and structured. Development of programs and educational technologies on social and communicative personality development can be achieved using the following scientific-methodological and conceptual approaches:
- system-activity approach (L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, P.Y. Galperin, D.B. Elkonin, V.V. Davydov etc.), developed the concept of universal educational actions in the context of new educational standards, such as providing universal ways of knowing and mastering the world (Asmolov et al., 2011);
- humanistic approach (Semantic pedagogy, Pedagogy of cooperation; "Dialogue of Cultures" (Bibler, 2009); literature teaching system focused on the formation of personality;
- competency approach;
- conceptual approaches, revealing the role of value orientations in the development of personal identity;
- conceptual approaches to intercultural communication, inter-ethnic tensions and conflicts, considering the development and transformation of ethnic identity.
Programs and educational technology for the development of social and communicative person in the context of the design of a new generation of educational standards should be an integral part of the educational and training process of students, first of all, in terms of implementation of the tasks of civic education.
The task of civic education in the Russian context of multicultural and religious diversity include:
- the formation of tolerance in international communication and cooperation - respect for national dignity and feelings of the people, to their ethnic views and beliefs; respect for ethnic and religious man belonging to ethno-cultural and religious needs of the people; respect for the world's languages and the languages of international communication; tolerance and respect for the religious feelings of people;
- the formation of respect for all the peoples of the Russian Federation, to their historical past, traditions, language, culture, national honor and dignity;
- respect for the Russian language as the most important means of international communication and cooperation of the peoples of Russia; love for the mother tongue, culture and history of his people;
- formation of legal awareness and legal culture - a deep respect for the Constitution and laws of the Russian Federation, respect for international standards of human and peoples' rights; respect for the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, regardless of gender, race, nationality, language, origin, property and official status, place of residence, attitude to religion;
- deep respect for human values, human civilization (peace, security, freedom, and opportunity for every people to determine their own destiny, the triumph of reason and humanism, the rights and freedoms of the individual);
- uncompromising attitude to all forms of nationalism, chauvinism, racism; education of hatred against genocide, apartheid and other racial, ethnic or religious discrimination;
- formation of civil activity of the person based on the adoption of humanistic universal moral values.
Purpose of the Study
Purpose of the study - justification of scientific-methodological and conceptual approaches to the development of educational programs and technologies aimed at the development of social and communication skills of the person.
n the course of work used methods of theoretical research, comparative analysis, competence approach, a conceptual approach.
Design programs and technology for social and communicative development of learner-oriented and become important in terms of general information and digitization of all important spheres of our life. The ability to see the child in the first place, the personality - the main task of not only education, but also education. Of course, it is important to form in children the knowledge, skills, abilities. But much more important than the formation of personality worthy representative of a civilized society. In this connection, encouraging new developments taking place in the Russian education in recent years. Education Center becomes focus on the individual, which in turn, is one of the priority conditions for progressive and effective development of the society.
One important factor in ensuring the quality of education is considered in the presence of educational institutions at all levels of education of their development strategies, based on the widespread use of humanitarian technologies aimed at personal development of students and providing tolerance relations between subjects of the educational process.
How to update the treatment of educational institutions to the functions of support and protection of interests of the child? How should build a relationship of adults and children to the world of childhood it was light and happy, and physical and mental health have become the norm of the younger generation?
It not casually states that any adult - is a former child. Undoubtedly, we are all "from childhood." But sometimes adults forget about it, and therefore there are problems in dealing with children. There is oriental wisdom, according to which the child is under 5 years old - 'king', from 5 to 12 "servant", and then - "friend." Given the characteristics of the current younger generation, we can say that today's child is five years old wants to become a full-fledged adult friend and colleague. The imposition of an adult's own position, dictate, unquestioning obedience to its requirements infringe the rights of the child. This is often the reason that the child is forced to "shut down" from the world of his uncomprehending adults, while experiencing an obvious psychological discomfort.
Experience shows that if the solution of specific problems related to the studies or other areas of a child's life, the conversation begins with the words: "Let's think together", "do not you think", "if you do not mind", then most likely, the children's position in relation to an adult to change: they would be more willing to go on contact, feeling that their opinion matters. Undoubtedly, it is better when a child sees an adult friend and mentor is not who is right just because he is older and wiser.
That's emotional well-being, psychological comfort of the child are the determinants of mental health, a prerequisite for the full functioning and development of the person in the course of its life, the adequate performance of their age, social and cultural roles and further growth of its cognitive abilities and creativity.
This is especially true today, when modern society is in dire need of talented creative people who are able to respond adequately to the demands of high professional and personal mobility, competitiveness, ready for continuing education and retraining in response to the new demands of society for professions the market, reflecting the restructuring of the economy and production.
The choice of profession - a natural stage of development of each person, as the first steps and first words. This, of course, if the child develops harmoniously, surrounded by love and care. If the child has created favorable conditions for its personal development, adolescence decision on the choice of profession is accepted easily and naturally.
What conditions should be created in the educational institutions and the family to ensure the success of the training and education of children in the spirit of peace, tolerance, and full development of the child's personality, the formation of his professional guidance?
Currently, as part of the national education development projects outlined new directions of development of system of continuous education in Russia at the present stage. They address many issues relating to, inter alia, establishing a system of psychological support and development of children with general mental endowments in terms of study at the secondary school in order to meet their broader cognitive interests and the development of general cognitive ability. In this regard, develop and implement new educational programs of psychological diagnosis of general abilities of teenagers and universal education for high school, focusing on the formation of educational abilities metasubject.
Currently, work is being recessed towards implementing educational organizations techniques and procedures humanitarian examination and diagnostic quality of education. We study the influence of the main parameters of the educational environment of tolerance of students. Created methodical management organization promotional centers for the humanitarian expertise, experts are educated, organized and educational organizations in conducting humanitarian expertise, development of strategy of development of these institutions, advising the administration and teaching staff on the problems of implementation of educational organizations development projects.
Of particular relevance can be called the problem of psycho-pedagogical support "transition crisis" from one educational environment to another. In this context, deeply study the properties and parameters of the educational environment, significant from the point of impact on the psychological well-being and personality of students. Developing new conceptual approaches to solving this problem in terms of detection and correction of psychological state of students in forming their professional plans, objectives and value-semantic orientations when changing educational environments.
This is particularly important for building innovative technologies and models, forward-looking development of production and involves the development of those types of work (or new professions), which has not yet been claimed yet. Create a universal professional model has a set of skills required for a wide range of tasks. Particular attention is paid to the development of methodological and regulatory frameworks, expressed in the requirements for the professional standards of the profession, and preparation of competent professionals able to meet the challenges of advancing the development of primary and secondary vocational education.
Solutions outlined above set of problems - this is only the first steps to implementing the directions relating to innovative changes in the content of the contemporary Russian education. It is hoped that the developed concepts, models, methods and technologies will be widely used in the practice of educational institutions at various levels of the education system, and will contribute to the education of the younger generation, whose personality and creativity will meet modern conditions and trends in the development of society and the labor market.
Analysis of domestic and foreign experience of civic education of students showed that the most effective ways of forming social and communicative personality development are the creation and implementation of innovative integrative courses; activation of student government; design and survey and research activities of students; creative workshops; widespread use of additional forms of education in various fields (art, sports, technical, information technology and others); psychological training and socio-psychological games and exercises.
Programs on social-communicative personality development should be implemented within the basic education plan in the framework of the study required subjects, and as part of the activities of the second half of the day (artistic, sports, educational, patriotic activities).
For pre-school and primary level of general education the most adequate methods of development of social and communication skills, as well as the formation of tolerance, civic identity are the games, the use of productive creative art activities, socio-psychological trainings. Game, serving as a special age-specific form of the child's self-determination is an important mechanism of socialization, providing entry into the social world - the world of social and interpersonal human relations and its development (Vygotsky, 2004; Elkonin, 1994; Asmolov, 2007).
Game, building bridges between childhood and adulthood, offers a "perfect shape" given sample, the standard for future adulthood in an understandable and accessible to follow the child form, because playing different roles, child, not simply transferred to another person, but at the same time significantly contributes to and deepens his own.
All of these methods have in common is that is at the forefront of motivational-value, the semantic component of communicative tolerance and civic identity, which is quite adequate and psychological characteristics of children age 5-11 years old, and the essential laws of development of the personality (Leontiev, 2005; Soldatova, 2001).
The programs and technologies on social and communicative development of the personality, a model of organization of educational work with children 5-11 years of age (Krivcova & Patyaeva, 2008; Krivcova & Dostanova, 1997), which is based on the use of creative tasks, allowing your child to successfully absorb such difficult concepts such as tolerance, respect, equality, love of peace. The principle of selection of the content of the material being studied and priority of children's activities in educational technology is related with the position of Zaporozhets (1986), reflected in the " Psychology of perception tales preschooler child". Zaporozhets (1986), considering the mechanism of perception and understanding, affirmed that "listening to tales, along with creative games, plays an important role in shaping the kind of inner mental activity - the ability to mentally operate in imaginary circumstances, without which there can be no creative activity" (p. 217).
The peculiarity of this kind of programs and technologies is that the staff of a particular educational institution on the basis of the proposed model "builds" own system of educational work, taking into account the specifics of the educational organization, psychological and age peculiarities of pupils.
The basis of the program and technology on social and communicative personality development with the integration of various activities aimed at the establishment of a close relationship of various subjects of the educational process (administration of educational organizations, senior teachers, tutors, music teachers, educational psychologists, additional education of teachers and other specialists, primary school teachers, kindergarten children, primary school pupil, parents).
One of the main tasks of software and technology for social and communicative development of the individual is to build educational work with children, their parents and teachers on the basis of use of elements of the educational environment (educational games, books, TV, audio visual aids, etc.), Which contribute to the formation of and the development of communicative culture skills, the basics of self-willed, behavior.
Conditions for successful implementation of social and communicative personality development programs and technologies in practice educational organization are:
special training for the teachers involved in the implementation of programs and technologies in the educational organization;
implementation of programs and technologies in the educational process through the integration of the various activities;
organized in a certain way developing subject environment, allowing the use of various forms of work with children;
systematic approach to the implementation of programs and technologies;
motivational readiness in educational organization administration, teaching staff, parents, the implementation of the work;
a close relationship in the work of all actors of the educational process (teachers, specialists-students, pupils, parents, etc.);
experience of innovative or experimental activities of educational organizations.
Implementation of social and communicative personality development programs and technologies allows you to create value-semantic and communication skills in students.
The value-sense moral development of students formed following qualities: self-esteem; social activity, responsibility, tolerance to violations of the norms of morality and law.
In the formation of the communicative competence of the person appears ready for dialogue and cooperation with people of different beliefs, national cultures and religions; manifestation of respectful relations in the joint design and search and research activities with peers and adults; mutual assistance and support to all members of the team.
The analysis is conducted as part of research work 18.4 "Analysis of the implementation of the federal state educational standards of preschool education in educational institutions, and suggestions for improvement".
The survey is conducted as part of research work 18.4 "Analysis of the implementation of the federal state educational standards of preschool education in educational institutions, and suggestions for improvement", commissioned by the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration on 2019.
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