Prevention Of Risky Destructive Behaviour Of Teenagers

Abstract

The number of new types of risky destructive behavior of teenagers ("roofers", "stalkers" and "treynsyorfer") who lead to tragic events, accidents, loss of health and a lethal outcome grows. According to World Health Organization manifestation of risky behavior increases at the age of 12-16 years. Research objective: to study features of the teenagers practicing risky behavior and to define the effective methods of psychology and pedagogical influence directed to prevention of risky behavior among teenagers. On the basis of activity approach the main strategy of scheduled maintenance is allocated - not to limit activity of the individual inclined to risk, the bans and censures, and to support, study and direct to constructive types of activity, creating success situation. During the research the general and specific features of the respondents inclined to different types of risky behavior of "roofers", "stalkers" and "treynsyorfer" (tendency to risk, a frustrirovannost of requirements, the motivational sphere) which were considered when developing of the preventing measures of risky destructive behavior are defined. The main for all groups of teenagers are subjective - moral installations (life value, responsibility for acts, the needs for self-development, recognition, communication) and objective (knowledge of consequences of risky behavior, a possibility of positive alternative replacement). The directions of pedagogical activity and parental responsibility in scheduled maintenance are defined.

Keywords: Risky behaviorpreventionrufingstalkeringtreynsyorfingzatseping

Introduction

Modern technical progress initiates interest and aspiration of teenagers and youth to extreme, risky, dangerous behavior. In society there are new forms of behavior which help the personality to prisposablikvatsya to surrounding reality. Now relevant is a research of such povekdeniye which is connected with risk. The risky behavior is steady characteristic of the individual and is connected with features of the personality: impulsiveness, independence, tendency to domination, recognition, success, test. Growth of number of new types of risky destructive behavior of teenagers leads to tragic events, accidents and a lethal outcome. According to World Health Organization, the expressiveness of risky behavior increases at the age of 12-16 years. According to Voroshilin (2009, 2013), the inclination to risk behavior belongs to the congenital forms of behavior caused by instincts. Feature of such behavior in decrease in an instinct of self-preservation which provokes the subject to dangerous behavior and can lead of it to death.

In the modern world new sports gain activity: motorcycle races, diving, windsurfing, mountaineering, speleology, hand gliding, paraplanerism, bungee jumping ("bungee") and others. The known cases of extreme jumps from the Eiffel Tower, the Tower of Pisa, from Christ's statue in Rio de Janeiro can be an example. In the Urals basejumpers made jumps from an unfinished television tower in Yekaterinburg (220 m), from the bridge of Kamensk-Uralsky and from a pipe of SUMZ plant in Revda. However, extreme types of activity attract the casual people, professionally unprepared, owing to psychological features teenagers become them. The need for autonomy, self-affirmation, recognition, test of, receiving pleasures, new feelings, information remains unsatisfied not in family, not at school (Ilyin, 2012; Solntsevo, 1999).

Unsatisfied needs of teenagers for risky behavior and real danger are shown in receiving pleasure from overcoming dangerous situations. Satiation vital monotony arises at younger generation due to the lack of the conscious significant purpose in life, at the same time desire to derive pleasure in any way becomes the main sense of existence and joy. The psychiatrist-criminalist Vinogradov notes: "At teenage age there are not enough positive emotions, adrenaline is necessary. Thrill-seekers derive pleasure at excess of a threshold, they need excitement, and for the sake of a high they are ready to risk life" (as cited in Vasyagina & Sycheva, 2019, p.64). Quite often it leads to criminal activity, extreme sports, is frequent by a lethal outcome and socially unacceptable forms of dangerous types of subcultures, such as "rufing" (ascension on roofs of high-rise buildings and skyscrapers), "digging" (penetration into vaults), "treynsyorfing" ("zatseping", etc.) – illegal driving on roofs or ledges of cars of trains, a dangerous selfie - a type of photography of at which the choice of the place or an object for the photo is connected with the increased danger (Algin, 1989).

Contributes to the development of risky destructive behavior among teenagers Internet communities, the numerous websites, forums where there is an exchange of a photo and video - information are created, mass actions are planned. A trend of the last years is decrease in age of the teenagers involved in risky destructive behavior, the number of the studying 13-14 years showing activity in the listed subcultures increased, the prevalence of risky behavior among girls is observed (Vasyagina, 2016; Niazashvili, 2007).

All types of risky destructive behavior (diggerstvo, rufing, zatseping, stalkerstvo, dangerous selfie) of teenagers are dangerous and require special attention of researchers, teachers, psychologists, staff of social services and educational organizations.

Problem Statement

In researches of psychological features of the teenagers representing deviant subculture special attention occupies influence of personal values on risky behavior. Influence of a self-assessment on tendency to risk of teenagers, influence of the strong-willed and emotional sphere on the choice of extreme types of activity and sport is investigated. In the context of cognitive researches, the tendency to risk was compared with a control locus. The risky behavior was considered as dissotsialny frustration of the personality if it was excessively shown (Zuckerman, 1995).

In psychology and pedagogical researches it is possible to allocate the main directions of studying of risky destructive behavior: as manifestation impulsivknykh of reactions (Weinstein & Nicolich, 1994); as the behavior mediated by violation of the emotsionalkno-strong-willed sphere (Frager & Fadiman, 2005; Rommetveit, 1981; Olson, 2013); as situational characteristic of activity which consists in rather adverse effects in an uncertainty situation (Thomson, Hanna, Carlson, & Ruper, 2012; Lopez, 2009); as motivation of achievement of success (Giddens, 2011); as specific psychological features of behavior of the personality; as dispositional personal value; as professional orientation of the personality (Vasyagina 2016; Solntsevo, 1999); as specifics of feelings and subject's thoughts (Roysamb, 2008); as inevitability of the choice between several action: less attractive, but reliable and more attractive, but less reliable; as decrease in an instinct of self-preservation at addictive teenagers (Voroshilin, 2013); as a phenomenon of "unjustified optimism" or "illusion of invulnerability" when teenagers depreciate consequences of risk and to exaggerate the opportunities in a test situation (Weinstein & Nicolich, 1994).

The analysis of literature allowed to define a concept of risky behavior as the purposeful activity directed to satisfaction of requirements, assuming voluntary adoption of risk for health or life of the subject which leads to adverse effects. The efficiency of scheduled maintenance is represented to us successful on the basis of activity approach since in this case, the behavior is understood as the organized activity which is carrying out communication of an organism with the external environment through realization of motives. Within this approach the content of risky behavior can be determined as false requirement, and the main mechanism of its development - "shift of motive on the purpose" (Bunas, 2013). Thus, the main strategy of scheduled maintenance - not to limit activity of the individual inclined to risk, the bans and censures, and to support, study and direct to constructive types of activity, creating success situation, to emphasize originality and uniqueness of the personality in individual manifestations (Bunas, 2013).

Research Questions

3.1 What are the features of adolescents with risky behaviour?

3.2 How to correct risky behavior of teenagers?

Purpose of the Study

Research objective: to study features of the teenagers practicing risky behavior (on the example of "roofers", "stalkers" and "treynsyorfer") and to define the effective forms, methods of psychology and pedagogical influence directed to prevention of risky behavior among teenagers.

Research Methods

84 teenagers aged from 14 up to 16 years, students of the eighth and ninth classes of the educational organizations of the city of Yekaterinburg participated in our research. Students are registered on groups of social networks, 46 of which represent subculture of "roofers" - it is the students practicing walks on roofs of buildings. 27 – subculture of "stalkerova", fond of penetration on the thrown objects, beginning from large buildings of the plants, hospitals before the old thrown constructions and 11 people the "treynsyorfer" or "train surfers" practicing journey outside of trains, trams. Let's note that among 84 respondents there were girls in number of 9 people representing subculture of "roofers". 7 boys - teenagers stay on the registry in the commission on affairs of minors and protection of their rights: two because of numerous detention for penetration on the protected area, five people - for journey outside of trams and motor transport on public roads (Article 12.29 the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offences Paragraph 1) and pass on railway tracks in unspecified places (Part 5 of Article 11.1 of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offences)

In a research empirical methods were used: Shmelyov's questionnaire "Tendency to risk" (as cited in Ilyin, 2012), which purpose - to receive an indicator of size of tendency to risk as traits of character of the teenager for forecasting of processes of decision-making in an uncertainty situation; Zuckerman's (1995) technique "Diagnostics of requirement for search of feelings", the purpose – determination of level of need for any feelings; Fantalova's (2001) technique "The level of a ratio of "value" and "availability" in various vital spheres" (USTsD) for the purpose of definition of existence of the internal conflict of respondents; questionnaire about motives of the choice of risky behavior (Zuckerman, 1995). The reliability of results is provided with application at data processing of coefficient of correlation of Pearson, Styyudent and Vilks's t-criterion (Statistica 6.0 program).

Findings

Significantly indicators of tendency to risk at the diagnosed groups of studying "roofers", "treynsyorfer" and "stalkers", depending on specifics of the presented risky situation differ. High rates of "shift to risk" are noted at group of "roofers" and "treynsyorfer", average values are received concerning group of studying "stalkers" and girls of group of "roofers".

All students showed eksternalny type of transfer of responsibility in the field of failures that this case explains manifestation of risky behavior by them, they tend to justify the actions using false reasonings and dependence on a social environment. Alsom common feature characteristic of all participants of an experiment, - the high level of an eksternalnost concerning health that characterizes the low importance of this value.

In group of "roofers" and "treynsyorfer" students differ in the high level of tension of the motivational sphere (t =-1.89; р <0.05). The needs for new impressions, self-expression and activity are the most frustrated (t =-2.31; р <0.05).

At group of "stalkers" the frustrirovannost of needs for recognition and communication is expressed (t =-2.73; р <0.01). Less significant attitude towards close people is peculiar to them: to family (N: t=2.14; р <0.01 р <0.01), mothers (N: t=2.02; р <0.01) in comparison with groups of "roofers" and "treynsyorfer".

Also, students of all groups show the need for search of feelings which reaches high level (Vilksa =0,2; р <0.01). The difference indicator between their importance and availability to students reaches the level of the internal conflict (RIV = 7.69). At the same time the high level of motivation has a need for recognition (Vilksa =0,3; р <0.01). In group of "roofers" and "treynsyorfer" the steady trend of behavior of "fight acceptance" is observed (t =-1.93; р <0.01) and "independence" (t =-2.04; р <0.01).

The general and specific psychological features of the respondents inclined to different types of risky behavior are defined. The studying groups of "stalkers" show tendency to risk less, at the same time the frustrirovannost of need for recognition and communication, weakness of close relations in family is observed. At the studying groups of "roofers" and "treynsyorfer" of significant distinctions it is not revealed, the high rate of tendency to risk is noted, the needs for new impressions, self-expression and activity, a steady trend of behavior of "fight acceptance" and "independence" are frustrated. Depreciation of basic existential values is peculiar to teenagers of all groups, the risky behavior is attractive, the act deserving admiration the aspiration to get new experience, feelings, despite danger and threat to health and life is perceived by them as. Thus, there is an underestimating of danger, and boys are more inclined to risky behavior, than girls, in is mute they see smaller threat for health, do not consider negative consequences and are not going to refuse it. Receiving adrenaline so takes that teenagers are ready to risk repeatedly even after experience of failures and wounds. Result and confirmation of risk are pictures which then it is shown in the Internet communities.

In questionnaire the motivation to risk at boys – receiving adrenaline, at girls - an opportunity to draw attention to itself, to gain recognition and to ego-trip was defined.

Teenagers at the answer to a question of possible options alternative ways of risk, pointed to desire to play extreme sports (33 answers), to travel (29 answers), to work (19 answers), single answers (4 answers) concerned desire to spend time behind computer games that now under a ban from parents.

The uniqueness of scheduled maintenance consists in innovative approach of preventive interaction by the principle "equal equal". Peer – the person belonging to the same social group as target audience (teenagers with risky behavior). The principle "equal – equal" it is based on the theory of behavior claiming that the personality changes not because has knowledge and examples of behavior, and as a result of beliefs of relatives and authorities enjoying confidence equal on the social or group status.

In prevention of risky behavior of students we suggest to use the strategy directed, first, to decrease in the risk factors having negative impact on development of the teenager and provoking social and risky types of behavior (on the basis of videos we learn to estimate risk; we exclude the factors provoking to risk, we develop sense of responsibility and values of own life), secondly, on strengthening of factors of protection against risk which lower extent of emergence of risks and promote forming of competences and successful socialization of school students. As such factor compensation of thrills of teenagers through the alternative social approved types of activity, orientation of an educational system on bright and strong emotions, on adventures, on romanticism, on hobbies, a hobby and interests can serve (the free modern Horizon extreme park in Berezovsky of Sverdlovsk region can be an example). From among peers or students of advanced age ("equal") the strong leader, the trainer, an idol ready to lead and become the authority figure and a role model is elected.

The sport allows to learn boundless opportunities of own organism, instead of immersion to the illusory world of destructive risk, especially for the studying groups of "roofers" and "treynsyorfer". At the same time hobby for interesting occupation, team unity, preservation and promotion of health is combined.

In an education system it is necessary for teachers:

- to carry out education of parents;

- in the course of information education of teenagers to use a photo and video records on safe behavior and prevention of children's traumatism;

- to organize leisure of minors, on the basis of game trainings, quests, etc.

- to help preventive corrective actions, to form legal consciousness of students.

- to organize the joint interdepartmental operational preventive actions directed to identification and suppression of the facts of risky behavior including in network of the Internet.

Conclusion

The studying groups of "stalkers" show tendency to risk less, at the same time the frustrirovannost of need for recognition and communication, weakness of close relations in family is observed. At the studying groups of "roofers" and "treynsyorfer" of significant distinctions it is not revealed, the high rate of tendency to risk is noted, the needs for new impressions, self-expression and activity, a steady trend of behavior of "fight acceptance" and "independence" are frustrated. Depreciation of basic existential values is peculiar to teenagers of all groups. Boys are more inclined to risky behavior, than girls, in is mute they see smaller threat for health, do not consider negative consequences, receiving adrenaline so takes that teenagers are ready to risk repeatedly even after experience of failures and wounds.

The main strategy of scheduled maintenance - not to limit activity of the individual inclined to risk, the bans and censures, and to support, study and direct to constructive types of activity, creating success situation. The principle "equal – equal", based on the theory of behavior claiming that the personality changes not because has knowledge and examples of behavior, and as a result of beliefs of relatives and authorities enjoying confidence equal on the social or group status. Only the behavior of "equal" can become a convincing example for imitation, motivate on a healthy lifestyle, propagandize responsible behavior, including through network of the Internet.

Thus, counteraction to involvement of teenagers in undesirable forms of risk behavior cannot be presented only by retaliatory, repressive methods, it is necessary to create conditions for the direction of activity of persons with inclination to risk in socially acceptable types of risk behavior.

References

  1. Algin, A.P. (1989). Risk and his role in public a zhizkna. Moscow: Тhought.
  2. Bunas, A. A. (2013). Various aspects of justification of the nature of risky behavior of the personality. In Yu. V. Ivanova (Ed.), Psychology: problems of practical application: materials 2nd Scientific and Practical Conference (pp. 10-16). Chita: Publishing house Young scientist. Retrieve from https://moluch.ru/conf/psy/archive/82/4049/.
  3. Fantаlova, E. B. (2001). Diagnosis and therapy of internal conflict. Samara: Publishing house BAKHRAKH.
  4. Frager, R., & Fadiman J. (2005). Personality & Personal Growth. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  5. Giddens, A. (2011). Fate, Risk and Security. In N. M. Markelov (Ed.), Modernity and Self-Indentity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age (pp.109–143). Cambridge: Polity Press.
  6. Ilyin, E. P. (2012). Psychology of risk. Moscow: Masters of psychology.
  7. Lopez, L. L. (2009). Between Hope and Fear: The Psychology of Risk. In U. K. Babanskii (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (pp. 255–295). Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/
  8. Niazashvili, A.G. (2007). Individual differences of tendency to risk in different social situations of personal development (Doctoral Dissertation). Moscow: Тhought.
  9. Olson, J. (2013). Study identifies gene in mice that may control risk-taking behavior in humans. Science Daily, 1(3), 61-64.
  10. Rommetveit, R. (1981). On Meanings of Situations and Social Control of Such Meaning in Human Communication. Toward a Psychology of Situations: An Interactional Perspective, 4, 151-167.
  11. Roysamb, E. (2008). Adolescent risk making: Behaviour patterns the role of emotions a cognitions (Doctoral Dissertation). Oslo: University of Oslo.
  12. Solntsevo, G.N. (1999). O psychological contents the concept of "risk". Bulletin of Moscow University. Psychology, 14(2), 14-22.
  13. Thomson, C.J., Hanna, C.W., Carlson, S.R., & Ruper, J.L. (2012). The 521 C/T variant in the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) is associated with skiing and snowboarding behavior. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233955988_The_-521_CT_variant_in_the_dopamine-4-receptor_gene_DRD4_is_associated_with_skiing_and_snowboarding_behavior
  14. Vasyagina, N. N. (2016). Interdepartmental cooperation and social partnership in the prevention of delinquent behavior of adolescents. Pedagogical education in Russia, 9, 117-122.
  15. Vasyagina, N. N., & Sycheva, N. B. (2019). Features of self-destructive behavior of students. Pedagogical education in Russia, 1, 93-99.
  16. Voroshilin, S.I. (2009). Psychogenetic and ethological approaches to classification of not chemical (behavioural) dependences. Psychological problems of development and existence of the person in the modern world, 2, 59-76.
  17. Voroshilin, S.I. (2013). A classification issue of pathological risk behavior of antisocial character and factors of its distribution on the example of "treynsyorfing" ("zatseping"). Тhe Tyumen medical magazine, 1, 38-40.
  18. Weinstein, N., & Nicolich, М. (1994). Correct and incorrect interpretations between risk perception and risk behavior. Health Psychology, 3, 235-245.
  19. Zuckerman, M. (1995). Good and bad humours: biochemical bases of personality and its disorders. Psychological Science, 6(6), 325–332.

Copyright information

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

About this article

Cite this paper as:

Click here to view the available options for cite this article.

Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2019.07.24

Online ISSN

2357-1330