Regional cluster policy plays a significant role among the strategic tools for the socio-economic development of the region. The relevance of the cluster approach is due to the prevailing contradictions in the system of sectoral and regional planning and the unresolvedness of a number of tasks assigned to the territorial-sectoral complexes. As a result, there appeared a demand for the creation of organizational structures that level regional and sectoral contradictions and at the same time help to increase the competitiveness of business entities. Logistics clusters are part of the cluster policy of the territories, which shifts the emphasis towards business processes with greater added value based on the constructive interaction of partners. Both global trends and regional features of development are taken into account when designing logistics agro-industrial clusters. It is possible not only to increase the competitiveness of individual enterprises and regions, but also to provide the necessary institutional conditions for the formation of a global competitive agricultural and industrial complex of the country. Logistic agro-industrial cluster is traditionally considered as a means of increasing the competitiveness of a region. Analysis of the literature related to the concept of "cluster" showed that the interpretation of this term is so broad that it is difficult to identify not only specific, but also common cluster’ features. The cluster approach in logistics contributes to the development of forms of economic flows of a higher level of organization. A lot can be transferred to the theory of clusters and logistics from business practice.
Keywords: Digital platformslogistics agro-industrial clusterlogisticsregionstrategy
Design of high-technological clusters becomes the most important task to achieve the strategic goals of the region’s development, and digital-type logistics clusters are necessary to maintain the agro-industrial sector, especially in the regions where this sector dominates. Russia's share in the structure of world exports of products of the agro-industrial complex (AIC) is about 1.3% according to statistics at the beginning of 2018. Current trends in the development of the Russian AIC indicate the possibility of implementing the scenario of a breakthrough development of this sector of the economy and increasing the share of world exports of the AIC to 3.4% by 2030. Authors believe, that such a breakthrough is possible due to the use of a cluster form of organization of logistic flows.
The growing global consumption of agricultural products and food forms a significant export potential for the Russian AIC. Realization of this potential requires a competitive system of product distribution, both in the country and in world markets. Consumer preferences dictate new requirements for modern logistics, which have to reconfigure the flow patterns, increasing their flexibility, efficiency, stability, balance and reliability. We can highlight the concept of supply chain management SCM, operating in a special communication environment of the platform type among modern logistics solutions that can significantly improve the competitiveness of the domestic AIC. We are talking about digital platforms that allow receiving, generating, analyzing information about the state of the distribution system, its qualitative and quantitative characteristics in a steaming mode (Afanasenko & Borisova, 2018).
Despite numerous studies in the field of clustering, it is still not clear what the notion of “cluster” includes; there is no single, unified approach to determining the ability of a cluster to be combined with many other forms of organization. At the same time, the experience of many countries has proved the efficiency of cluster formation; cluster policy has become an important element of public policy. The cluster is presented both as an opportunity for active economic development and as a way of networking on a scale of the region. The unity of opinion of scientists is only that the cluster is a self-organizing system (Bergman & Feser, 1999; Porter, 2000; Marshall, 1890; Markov, 2015; Rosenfeld, 1997).
The works of Markov (2015), Lavrikova (2008), Popkova (Popkova, Ragulina, & Bogoviz, 2019) and Shastitko (2009) are devoted to the study of cluster tools in the context of the development of regional economy. Logistics clusters and their structuring are revealed in the works of Afanasenko & Borisova (2013), Evtodieva (2011) and others. International experience shows that enterprises united in groups according to the cluster principle, gain additional capacity for economic development and leadership in domestic and foreign markets (Porter, 2000).
A characteristic feature of objects in cluster formations is their certain affinity, similarity, which reveals their desire for unity; however, they are also distinguished by their individuality, and their ability not to dissolve into each other. However, they are different from objects in other clusters.
Typical organizational forms are designated in the theory of logistics: logistic chains, networks, channels, cobweb-like and cluster configurations of a flow. There is an evolutionary link and intersystem movements between these organizational forms. It is important to plan impact on the organizational act consciously since logistical processes, conditioned by several reasons and filled with complex, controversial content can manifest themselves in several organizational forms. It implements the regulatory mechanism of the law of selection. Forms, less adapted to the external environment disappear, and more adapted survive from the point of view of the law of selection. The inconstancy of the environmental conditions and the stochasticity of the parameters of the elements-units of the structure determine the alternativeness of configuration of logistic flows in organizational forms (Afanasenko & Borisova, 2013).
The state stimulates those clusters that focus mainly on intellectualization, automation, and robotization of processes throughout its entire life cycle. It provides a public-private partnership, interaction with the scientific, educational and public sectors of the economy.
A new food market (Foodnet) is emerging today under the influence of digital transformations in the economy and growing consumer demands (The program of development of the digital (electronic) economy in the Russian Federation until 2035, 2017). Its structure includes a segment of the production of nutrients based on alternative sources of raw materials, genomics, organic farming, etc. Given this, it should be noted that it becomes very important to develop common standards and regulations for integration interactions for participants in new markets for the logistics agro-industrial cluster. A single data bank is being formed - a joint communication environment that allows receiving, generating and analyzing information on the market dynamics in a streaming mode. The use of technological platforms by the subjects of cluster formations in business processes will provide them with the opportunity to obtain standardized information and documents using a single pass channel for the implementation of all conditions of the process of product distribution.
Simplification of logistic procedures helps reduce time costs, optimizes operating costs and inventory structure, and provides constructive guidelines for target groups of consumers when entering new markets.
The dynamic development of clusters in the agro-industrial sector of the economy depends largely on the constructive state policy in this area.
Agro-industrial clusters in Russia have already shown positive experience of work.
The integration of raw materials, procurement, processing and producing final products of companies, scientific organizations, non-profit innovation centers and the university is also characteristic of the
Food innovation processes of milk processing are characteristic of
The analysis showed that the logistics component was underutilized in almost all the agro-industrial clusters that are functioning now. Objective prerequisites for the transformation of agro-industrial clusters into cluster-type logistics systems were outlined. Traditionally, clusters are classified by mission (goals), by composition of the participants, specialization, including logistics and others. Logistics organizational forms of cluster type can arise not only in the form of warehouse, transport, customs, service and in other clusters of sectoral and regional scale, but also in the form of a logistics transformation of traditional cluster typologies, that is, a cluster as a logistics system. It is in this context that we position the logistics agro-industrial cluster.
Purpose of the Study
The causality of the formation of logistics organizational forms of the cluster type should be considered in line with the
The choice of targets is determined by the individual characteristics of the cluster, as well as the evolution of its development. The historical background of the cluster concept allows talking about the possibility of developing
Obviously, the practical sustainability of the logistics cluster is predetermined not only by the number of elements-links concentrated in it, but also depends on the way they are combined and the nature of the organizational bundle. If the external conditions are experiencing unusual changes, i.e. significant transformational changes of parameters, then the ratio of “stable” and “unstable” may acquire the opposite nature. In this regard, the role of cluster integration, cooperation and partnerships (Bowersox & Closs, 2008), which strengthen the competitive position of the cluster due to reduced production costs of enterprises, stable strategic partnerships, optimizing of pricing policies, high quality products, expanding the cluster’s presence to domestic and foreign markets becomes actual. Qualitative changes in the structure and content of cluster links occur as a result of their digital transformation. The problem of forming a unified architecture of the cluster model, coordinating intersubjective breakthrough projects, and designing a new platform-type integration infrastructure arises. The task of the clusters of this type is to support digital business processes, new markets and products. In Russia, there is a considerable potential for the development of logistics clusters on the basis of modern technological platforms. In recent years, digital and federal-level digital platforms have been created in our country that are comparable to the platforms of leading countries and in some cases have become examples for others.
A serious obstacle in the implementation of digital technologies is the condition of synchronization of the transition of all participants in the cooperation chain to work with them. The state can solve this problem, being the organizer of large holdings, technological platforms, or as a regulator, setting guidelines for the use of certain technological solutions. In the medium- and long-term perspective, digital technologies provide a positive effect from the synchronization of the implementation processes of typical technological solutions in the target segments of the economy. Shared digital platforms facilitate interaction between users; contribute to the emergence of network effects in which the value of platforms increases with an increase in the number of participants (Afanasenko & Borisova, 2018).
The demand for
With regard to the logistics agro-industrial cluster, this is related to the interaction of its participants on the development of new technologies for accelerated breeding, seed production, genetic engineering modification of plants and animals and joint use of vaccine production technologies, biological plant protection products and production technologies of modern types of equipment, etc.
The use of digital technologies (artificial intelligence, BigData analytics, cloud technologies, etc.) enhances the planning and operational management of logistic flows, ensuring the full integration of logistic operations within the wholesale distribution centers. Logistic integration is also reflected in the process of optimizing the total costs of moving goods through the economic interest of transport, commercial organizations and the firms they serve in streamlining the supply chains and selling finished goods.
The effectiveness of the use of information technology is manifested in the conditions of solving operational problems in time and geographical space. The loss of resources, time and money is inevitable throughout the supply chain. It is important to apply an integrated approach, as well as coordinated management to all business processes occurring in the system in order to reduce costs and increase profits to solve the problem of optimizing product distribution.
The use of logistic approaches in the domestic agro-industrial complex will provide additional sources of growth in the speed of supply throughout the entire distribution system, which ultimately has a significant impact on reducing costs, stocks in the system, increasing the quality of services provided, including through the online order placement and logistics cycle flexibility. Ultimately, this will help support agribusiness enterprises, expanding the presence of Russian products on the market and strengthening their export potential.
Comparison of different points of view on the nature of organizational forms of the cluster type made it possible to formulate the features of the logistics agro-industrial cluster more accurately. The cluster theory studies the objective laws of integration processes in the economy, but it does not reveal the fundamental essence of complex systems of cluster type apart from other hypotheses, in particular, from the logistic concept. We will define the
Summing up, we can note that the logistic approach to the formation of agro-industrial clusters is fully combined with the already developed inter-industry balance methodology, which can serve as a basis for analyzing the matrix of digital interaction of partners. The use of a matrix interpreted in this way gives an idea of the dynamics and intensity of digital streams in a cluster. Its principal advantage is a shift in focus on the productive interaction of business entities and event management in the cluster-type logistics system. It is possible to track the dynamics of product distribution in the cluster using the well-proven module of monitoring, recognition and visualization of the status of goods – SCEM – Supply Chain Event Management (Ivanov & Ivanova, 2008). The module's algorithm allows real-time monitoring of the status of a product, visualization of data on the supplier, insurance stocks and carrier. Such event management in logistics agro-industrial clusters allows, if necessary, eliminating deviations in the supply chain quickly and reducing the time of the logistics cycle.
The variability of environmental conditions and the stochasticity of the parameters of elements-units in the structures determine the alternativeness of the logistic flow configurations in organizational forms. This circumstance is underlined by a number of researchers (Dobromirov & Lukinsky, 2016; Sergeev, 2016).
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02 April 2019
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Borisova, V., Bataev, D., & Tasueva, T. (2019). Logistic Agroindustrial Cluster As A Strategic Tool For Regional Development. In V. A. Trifonov (Ed.), Contemporary Issues of Economic Development of Russia: Challenges and Opportunities, vol 59. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 492-499). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.04.53