Psychology - Pedagogical Bases Of Key Transprofessional Competences Development In The Professional Reorientation
The topicality of the problem stated in article is caused by the fact that now the process of interaction of a person and his profession becomes more complicated and it demands the formation of such competences which will allow him quickly and freely to guide in the modern labor market, to change the course of professional activity as well as maintenance and quality of his work during all life. The purpose of this article is to study the psychological readiness to develop new kinds of activity of teachers at vocational school in the conditions of a professional reorientation and also to design the process of psychology-pedagogical assistance to develop new kinds of activity of adult teachers at vocational school in the conditions of professional reorientation. The methodological basis of the research was made by conceptual provisions of personal-focused approach in education and also the questions of adults continuous professional education organization. In the course of the research such theoretical scientific methods as analysis, synthesis, concretizing, generalization were applied. Materials on carrying out and the results of pilot study of psychological readiness to develop new kinds of teachers activity at vocational school in the conditions of professional reorientation are of practical value for the psychologists, educational psychologists of the education system, teachers of vocational school working on a problem of psychology - pedagogical assistance to development of new kinds of activity of adult teachers in the system of secondary professional education.
Keywords: Psychology -pedagogical assistanceprofessional reorientationprofessionalizingtransprofessional competencesperson's psychological readiness for the advancing education
High-speed dynamics of the world of profession and social life on the whole actualize the need for forecasting and management of professional human life. In the scientific plan it was reflected in the development of the applied fields of psychology focused on this perspective – psychology of professions, psychology of professional education, psychology of career, vocational guidance. Generally, it is possible to say that at the state level there is an attempt to create if not a system, but the conditions in which the person could receive not only a social-economic and legal guarantee of observing his constitutional rights, but also some professional support in the solution of problems of professional self-determination, professionalizing and professional reorientation.
The fundamental nature to this problem is given by the interaction of several factors. First, development and modernization of social -economic, political situation in Russia and also the education system which is in direct dependence on qualification and professionalism of staff of various productions, fields of activity, and first of all, teachers of the higher and professional education.
The methodological foundation of professional formation research in domestic psychology is set in the works by Ananyev (2007), Asmolov (2009) and Rubenstein (2000) which have shown the role and place of work in the activity of a person, its influence on the development of a personality, has defined specifics of personal, activity and system approaches to studying this problem. The methodological analysis of development and formation of a person in any profession has been continued in the works by Zeer & Symanyuk (2016, 2017), Klimov (2005) and Markova (2006).
Certain researches of professional formation in domestic psychology are presented by the directions in which the main stages were studied: option, vocational guidance, professional adaptation and independent professional activity; separate qualities of a professional, including professional knowledge and skills, abilities, motives, traits of a personality, professionally important qualities were investigated; regularities of informative functions realization in the course of professional activity were analyzed.
Much attention in domestic psychology has been paid to studying of professional formation in certain types of professions, such as the head, a teacher and some others (Markova, 2006; Klimov, 2005; Pryazhnikova, 2013) as well as professional activity.
The process of professional self-determination acts as the systemically important process allowing to unite the professional future and the process of professional formation. From methodological positions it is possible to assume that the problem of professional self-determination begins with works of A. Maslou who offered the concept of professional development and allocated self-updating as aspiration of the person to improve, express, prove in business, significant for him as a central concept (Maslou, 2007). In his concept such concepts as self-updating, self-realization, self-implementation are close to the concept "self-determination".
The essential contribution to the development of the problems of professional self-determination in domestic psychology was made by Klimov (2005), having defined the essence of this phenomenon as important manifestation of mental development, formation oneself as a full-fledged participant of the community of "makers" of something useful, community of professionals. Klimov (2005) makes a conclusion that the choice of profession as the act of self-determination seeming sometimes easy and short-term, actually is carried out on a formula "a moment plus all previous life", i.e. is actually based on an appertseption. But the most consistently professional self-determination is presented in the works of Pryazhnikov (2006) who has offered procedural and substantial model of professional self-determination. Today the closest works to the offered project is the dissertation research by Leontyev & Shelobanova (2001) "Professional self-determination as creation of images of the possible future". Aspects of the past and the present in researches of the process of professional formation are almost not presented.
The basic theoretical and methodological principles of domestic psychology made the theoretical and methodological background of the work. We relied on the personalized-activity approach in psychology developed by Rubenstein (2000) and Ananyev (20070, on provisions by Shadrikov (2004), Ananyev, Rubenstein's etc. about psychology of abilities. Besides, we were guided by provisions who consider the organization of continuous professional education of adults as promoting interests of the personality, society, production, education system, by provisions about professional activity of the teacher of professional education (Chernyaev & Lykova, 2018).
By expert assessment, practitioners as a rule, have no pedagogical education. An essential share (more than 70%) of pedagogical staff in the system of professional education have no special training (psychology -pedagogical competences) for implementation of the qualified activity of a teacher of vocational training, professional education (Dneprov, 2017). That is why there is a discrepancy of basic education at pedagogical employees of vocational school to new requirements of FGOS (Federal Educational Standard) SPO (secondary vocational education).
The topicality of this problem is caused by the following contradictions between:
1) the existence of high branch professional qualification on the one hand, and almost total absence of professional psychology -pedagogical education at 75% of teachers of secondary vocational education which are accepted by heads of educational organizations from the partner enterprises, on the other hand;
2) the deepening scientific-theoretical and scientific -methodical researches of professional education and vocational training of skilled workers and specialists of mid-ranking in one profession and specialty, on the one hand, and on the other hand ‒ insufficient study of process of formation of polyprofessionalism and transprofessionalism in secondary vocational education;
3) emergence of close attention to a polyprofessionalism research in the course of professional education of secondary vocational education students and student’s higher education, on the one hand, and almost total absence of researches of the process of polyprofessional and transprofessional competences formation at teachers of secondary vocational education allowing them to be beyond former professional experience and to master absolutely new types of professional activity.
The state of a personnel resource in the system of secondary professional education shows that the qualification potential of pedagogical workers is not ready for solving problems of specialists training corresponding to the requirements of economy. Implementation of pedagogical activity in the absence of pedagogical qualification strengthens the general stagnation of secondary vocational education, increases the lag from requirements to quality of expert training. So by results of the state assignment of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation No. 2.76.2016/n/ m conducted by the Institute of psychology -pedagogical formation of the Russian State Professional and Pedagogical University (RSPPU) executed by the department of professional pedagogics in 2016 on the subject "Scientific -Methodical, Organizational and Informational Support of Implementation of the Concept of Secondary Professional Education System Staffing " it has been revealed: that teachers of secondary professional education actually don't own modern technologies of training: modular, project, informational, problem training and case technologies; lack of specialists training competence in the conditions of the advancing professional education; less than 50% of teachers of vocational school organize and carry out creative and scientific activity of students; more than 60% of teachers of secondary professional education don't develop and don't use new methodical tutorials and control in their professional activity; only 27% of teachers of secondary professional education from respondents implement the latest practically-focused training models; only 25% of teachers of vocational school from respondents own information and communication competences.
Modern realities of social and economic life are so that the person at present has necessarily not only to carry out retraining within the earlier chosen, but substantially changed profession, but also perhaps to change the profession (Vakhidova, 2016; Dorozhkin, Zeer, & Shevchenko, 2017). Now it is difficult to foretell at what age it is necessary to do it. Great changes of sociocultural and technological environment of professional activity, make us search for essentially new methodology of transfessional education focused on projecting of the person of the future, namely more and more demanded is the need of mastering by the person of several professions, even greatly opposite, i.e. monoprofessionalism turns into polyprofessionalism.
Therefore, to be successful in the professional activity, teachers of vocational school have to possess not only broad knowledge and competences of various professional areas, but first of all have to become transprofessionals having key transprofessional competences. In the work "Challenges of global professional revolution at a turn of the millennia", Malinovsky (2007) defines transprofessionalism as the collective distributed ability to reflexively connect and co-organize representatives of various professions for the solution of complex problems. According to Zeer & Symanyuk (2017) the essence of transprofessionalism is shown in polyprofessionalism, use of convergent technologies, development and performance not only professions related, but also absolutely far from each other, readiness to be beyond the created experience. Only then, according to them, the expert will be ready to meet social and professional innovations of the future. The fact that transprofessionalism doesn't deny the importance of an initial, basic profession attracts attention, and enables an exit out of its limits, enriches it with knowledge, competences and technologies from other professional kinds of activity (Kislov, 2018). It allows us to draw a conclusion that transprofessionalism is the integrated quality of an expert characterizing ability to master and carry out activity from different types and groups of professions (Zeer & Krezhevskikh, 2018).
Now there is a different understanding of the essence of transprofessional competences, for example, A.S. Gayazov in scientific work " Theory of training of the multifunctional expert of new type" gives the following definition of transprofessional competences: it is professional abilities of an expert including technological, information, standard and legal, communicative and interprofessional components meeting the requirements of Federal Educational Standard of secondary vocational education, professional standards and a production cluster (Gayazov, 2011). Malinovsky (2007) understands the ability and readiness of experts to carry out professional activity in various professional environments as transprofessional competences. Lazareva (2015) defines transprofessional competences as "the existence of knowledge, abilities and personal qualities necessary for performance of professional tasks in any field of activity" and represents them as a complex of certain structures of the personality which breaks into 4 groups: cognitive parameters; interpersonal and communicative abilities; intrapersonal parameters of the personality and system competences (qualities).
Within logical-semantic model of transprofessionalism of socionomy professions subjects, E.F. Zeer, as a tool components of transprofessionalism allocates: transfessional orientation; regulatory component; professional-educational component; information-communicative and humanitarian-technological components (Zeer & Symanyuk, 2016). Each of these components is presented by a certain set of transprofessional competences.
The substantial analysis of transprofessional competences characterizing transprofessionalism of experts allows us to mark out the background transprofessional competences which are the cornerstone of psychological readiness for development of new kinds of activity of vocational school teachers in the conditions of professional reorientation such as:
a) ability to study and work independently;
b) ability to self-organizing of professional activity;
c) adaptive abilities;
d) social and communicative mobility;
e) motivation to continuous self-development and self-improvement.
In our opinion, these competences are the cornerstone of psychological readiness of professional education teachers for the development of new types of pedagogical work and additional pedagogical competences and also provide success of pedagogical activity in the conditions of professional reorientation. In this connection topical is psychology- pedagogical assistance to formation of psychological readiness of teachers for the development of new kinds of activity in the conditions of professional reorientation that will allow to solve productively personnel problems in the sphere of professional education. The system of high-quality training and further maintenance of professional growth of an expert requires the complex scientifically based, theoretical-methodological and practical solution.
The main objective of our research is studying psychological readiness for the development of new kinds of activity of vocational school teachers in the conditions of professional reorientation.
Psychological readiness is characterized by most of researchers as mobilization of resources of the subject of work on performance of certain activity.
The diagnostic questionnaire of "Psychological readiness for development of new kinds of activity" for teachers of secondary vocational education consisting of 10 questions of opened, mixed and closed types has been developed to carry out the research by Institute of psychology and pedagogical formation of RSVPU.
The teachers of secondary vocational education who do not have basic pedagogical education and employees of methodical branches of career guidance of colleges in Yekaterinburg have acted as the object of the research. During the research 136 respondents (male – 25%, female – 75%) at Novouralsk technological college, Ekaterinburg machine-building college and the Ekaterinburg economical and technical college have been interviewed. A particular interest of selection is that 67% of the interviewed respondents have no basic pedagogical education, and 33% of teachers of vocational school have only the certificate of professional development in the field of psychology and pedagogical education.
During the research the following parameters of psychological readiness of teachers of vocational school for development of new kinds of activity were studied:
motives of development by teachers of vocational school of new kinds of activity;
ability to self-organization of professional activity;
ability to break psychological barriers exerting impact on the development of new kinds of activity in the conditions of professional reorientation;
ability to design of an individual course of professional way of the respondent and to establish effective communicative interactions;
current state of readiness for development of new types of professional activity, etc.
Purpose of the Study
According to the results of the research, most of the interviewed respondents (80%) feel the need for the development of new kinds of activity. At the same time 73% from the interviewed respondents understand the importance and the need of psychology -pedagogical knowledge, abilities, skills and psychology - pedagogical competences of their professional activity. But only 22% of the interviewed teachers of vocational school own psychology -pedagogical knowledge, abilities and competences at a sufficient level. It shows that on the one hand teachers of vocational school realize and understand the meaning of their professional activity, and on the other – aren't capable to analyze independently the needs for revision of their own professional position, this confirms the use of out-of-date and stereotypic ways, technologies and methods of training.
To the question, what motives make you master new types of professional activity the answers were distributed as follows: 40% of respondents answered that awareness of insufficiency of the achieved results and desire to improve the educational professional activity on the basis of self-organization act as the factor motivating their activity; 35% of respondents noted "desire and aspiration to create effective educational process for students"; 9% of respondents called " the feeling of own readiness to participate in an innovative processes, self-confidence" as the motivating factor and only 5%of respondents noted "the high level of professional claims, the strong need for achievement of good results" as the motivating factor of their activity . The analysis of diagnostic questionnaires allowed to allocate the barriers capable to be an obstacle in the development of new types of professional activity: 40% of respondents noted that the big academic load acts as a barrier; 32% - the low level of self-organization of educational professional activity; 15% - lack of any help and assistance in the development of new kinds of activity; at the same time 13% of teachers of vocational school are convinced that it is effective to train in the out of -date way. These results show that most of interviewed optants do not have the ability to implement extra professional activity allowing to maintain an active academic load; the low level of self-organization of educational professional activity which does not allow them to master effectively new kinds of activity is revealed.
Analyzing percentage indicators, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the most part of teachers of vocational schools need the acquisition of competences of self-organization and development of adaptive abilities for effective development of new kinds of activity in the conditions of professional reorientation.
The results of questioning allow us to present the current state of psychological readiness to receive new types of psychology -pedagogical activity by teachers of secondary professional education. Most of the interviewed teachers realizes the need of development of new kinds of activity for the purpose of expansion of the professional field and first of all connect it with the effective organization of educational process (33,8%). Only 15,2% of the interviewed respondents in fact deal with issues of professional self-education and self-development in this area. The fact that only 5,4% of the interviewed respondents are engaged in planning the way of their professional development is of great importance, and only 7,2% of the interviewed teachers periodically apply for the help and assistance to scientific consultants and experts.
Results of our diagnostic questioning show that the most part of teachers of vocational school has no necessary and sufficient level of formation of key transprofessional competences which are the cornerstone of psychological readiness for development of new kinds of activity. Therefore, the organization of psychology-pedagogical assistance to formation of key transprofessional competences at teachers of professional education seem reasonable.
In modern researches devoted to the problems of professional formation and self-determination of the personality the accent is generally made on the secondary professionalizing which is characterized by further professional development in the earlier chosen profession. While the specialists- teachers who have come from production need some psychology - pedagogical assistance directed to the development of pedagogical kinds of activity, new to them, and to the creation of an individual professional way of the already professional -pedagogical development.
Projecting of technology of psychology- pedagogical assistance to the formation of transprofessional competences which will allow adult teachers of vocational school to master new kinds of activity in the conditions of professional reorientation will provide the solution of this problem and can become the sphere of cross-disciplinary researches that scientific methodically provide public practice of assistance to professional development, professional self-determination and professionalizing (Hasanova & Kotova, 2015c).
Most of researchers define psychological assistance as:
complete process of studying, formation, development and correction of professional formation of a personality;
the assistance to the subject in formation of the development orientation field, responsibility for actions in which he bears himself;
full realization of professional and personal potential of a person and satisfaction of needs of the subject of professional activity (Hasanova & Kotova, 2012a; Hasanova & Kotova, 2014b).
Analyzing the approaches given above, it is possible to draw a conclusion that psychological assistance of professional formation assumes the activity of a personality in projecting his professional and educational space, the high level of self-organization, self-development and self-updating.
Therefore, psychology -pedagogical assistance is a complete process of change, formation, development and correction of professionalizing of the identity of the expert, joint activities for rendering the preventive and operating assistance to teachers of vocational school in the course of development of new kinds of activity by them.
Functions of psychology- pedagogical assistance:
1) informational-analytical, consisting of maintenance of the process of formation of key transprofessional competences of the teacher of vocational school and also maintenance of separate stages of professional formation of a personality.
2) projecting – projecting and self-projecting of an individual professional way of teachers of vocational school, scenarios of separate stages of professional formation;
3) organizational – psychology and -pedagogical competent support andassistance to the personality in overcoming the psychological barriers influencing on the development of new kinds of activity in the conditions of professional reorientation and also the difficulties of professional formation, especially when changing the social and professional environment;
4) correctional-it is a correction of a social and professional -psychological profile of the identity of the teacher of secondary vocational education taking into account the formation of reflexive thinking, social and communicative mobility and competences of self-organization;
5) rehabilitation, consisting in maintenance and prevention of professional deformations development, destructions, assistance in overcoming crises and stagnation; professional rehabilitation of the personality in cases of a long gap in professional activity; ensuring social and professional self-preservation (Hasanova & Kotova, 2015c).
Professional development and self-development of the identity of the teacher of vocational school, updating professional and personal potential of the subject of professional activity, ensuring professional self-preservation, satisfaction with work and increase in efficiency of professional activity is the result of psychology - pedagogical assistance to the formation of basic transprofessional competences.
It seems to us that the technology of psychology - pedagogical assistance can be considered as the combinatory technology including as a psychological aspect:
diagnostics of initial level and dynamics of professional development of the expert; identification of the level of formation of key transprofessional competences, professional installations, motives, expectations, intentions, interests, preferences and values;
psychological assistance in updating and development of professional and personal potential, adaptability, reflexive thinking, competences of self-organization and self-training;
psychological support in overcoming psychological barriers influencing on the development of new kinds of activity in the conditions of professional reorientation, difficulties of independent projecting of the professional way and behavior; in management of process of self-training; in manifestation of an initiative at identification of the requirements and intentions;
psychological assistance in the development of academic skills, competences and assistance to teachers of vocational school in their use at work.
As pedagogical aspect the technology of psychology - pedagogical assistance includes:
creation of innovative educational space based on the technology of distant learning: online training, webinars, collective discussion of projects, competence-based orientation testing in real time with feedback, etc.;
active use of high humanitarian technologies in educational process providing activization of cognitive abilities: development trainings, professional networks, game technologies, projects of the professional future and present, multiprofessional design, competitions of professional skill etc. (Zeer & Symanyuk, 2016).
accounting of the technology of development of multidimensional qualities of professional and personal mobility, divergent nonlinear and innovative thinking, multivector distributive attention, etc.: case technology, special trainings, project technologies, foresight project, etc.;
methodical providing innovative educational and professional process to develop new kinds of activity of teachers of vocational school: mayor, master main curriculum, programs of retraining and requalification, extra professional educational programs.
Thus, the technology of psychology - pedagogical assistance to develop new kinds of activity of vocational schools’ teachers in the conditions of professional reorientation assumes the use of active methods directed at subjectivisation of the position of teachers of secondary vocational education such as a case technology, social - psychological trainings, project technologies, foresight project, etc. Realization of functions of psychology- pedagogical assistance is possible when using personally -focused technologies of professional development: the developing diagnostics; trainings of personal and professional development and self-development; monitoring of social and professional development; methods of formation of psychological autocompenetce; psychological consultation on problems of social and professional development; progects of alternative scenarios of professional life; personally focused trainings to increase socially -professional and psychology -pedagogical competence; flashbacks of professional life (psychobiography method); trainings of self-management, self-organization, self-control of the emotional and strong-willed sphere of a personality.
Within this research we consider professionalizing of adult teachers from the position of subject, competence-based and system approaches. The technology of psychology -pedagogical assistance to develop new kinds of activities of teachers of vocational schools in the conditions of professional reorientation allows to involve a flashback, the active strategy of behavior of the individual, self-organization of educational professional activity and reflexive pedagogical thinking as mechanisms of overcoming the contradictions connected with a nonequilibrium condition of the developed system of interaction of the personality with the social and professional environment.
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Нasanova, I., Kotova, S., Sadovnikova, N., & Kotov, A. (2019). Psychology - Pedagogical Bases Of Key Transprofessional Competences Development In The Professional Reorientation. In V. Mantulenko (Ed.), Global Challenges and Prospects of the Modern Economic Development, vol 57. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 66-76). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.8