Inclusive education, including higher education, is considered as the highest form of development of educational system in the direction of realization of the human right to receive high quality education at the place of residence in accordance with students' cognitive abilities and their health condition. Inclusive higher education is an innovation for Russian education system, therefore, it demands competent management at all stages of its formation and realization. The article deals with systematic approach to management in the sphere of inclusive higher education, illustrates the conceptual scheme of a management system in the sphere of inclusive higher education which purpose is to provide available and quality higher education for students with special needs according to their educational requirements and opportunities of employment. Within the offered concept its basic elements are defined: goals and principles, an object and subjects, functions, methods and technologies of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education; information technology, material, financial, psychological and pedagogical support of inclusive higher education management system. The article defines priorities in management of inclusive higher education, including, acceptance by all participants of educational system of inсlusion philosophy, prevention and overcoming of disability and artificial isolation of students with special needs, creation and providing them with equal rights and opportunities for higher education.
Keywords: Inclusive higher educationa management systemspecial needs studentsgoals of managementfunction of managementbarrier-free environment
The modern system of higher education is the social and cultural environment solving the most important problem of a humanization of vital activity conditions of each person and the society in general due to providing opportunities for development of abilities, formation of internal integrity and mental health, viability and resilience. The solution of this task is especially relevant for physically disabled people (PDP).
Public policy of the Russian Federation according to fundamental international documents in the field of education claims the principle of equality in education of physically disabled people (PDP). It assumes receiving the possibility of receiving full-fledged higher education and qualification that allows to become the equal member of society. The main way of realization of this principle is inclusive education at all training levels for physically disabled people (PDP) during all life.
Inclusive higher education is an approach to the organization of educational process when students, regardless of their physical, mental and other features, study together with the peers in higher education institutions, at the same time their special educational needs are considered and necessary support is given.
Inclusive education plays a special role in an education system as education for everybody regardless their health condition. The relation of the world community to the issue is reflected in the following definition: inclusive education is a step on the way of achievement of the ultimate goal – creation of the inclusive society which will allow all children and adults, regardless there sex, age, ethnic origin, abilities, existence or lack of violations of development and HIV infection, to participate in the life of society and to make their contributions in it. In this kind of society difference is respected and appreciated, while discrimination and prejudices in policy, everyday life and activity of institutions is extirpated (Kiuppis, 2014). Inclusive education, in this context, becomes a cornerstone of many processes of higher education reforming, meeting its relevant purposes: availability of education and its competence-based paradigm (Yarskaya-Smirnova, 2015). These transformations are impossible without formation of the corresponding concept of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education.
The insufficient readiness of the issue of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education caused need of the answers to the questions:
How does the existing control system in the sphere of the higher education meet the requirements of inclusion?
What kind of methodology of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education should be used?
Purpose of the Study
The purposes of the research are:
Systematization of knowledge of the theory, methodology and practice of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education.
Development of a number of the additional professional competences necessary for realization of pedagogical and administrative activity in the sphere of inclusive higher education for subjects of educational process (heads, teachers, educational support personnel):
1. ability to develop the adapted the curriculum, to adapt subject plans taking into consideration the type of a nosology of students with special needs (PDP) ;
2. ability to define educational needs of PDP;
3. ability to project the inclusive educational environment and its didactic part;
4. ability to adapt educational technologies to features of students with special needs;
5. ability and readiness to use the innovative training technologies taking into consideration the type of a nosology of students with special needs (PDP) ;
6. ability and readiness to participate in development and implementation of an individual educational program of the student with special needs and PDP.
Management system in inclusive higher education (MSIHE) - one of elements of a management system of the higher education therefore its purposes, tasks, principles and functions correspond to a management system of higher education (Korshunova, 2016). Dealing with MSIHE it is necessary to rely on methodology of system approach.
Model of management of inclusive higher education
In relation to the studied subject the model of management includes a number of the interacting and interdependent elements of inclusive education, with emphasis on those ones which have the greatest value that allows defining methods of the most effective impact on them. Thus, MSIHE can be presented as an ordered set of the interacting and interdependent elements forming the whole and united among themselves by relationship of cause and effect having one target focus (Cameron, 2016).
The model of a control system includes such characteristics as an entrance, a state and an exit. An entrance to MSIHE is, on the one hand, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the faculty, but on the other hand, - characteristics and educational needs of PDP. The condition of system is characterized by the elements defining educational processes such as career guidance, adaptation, training and employment of PDP (Mitrofanova & Mitrofanova, 2018).
The purposes and problems of management system of inclusive higher education
The purpose of MSIHE is to provide available and quality higher education for people with disability and special needs according to their educational requirements and opportunities of employment.
Realization of the purpose causes need of the following tasks solution (Morozov, 2011):
To create a barrier-free environment for PDP due to the use of modern information and communication technologies in the sphere of inclusive education.
To provide multi-optional conditions for quality education of PDP using models of the integrated, inclusive, distance learning.
To improve the system of training, retraining and professional development of the teaching staff working in the system of inclusive education.
To develop the system of support, including psychological and pedagogical, scientific and methodical, information, social and cultural for students with special needs and PDP as well as employees and teachers working in the system of inclusive education.
Fundamental priorities in management of inclusive higher education are (Trentin & Benigno, 2013):
Acceptance of the philosophy of inclusion by all participants of educational system.
Orientation to development of applied and communicative competences.
Prevention and overcoming an invalidation of students with special needs and PDP and artificial isolation of the families with special needs children.
Transition from the help with studying for PDP students to creation and providing them with equal rights and opportunities for receiving higher education.
Factors and the principles of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education
Factors influencing on management in the sphere of inclusive higher education are (Thomas, 2012):
Universal tendencies of humanistic development of society, emergence of the international conventions and acts devoted to inclusive education.
Parental movement caused by increase in legal literacy of the families with special needs children.
Contradictions between the traditional principles of the Russian educational system and relevant civilization calls which demand its transformation (Almarghani & Mijatovic, 2017).
Relevant need in reduction of marginalization processes of the children with special needs and PDP caused by the system of vocational education.
Improvement of quality of life of the population of the country in general.
At the core of MSIHE there are the following principles (Mitrofanova & Mitrofanova, 2018):
Evolutionary character, phasing and continuity of development of MSIHE.
Responsibility of the state and civil society for ensuring the equal rights and equal opportunities for education.
Systemacity and complexity of MSIHE.
Scientific character and generality of MSIHE.
Feedback (efficiency) of MSIHE.
Accounting of specific features and needs of PDP at the organization of studying process.
Development of MSIHE on the basis of tolerant interaction of participants of educational process, cooperation with the parental public.
Levels and subjects of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education
Important conceptual issue is determination of levels of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education. The activity of all levels of management only coordinated: state, regional (territorial), higher education institutions provides achievement of strategic objectives (Erten & Savage, 2012). This is an approximate content of management of the inclusive higher education (IHE) at the different levels of management:
At the macro level federal organs of the power create the regulatory base of IHE, develop various programs in the field of development of IHE, define the main part of budget financing of IHE.
In territorial subjects of the Russian Federation the strategy of IHE is also defined, appropriate programs and forecasts, etc. are developed. At the level of municipal management professional orientation work among children with disability and PDP is carried out, the centers of scientific and technical creativity for PDP are created.
A strategy of IHE is more detailed at the micro level, i.e. in higher education institutions. Here at first the choice of concrete methods and technologies of educational activity in relation to special needs students and PDP is carried out. The centers are designed to work directly with PDP. The development program of inclusive education in higher education institution is developed in detail; the strategy of development for inclusive competence of all levels is realized: from the head to the teacher and educational support staff, various courses or schools for teachers for studying of issues of special needs students' training.
MSIHE is characterized by polysubjectivity, the main subjects of management in which are:
The state in the person of, first of all, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation forming prospects and target indicators of inclusive higher education development taking into consideration individualization of approaches to the identity of each person with disability and PDP.
The management of higher education institutions which is carrying out: strategic planning of development of higher education institution, including inclusive education, scientific, social and educational and other kinds of activity of higher education institution.
Teachers who directly realize training of students with special needs and PDP.
The state and public organizations which carry out psychological, pedagogical and medico-social maintenance and also resource providing people with disability and PDP.
Functions of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education
Functions which are performed by MSIHE in the general management system of the higher education are (Lombardi et al., 2018):
Adapting – adaptation of all subjects of educational process to requirements of inclusion.
Developing – gradual enrichment of abilities and the spiritual sphere of students with special needs and PDP.
Correcting – overcoming a stereotype of thinking and behavior by both PDP, and an external environment in relation to them.
Forming – formation of a professional having necessary knowledge, skills in connection with the profession.
The MSIHE major elements are functions of management which, first of all are planning, organization, motivation and stimulation, analysis and control.
Let's consider these functions of management in refraction to management in the sphere of inclusive higher education.
Planning as a type of administrative activity is defined by the setting purposes and problems of activity, development of strategic programs, operating plans for their achievement, definition and distribution of all types of resources, bringing plans to direct performers. Planning in a management system of IHE includes the following directions:
Planning activity of higher education institution in the sphere of inclusive higher education.
Planning of need for training of special needs students and PDP.
Planning of the adapted curriculum.
Planning of elements of the educational environment: educational processes, material, psychological and pedagogical support and so on.
Planning of employment of graduates with disability and PDP.
The organization as a function of management represents activities for streamlining and integration of joint actions of performers in the direction of achievement of the goals. Realizing this function in a management system of IHE in higher education institution the main attention has to be focused on implementation of plans for all activities of higher education institution in the sphere of inclusive higher education (Moriña, Cortés-Vega, & Molina, 2015).
The motivation and stimulation as a function of management are in motivation of all subjects of inclusive higher education, first of all, students with special needs and teachers to work effectively for achievement of the goals of education of PDP. Assessment of relevant educational needs of PDP and development of necessary incentives for their satisfaction is the cornerstone of motivation.
The analysis and control as one of еру functions of management is the type of administrative activity directed to assessment, analysis and accounting of quantitative and qualitative results of education system functioning. Control in the management system has a role of the feedback allowing to estimate and correct effectiveness of the realized administrative decisions in the field of inclusive higher education. The efficiency of control in MSIHE is defined, first, by a right choice of criteria and indicators of assessment of a condition of system of inclusive education and also by direct participation in processes of control of all educational process participants in higher education institution (Killoran, Woronko, & Zaretsky, 2014).
Methods of management in the sphere of inclusive higher education
The management in the sphere of inclusive higher education assumes complex use of organizational, economic, social and psychological methods of management (Huber, Oswald, Webb, & Avila-John, 2016).
The organizational methods of management having the direct influence are functional division of duties and responsibility of heads, teachers and other staff of higher education institutions; formation of rational structure of the management system of higher education institution, legal and organizational and administrative regulation of activity, regulation and rationing of work, etc. In the field of MSIHE by organizational methods are a statement the order of development plans for IHE in higher education institution, an order of holding actions in the sphere of IHE, the approval of the adapted educational programs, etc. For increase in efficiency of organizational methods of management of IHE all categories of staff of higher education institution involved in training of students with disability and PDP should participate in their development.
The economic methods of management having indirect character are focused on the economic interests of participants of educational activity in the sphere of inclusive higher education. Managing IHE, as well as higher education institution in general, the major economic methods of management are financing, material stimulation, first of all, salary of the teachers and educational support staff of higher education institution involved in work with PDP. All types of stimulation of students with special needs are essentially important (GunnϷorsdóttir & Jóhannesson, 2014).
The social and psychological methods of management which also have indirect character are addressed both to teachers and the educational support staff working with students with special needs and PDP in forms of public recognition, and to students with disability in the form of social, psychological and pedagogical maintenance of educational activity (Göransson & Nilholm, 2014).
The management efficiency is defined by existence and high-quality realization of all MSIHE elements and has to be estimated regularly by means of specially developed estimated cards of a condition of IHE in higher education institution.
The standard methodological support of MSIHE functioning presented by laws, the recommendations of the ministry, local normative documents of higher education institution is represented not only as managing but also limiting MSIHE element.
Summing up the result of the research, it is possible to draw the following conclusions:
Formation of the inclusive educational environment in higher education institution for training of physical disabled people (PDP) demands creation of an adequate management system of inclusive training in the system of the higher education.
The key to the management in the sphere of inclusive higher education is a system approach when MSIHE is an well-ordered set of the interacting and interdependent elements ( purposes, tasks, principles, level methods) forming a whole and united among themselves by relationship of cause and effect and having uniform target focus.
Realization of the offered methodical approach to management in the sphere of inclusive higher education allows solving a number of administrative problems:
To adapt a management system in higher education institution for solving problems of training for students with special needs and PDP.
To create conditions for formation of the inclusive educational environment in higher education institutions for training students with special needs and PDP.
To promote formation of the professional competences necessary for realization of pedagogical and administrative activity of the sphere of inclusive higher education for all subjects of educational process (heads, teachers, educational support personnel).
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20 March 2019
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Mitrofanova, E., Mitrofanova, A., Ashurbekov, R., & Chetverikova, O. (2019). Management In The Sphere Of Inclusive Higher Education: Methodological Approach. In V. Mantulenko (Ed.), Global Challenges and Prospects of the Modern Economic Development, vol 57. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1800-1807). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.183