The paper describes specifics of reflection of the national image of the world of the Khakass people in the folk lyric song takhpakh. This lyrical song is, from time immemorial, one of the most popular folk song genres. In takhpakh, the initial rhyme, the unity of lines and parallelism are crucial. Takhpakh is improvised, and this quality has survived today. The art of takhpakh implies asking and answering questions of the partner in the
The study is of current relevance due to the lack of knowledge of the issue, and the interest of modern science in the issue of identifying the specifics of the national image of the world in the collective and author artistic creativity. The object of the study is the texts of modern folk takhpakh and written literature. The subject of the study is a set of interacting components of a literary text, which exhibit ethno-cultural specificity and interpret the national image of the world of the Khakass people.
Identification of the features of the national image of the world as embodiment of ethnic mentality is important in studying the national specifics of the culture of a particular nation. The study of the ethnic identity of peoples in the age of globalization is important and interesting since people with a small population become most vulnerable in an era of global crisis, whose languages and culture are on the verge of extinction. The Khakass people belong to small nations. The role of folk songs in the formation of national identity, the nature of the people and way of thinking cannot be overestimated. The words “song is the soul of the people” are true and irrefutable. Singing is always associated by people with emotional experiences, with lifestyle and events in an individual life and the people as a whole. The national image of the world is an inherent in a traditional folk song. Preserving the national language is also important. L.V. Ozolin considers folk genres of the Oroks and preservation of the language of small people and writes, "Academician A.P. Okladnikov once said prophetic words, "Esthetic perception of the world that was formed, strengthened and evolved over thousands of years, and moreover, over centuries – millennia should be preserved! This original unique aesthetic world should be protected – we, the people of this day, really need it." Therefore, it is so important to preserve folklore – and through it – the language of any, even the smallest people, as part of the aesthetic perception of the world, as part of the spiritual heritage, which, like a mosaic element, is embedded in the spiritual and material culture of the world community (Ozolinja, 2014).
Takhpakh is the most popular lyric song of the Khakass people. According to the famous folklorist V. E. Maynogasheva, this is "one of the most favorite and popular song genres of Khakass folklore" (Mainogasheva, 2000). The Khakass people are the Turkic-speaking people of Russia who live in southern Siberia. Khakass folklore includes large and small genres that have evolved over many centuries. The form of takhpakh is four-, eight- or twelve-line stanza. Takhpakh exhibits initial rhyme, alliteration, assonance and parallelism. These parameters are also important for the folklore poetry of other Turkic-speaking peoples. E.L. Tiron, who studied the folk songs of the Tuvinians, another Turkic people, notes, "The versification of Todzhin songs is characterized by such common Turkic patterns as syllabics, parallelism and initial rhyme" (Tiron, 2013). The features of traditional takhpakh are investigated in the studies by M.A. Ungvitskaya (Ungvitskaya, 1980) and V.E. Mainogasheva (Mainogasheva, 2000). In traditional society, every family performed takhpakh. Ttakhpakh was a special form of communication between spouses, close and distant relatives: what could not be said in simple conversation could be conveyed through takhpakh (Chankov, 2000). These songs exhibited artistic and musical talent of the people. A lot of takhpakhs performed by people have been recorded. M. Ungvitskaya marked that only in 1940 over a thousand of takhpakh texts were recorded (Ungvitskaya, 1980). Such famous scientists as V.V. Radlov and N.F. Katanov (Radlov, 1907) in the pre-revolutionary era and A.A. Kenel and L.S. Sheptaev in the Soviet era collected tahpakhs. The expeditions of Khakass Research Institute of Language, Literature and History of different years engaged in collecting folklore made a significant contribution to conservation and research of takhpakh. The materials of the competitions of narrators and takhpakhchi were published in local newspapers, almanacs and collections. These texts have become samples of traditional Khakass takhpakh. The fund is currently replenished with new takhpakhs. Thus, in 2018, the philologists of the institute conducted an expedition to 12 settlements of the Beisk District of Khakassia, in which indigenous people live compactly. In these villages, one can also find people born in 1920–1940, who are bearers of traditional Khakass folklore, translators of traditional knowledge, way of life of the native people. In this study, we are interested in both folk and author takhpakh texts, and the extent of the tradition preserved in modern texts. P.S. Shakhov, who explores the songs of the Siberian Mordovians, notes that "the materials of the last decade to the greatest extent demonstrate multi-layered folklore traditions" (Shakhov, 2018).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify the features of the national image of the world in both folk and author texts of Khakass takhpakh through the analysis of a set of interacting components that feature ethno-cultural specifics.
The main research methods were cultural-historical and comparative-typological approaches employing linguistic-stylistic and genre-generic analysis.
Khakass takhpakh (literary and folk) contains ethnocultural images and motifs that reproduce the objectively existing national world. It is traditional to include objects of native nature in takhpakh. Thus, the
The images of the white and green steppe, white and blue mountain peaks, repeated many times in takhpakh, express the features of the mythopoetic space and the world perception of the people. They are actively functioning in the literature. Thus, in the takhpakhs by poet M. R. Bainov, who befell the heights of the Khakass poetry
In takhpakh by M. R. Bainov, native land is designated as
People said, "I sing about what I see." This is an important remark that characterizes takhpakh. In takhpakh, the ideological and thematic basis is changing, the traditional form is less susceptible to change, and artistic means and the cliche of the traditional takhpakh are preserved. This folk genre, as before, plays an important role in the culture of the Khakass people. Today takhpakh is performed on national holidays, family holidays and weddings, it can be heard from the stage during concerts of national ensembles and music group. They learn to perform takhpakh in individual schools.
Identifying the specifics of the national image of the world, we studied various ethnocultural images and motifs that are most often found in Khakass takhpakh and reproducing the objectively existing national world: nature, life, religion and psychology of the people.
First of all, this is manifested by the presence of spatial representations of the people in the takhpakh text. It is well known that space is one of the most important categories in the perception of the world of any people, and each people chooses objects in space endowed with a special meaning. In takhpakh, it is traditional to mention objects of native nature: mountains, rivers, lakes, the steppe, the sky and images associated with these objects. These are the most stable, often repeated, especially distinguished and important images. For example, takhpakhs from the collection "Khakass folk takhpakhs" devoted to different topics (homeland, nature, work, love, marriage), most often reproduce the image of the earth-water and other images associated with them (mountain, taiga, steppe). In second place in frequency are images of sky and celestial bodies (the moon, the sun, stars, clouds, clouds, bird). For example: Адаӌаам чирi ағыр суғ / Father’s land is a fast-flowing river / Ағастығ тайға поладыр. / This is a taiga with trees. / Iӌеӌеем чирi игiр суғ / Mother's land is a winding river, / Iскiттiг тайға поладыр (Ungvitskaya, 1980). / This is a taiga with blackthorn. (Interlinear translation of the author of the paper). Land and water in takhpakh, as in Khakass folklore, are the most important "supportive elements of cosmogony of the people" (Kofman, 1997). These universals in Khakass idea are said to be inseparable and underlie all others. In Khakass, чир-суғ ‘land-water’ means ‘homeland’. The concept of чир ‘land’ in takhpakh is related both to a specific area (Abakan, Shira, Teya, Askiz, etc.) and to the homeland – ‘mother's land’, ‘father's land’, and the name of the river is typically related to it: Адам чирi ағыр Нин / Ағас арали чул аххан… (Father's land is a swift-flowing Ninya/ There is a stream among the trees...); Абам чирi ағыр Тööм / Арчын торғы часхан чир ос… (Father's land is a swift-flowing Teya / Like the earth covered with arshin silk...); Адам чирi ағыр Ағбанны / Ах порамнаң иртербiн… (Father’s land is a swift-flowing Abakan / On [my] white and grey horse I'll cross...); Инем чирi илбек чир / Ирбен öсчең чир полған… (Mother’s land is a spacious land / The land where Bogorodskaya grass grows...), etc.
A modern singer of takhpakh, Natalya Petrovna Chichinina (born in 1957, in the village of Koibaly), performs takhpakh about her native land; similar to the older generation, she actively uses expressions that have become some kind of cliche, formula:
The traditional folklore of the Khakass people is knowledge preserved by the people. Epic, which includes takhpakh, should not be underestimated. When developing wide steppe and high mountains, Khakasses achieved harmony with the land, accepted its coordinates, and became part of it, therefore they sing about what they see day after day. The sacral center – house – is located here, and herds of cows, horses and sheep are grazed. The same description of the steppe can be observed in other works of folk literature: in fairy tales, legends and heroic legends. For example, in the heroic legend
When analyzing Khakass epic, we identified some repetitive images endowed with a special meaning:
Spatial oppositions are clearly observed in the epic. The mountain serves as a boundary between ‘own’ and ‘alien’ space. There are uncertainty, danger and ‘alien’ territory behind the mountain, which sounds like
The bogatyr's land is surrounded by mountains and mountain ranges – the sacral space designated by
The image of the mountain is certainly associated with numerous difficulties that the bogatyr overcomes, it can be impassable taiga and steep rocky ridges. The bogatyr sometimes passes through many ridges to finally reach the destination. For many peoples, the mountain along with the world tree is the archetype of the center of the Universe. Khakasses treat the mountain as a sacred object. V.E. Maynogasheva notes that in the Khakass epic
Images of the steppe, mountains and rivers are elements of the ‘alien’ space, but at the same time they are an obstacle to the hero. For example, the image of the dry, barbed steppe, which came to folklore from shamanic mythology. And this steppe is characterized as lifeless:
An important part of "own" space in the epic is also
The fact that the legends include a great deal of images of these physical objects (mountains, steppes, rivers-seas) indicates the uniqueness of the spatial structure of the Khakass world, which embodied the peculiarities of the people's world outlook, the system of values and traditions. According to traditional ideas of Khakasses, the Universe consists of three worlds: the lower, the middle (or sun) and the upper. In the epic, this can be clearly observed. All the above-considered objects belong to the middle (sun) world and, as in the looking glass, can be found in the lower world, since the bogatyrs of the sun world can easily move to the lower world through
As we see it, numerous images of steppes, mountains, rivers-seas found in both the Khakass epic and takhpakh reflect the specificity of spatial representations of the people. The narrators attached particular importance to these objects and included their images in the legends that pass down through the generations. These images have become fundamental elements of the artistic awareness. Literature as a successor to the traditions of folklore cannot but reflect these fundamental concepts of spatial representations of the people. The novel deeply and panoramically reflects the way of life of the people. No doubt, both N.G. Domozhakov and K.T. Nerbyshev vividly showed their national environment, just as modern poets adopt the images and motifs of the traditional takhpakh. Therefore, Sibdey Tom, Gennady Kicheev and Oleg Chebodaev used the images of the native river, native mountain, white and green steppe, etc. in their works:
In conclusion, we note that takhpakh is the most stable and actively functioning genre of Khakass folklore and literature. The images and motifs used in takhpakh by the people from time immemorial and in modern texts have a deep genetic connection with the cultural tradition. It can be concluded that the above-considered images and motifs of the national image of the world are genetically related to the mythological ideas of the people about the world and these images are a peculiar manifestation of the cultural unconscious in literature.
The publication was financially supported by the RFBR, project #18-012-00695/18-“a”.
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29 March 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Semenovna, M. N. (2019). Reflection Of National Image Of World In Modern Khakass Takhpakh. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 618-626). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.69