Interjections As Significant Emotional Element In Lexical Structure Of Kabardino-Circassian Language


The article describes the purpose in the system of parts of speech, reveals the grammatical status, and communicative function. For the first time, characteristic features of such words are examined from the perspective of cultural linguistics. In linguistics, they act as a syntactically independent unit. Particular attention is paid to determining the value of interjections as one of the main elements of emotive vocabulary, based on an emotional reaction to what is happening around, to verbal or non-verbal communication of the interlocutor. In addition, we touch upon such topics as influence of temperament and character on the choice of interjections, on the frequency of their use, etc. Formation of phraseological units in Kabardino- Circassian linguistics with the participation of interjections is typical for the structure of the language and they are quite common. As this issue was not previously developed, we first tried to analyze them in our work. During the work, we concluded that interjections are performing neither nominative or grammatical, nor syntactic functions without having unambiguous semantic content. They are a vivid and unique representative of the expressive sphere of human activity, along with its main purpose - to convey emotions and feelings of the subject of speech - being an important affective component of the linguistic culture of the Kabardian-Circassian language. Due to a distinctive meaning, they perform an essential component in the communication process. Interjectional units of the modern Kabardino-Circassian language are being actively replenished, as evidenced by the numerical indicator given in the article.

Keywords: Interjectionsdiscoursefunctionemotivelinguisticsprosody


Interjections are present in almost all languages and, depending on the structure of the narration and the nature of the utterance, occupy a different position in them. Both in foreign and domestic linguistics for a long time the most discussed question was of whether interjectivisms can be full-valued words, and whether it should be included in the system of parts of speech.

The Interest began to emerge itself in the process of studying the question of the origin of the language, where scientists later put forward several assumptions, among which the interdental hypothesis was. The main thing in it was that emotional cries gave impetus to the creation of Lingua. The French writer Charles de Bross (1709-1777) was the most prominent representative of this hypothesis.

In his opinion, primitive people went through the same process of forming their speaking ability as a child learning to speak. As baby babbling, devoid of meaning, turns into interjections, so interjections became an incentive for the development of human speech.

In the framework of the Adyghe languages, the words being analyzed also evoke an ambiguous point of view. Some linguists point out their inconsistency in grammar and unreasonableness of their study; others emphasize their non-standard and specificity.

The first in the Adyghe linguistics who singled out interjections among the parts of speech was the explorer of the Kabardino-Circassian language Sh.B. Nogmov (Nogmov, 1959). Subsequently, interjectivisms were studied out by many Circassians. The most striking were the works of T.M. Borukayev (for the first time in the Adyghe linguistics, he defined and separated them from onomatopoeic words) , N.F. Yakovlev and D. Ashkhamaf (argued that interjections are the oldest elements of the language), the world famous Caucasianist M.A. Kumakhov (Kumakhov, 1964) (most thoroughly approached the development of this section and identified the functional and semantic traits of interjections and sound symbolism), Kh.T. Apazhev (2000), A.K. Shagirov (2004), etc.

So, interjections are a kind of word class, which differs both from the significant, official parts of speech and from onomatops. They, having neither a naming function, nor grammatical forms, serve to reveal the emotional state of the speaker and stimulate him to action.

Problem Statement

The section of interjections in the Adyghe linguistics is a little-studied point of linguistics, so there are some discrepancies regarding their semantic, functional, grammatical, syntactic features. Thus, we face a number of problems: in practical terms - it is necessary to work out the different responsibilities of interjections in the verbal process of native speakers, depending on different factors; from a theoretical point of view - it is necessary to establish the essence and linguistic status of the words of this group. Our article is aimed at identifying “blind-spots" in the study of interdental words of the Kabardino-Circassian language, at revealing their functional and communicative properties and bringing their own contribution to the theoretical and practical process of developing the issue

Research Questions

The subject of this research is the probing of the main distinctive features of interjectional words as an emotional element of the vocabulary of the Kabardino-Circassian language, their functional characteristics and analysis of semasiological, morphological, text-forming, syntactic aspects of the analysis. The subject of this research is the probing of the main distinctive features of interjectional words as an emotional element of the vocabulary of the Kabardino-Circassian language, their functional characteristics and analysis of semasiological, morphological, text-forming, syntactic aspects of the analysis.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the article is to show all the variety of functional and semantic signs of interjections of the Kabardino-Circassian language: 1. Interjections are one of the most important linguistic signs of emotive vocabulary, theirs role in verbal communication is indisputable; 2. They are focused on the interlocutor, on reviving his attention, attracting him to the process of communication and are a text-forming unit; 3. They can be used as equivalents of sentences; 4. They are often used to form phraseological units.

Research Methods

When writing the paper, we relied on several methods of linguistic research. When collecting illustrative and scientific material, we resorted to comparative and generalizing methods, and then the analysis of selected information was carried out. The examples were chosen from works of art, folklore texts, dictionaries and from the oral speech of the Kabardino-Circassian speakers of both literary and dialects. After that, contrastive-comparative surveys were conducted, where materials from the related Adyghe language were attracted. In the development of semasiology and the structure of interjectional units, we resorted to the structural-semantic method. The work also used a classification method to systematize the words in question according to the expressed emotional connotations and group them into positive, negative and multi-valued interjections.


Given the fact that interjections are the main accompanying element of the emphatic sphere of a person, they appear to be an integral part of it. According to M. Kh. Tokmakova, interjectional words have great value in emotive vocabulary, because with their help are portrayed all sorts of mood (Tokmakova, 2017). Verbal means of expressing emotions and feelings have long been the object of close attention of philologists, since the expression of the speaker’s attitude to what has been said becomes the primary role of interjections, which "constitute the natural and inherent part of emotional speaking, give it expression and contribute to a more accurate achievement of the goal of communication" (Memetova, 2018 ).

Undoubtedly, these words have no meaning; do not perform any nominative or syntactic function. Nevertheless, they are an expansive unit, where the main factor is the whole diversity of the palette of feelings and emotions experienced by the subject of discourse.

The studied vocabulary section is widely represented in the Kabardino-Circassian language; however, it still remains not fully developed. Despite the fact that these words as a lexical-grammatical category were noticed for quite some time, there is no definite opinion as to which grammatical group of parts of speech should be attributed; there is no generally accepted classification. Although, it should be noted, that in modern linguistics they stand out as a separate part of speech.

One of the main features of interjections is polysemantics. The same word can express a wide range of different feeling, which can be both synonymous and completely opposite in content. According to O.E. Filimonova and E.G. Khomyakova, it is the language of emotions that serves to convey the subtle nuances of the feelings experienced by an individual, to influence the addressee of information and to express themselves. (Filimonova & Khomyakova, 2014). According to the psychologists, in the verbal space, positive experiences in a person’s speech are much less appeared than negative ones. This is explained not by how often he falls into unfavorable situations, but by the fact that “negative emotions are much more often caused as the process of communication itself, and its linguistic explication in the process of interactive communication” (Filimonova & Khomyakova, 2014). In other words, the dominance of negative interjections can be explained by the fact that being in a state of excitation, it is difficult to choose the right words and build appropriate phrases for situations. Thus, the author of the statement uses interjectivisms to a greater extends. With positive emotions, on the contrary, it is easier to formulate thoughts with the help of coherent sentences. Such a numerical relationship between groups of interjectional units is not a distinctive feature of the Adyghe adverbs - it is a characteristic of any other languages.

On the basis of belonging to the environment of feelings and emotions, they can be divided into three groups: positive, negative and multi-valued. It is well known that positive ones influence a person favorably - experiencing a feeling of peace of mind, joy, satisfaction, he has an increased working capacity, good mood. And negative ones, on the contrary, negatively affect the general state of health, mood and its attitude to what is happening.

The analysis shows that in researched language interjections transmitting negative emotions are widely used and make up the 11 subgroups, positive interjection account for 3 main subgroups, multi-valued - 4.

Negative (negative) interjections can be distinguished as follows: denoting disgust, hostility (poo, pu alaursyn, fu, tfugh, fiy, Iuh (Iuh ade), hyu) ;denoting pain, fear, fear (ah, ah, ah, uedydyd, wye, ah-ah, uueeu, dydyd, ay, Ieu); denoting irritation, indignation, indignation (Iuh (Iuh ade), enesyne, pula alaursyn, khyim, eiim-eIzh, betemal, eIim-eI); denoting gloating (mm, yhy, hee-hye, hy, hye); denoting regret, compassion, annoyance, sympathy, grief ( eI, ah, betemal, ayuey, her, ahu, eat, sermmachue, symygue, aguu, sermygue); denoting taunt, complacency, distrust (ha, hym, hy, hyI); denoting frustration, discontent (betemal, ex-hehe, Ieu, pu alaursyn, Iegyu, Iaj, Iau, hym) ; indicating censure, disapproval, condemnation, (el (el al), ey-wey, ey, uanemahuere, aiey, enesyne, uanemyguere, ny alaursyn, hy, ay yei, na, nagushe ) ; denoting anxiety, discomfort (ue-ui-ui, thieuIe, guIegue); denoting a sense of suspicion, mistrust, doubt (hyI, eyeh, yarebi, woah, hym, yarebine); denoting the absence of like-mindedness, disagreement (IyIy-s, ana-a).

Positive interjectional words are divided into the following groups: denoting relief, tranquility, satisfaction (uehu, uehuhuhu, yihy, uehuhui, ihyim, Ihyym); denoting agreement, approval (akhyey, ayome, mm, ss, yhy, yhy, agyu, akhu, akhayme, ahei, akhay); denoting a feeling of joy, delight, admiration (wah, wara, ue, wieIene (childish), wai, aloeha, wow-wih, betemal).

By group 3, we assign universal or multi-valued interjections because they can express both positive and negative emotions: denoting oaths (alykh, si tobeshch, tkhe, uelehyi, the-uelehyi, uleehyi-bilehyi, weleehyi-bilehyi-talehyi) ; indicating a strong desire (adzhyde); designating surprisingly (aloueh, scarlet, crimson, iyi-iyhy, assymygue, aiey, anne-a, betemal, eyeh, zilIeun, ziunaguere on (gusche), tobe, ya, uare, ue, uedydyd); denoting the call (aide, dogue (t), zedogue, zet, tss, uehya, uiy, uey, hehya, heyde, hede-ha, heyde-tee, zegieh) (Afaunova, 2012).

In recent years, interjections have been considered from the point of view of the linguacultural and national identity of a separate ethnic group. Researchers have been interested in the interconnection of culture and lingua at all times, since “language is the main form of expression and existence of national culture” (Akhmetzyanova & Usmanova, 2010). As it is known, the discourse-forming units, different speech elements form the corresponding image of the world of the people. For a comprehensive study of the linguistic culture of the Kabardino-Circassian language, we believe that it is necessary to attract all verbal means, where the important importance, as representatives of the most ancient layer of language, is occupied by interjections. Proof of archaism and national value is the fact that the interethnic words are not translatable, they can only be matched from other languages, or describe the emotions being experienced: aIey (aIey th) - "ai", "oi", "ah" (wonder exclamation); auwei - “no well”, “ no” (regret, sympathy); bethemal - “ah”, “oh”, “god” (regret, annoyance); guIegue (Mygue) - “Christ,” “God,” “horror” (horror, fright); dydyd (dy-dydyd) - "oh-oh-oh" (a feeling of regret, disappointment, disgust); el Ar! - "look at it" (a shame, reproach, condemnation), etc. (Afaunova, 2017).

In essence, multi-valued interjections get final meaning in context. Here, the auxiliary tools are the non-verbal means of communication by which the addressee receives more detailed information about human feelings. With the help of gestures and facial expressions you can guess what emotions he feels in this situation and what connotation load has used the expression. The role of intonation is especially noticeable when interjection is used without context, since they are firmly connected with each other and denote the affective side of discourse. In a lively communicative situation, it is the prosodic design that helps to determine their semantics.

For this reason, without imploring the importance of the context in recognizing the semantic component of interjectional words both in works of art and in lively speaking, the intonation itself helps to understand the true and correct interpretation of the attached interjectivisms. Prosody in the text becomes a necessary detail that frames, modifies and "decorates" interjection. Thus, intonation turns into a necessary additional element of the acoustic structure of the language.

Personal qualities of the author are of great importance in the process of building a dialogue and showing any emotional experiences in the choice of lexical units . His character, temperament, level of upbringing, education, social status and degree of acquaintance of interlocutors affect a person’s behavior and actions. Of the four types of temperament allocated by psychologists - choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic and melancholic - the first two are considered more emotional, and the other two less sensual.

Impulsive sanguine and choleric people use interjectional words more often than imperturbable phlegmatic and melancholic. Observations show that the sad and melancholic person prone to sadness to a greater extent includes in the conversation negativist interjections conveying anger, grief, anger, resentment, annoyance, envy, hatred, irritation, because they are different from other types of increased anxiety, excitement, and anxiety.

(Hajat, Magid huhzawaue :) - GuIeguzhesti! Idzhi fed thoroughly! Arynsha, we nobe kagupsy akhshe ukursyzyzim, tIe fIekIa shhhe imyIeu, mazitI i kIape tkhuzeg'ahuerkym (Bozii, 2003).

« (Hadzhat, referring to Majeed :) - What horror! What shall we do now! And without it, modern ill-fated money does not cost anything; we can’t take two months to meet the ends.

Interjection guIeguezhti! expresses extreme despair and helplessness.

As mentioned above, the selection of interjections exerts its influence and the degree of love of people. Our research shows that interjection ( yielich, ziunaguerje, zi unaguer bagueen, alaursyn, i de di the, wa, wara, Iyi (meaning indignation, surprise), etc. used in speech intimately familiar with each other people. It is clear that for the construction of business, official conversations it is unacceptable to use any emotional, familiar, negative, disrespectful sayings, thus, and the use of inter-term words.

The next controversial issue of probing expressive lexical elements of the Kabardino-Circassian language is the position of interjections in syntactic constructions. Contrary to the assertions of some linguists, we want to state that they have an extensive resource. Though they take an independent position, at the same time, they are attracted in absolute accordance with the meaning of the whole utterance.

Analysis of interjections as a discourse and text-forming unit, as a means of attracting the attention of the interlocutor and his involvement in the process of communication, became relevant relatively recently. Until recently, they were treated with only one hand - as a way to transmit sensations of emphatic.

Comparing the intensity and depth of the study of parts of speech, we understand that, to some extent, interjections, as an effective factor in human conceptual activity, are deprived of attention. However, their text-forming potential is quite impressive in comparison with the significant parts of speech.

From the above examples we can see that interjections can express very different feelings, such as happiness and sorrow, delight and disappointment, despair and excitement, surprise and fear, etc. With their help, you can show your attitude to what is happening and for these purposes there is no need to build long phrases.

For example: (Hamid, Battier hugezaue :) - EI, betemal! .. and zeryzhypIam hudeu, and Zakharov zhyhuepIe liI deguer yukIame humak. (DyschekI, 1990).

« (Hamid, referring to Battier :) - Oh, God! If, according to your words, Sakharov’s good-quality man was killed, that is bad. − The proposal interjection EI, betemal ! conveys a feeling of deep feeling and regret for the deceased, which becomes understandable even without subsequent utterance. The author complements the expression to more widely reveal the emotional state of the speaker.

There is an opinion that interjections are only an expressive cry. Disputing such a point of view, we can argue that they are not spontaneously included in syntactic constructions. In contrast, interjectivisms carry emphatic stress and is inextricably linked with the mainstream judgment. Moreover, in the language there are many phrases where the syntactic construction consists of only one interjection, speaking as an equivalent to the whole sentence, carries the whole emotional meaning and performs a large communicative function. This idea is confirmed by A.V. Orduli, stating that all lexical units of speech can be used as a complete sentence (Orduli, 2012).

For example: - Mydrey pashtykhydzem palusty dvorteri iubydri ari yakhunshchish kalam and adrei unkhar zerakhunshchIam samykherk'abzuu, kyypgury iua, kayarbech!

– Ahju!! (Nalo, 1990).

“This royal army occupied the royal palace, and also plundered it, as they rob all other houses, I realized, Kairbek!

− Yah! - In the above version, we understand that the interjection of “ Ahju ” without further communication indicates a sense of surprise.

The reason for this phenomenon is the fact that in the dialogue we are trying to reduce the text to be uttered, to replace with monosyllabic and simplest sentences in order to avoid an excessively large amount of information and clutter. Of course, the above-mentioned mimic, intonational, gestural accompaniment and context in which the given word is used have an important role in the transmission of a message. All this taken together with emotional content contributes to the formation of the text.

In Kabardino-Circassian linguistics, there is one more unexamined side of interjections - the formation of phraseological units : arykh-bilikhk l'eIuen - to beg, plead, conjure someone.; ueueur and mahuet - yelling, screaming; ueuitI geshyn –cry a lot, to scream; uehu alykh zheg'eIen - give a break; uay-uey zheg'eIen - become famous ; ei, betemal ikhyezhyn - “ah”, “oh” (regrets, annoyance); e guegu mahuem ezhen - expresses condemnation, perplexity, joy; zi unaguer baguen, zi banaguer baguezhin, ezi unar baguen, ez unaguuebjar huazychyyzhn – «just think about it"; "Judge for yourself"; "Wow!" expresses indignation; marzhahun, marzhahzhuzhyn, marzhe huzhykhen − means calling for any action; uane mahuer tezylhen, uane mahue hun − used with a touch of indignation, joy, surprise, etc.

Interjectional idioms are similar in their characteristics to derivative interjections: they define feelings and do not name phenomena and objects; they occupy an isolated position in the sayings. Despite this, they have individual semantic content, specific functional features. Such idioms are accompanied by various mimic and gestural movements. In establishing the semantics of utterance, intonation of pronunciation plays an important role, whereby cardinally inverse shades of emotions can be involved.

From the point of view of the syntactic structure, inter-phrase phraseological units have the same characteristics as ordinary interjections - they do not enter into syntactic connection with the members of the sentence, but are applied in full accordance with the expressed affect. Equally, they can displace, replace the whole judgment and become their full-fledged equivalent.

From these examples, we can conclude that idiomatic interjections are combined from two or more lexical units, which have a single stable meaning and structure. Depending on the depicted emotions, they can also be divided into positive, negative and universal, but given that they are polysemantic, it is possible to reveal connotation using the text;

− Situ udele, zi unaguer baguen! − huilasch Rashid, aby (Zulete) pschascher kridzhezhynu zyschisheschIym.

«-You are so stupid! - Rashid attacked her (Zulete), when he wanted to call the girl. In this offer interjectional unit - zi unaguer baguen! -expresses strong indignation, condemnation and refers to negative phraseological interjections.

Murat vakIuelIher trigegushhueu guouasch: − Hey, marge hounhe, fyneue!

«Murat, cheering the plowmen, shouted: Hey, come on, push! » − Here the phrase marzhe hunhe is a call to action related to the universal, multi-valued interjections-phraseology.

(Fyzym, KhepIytI huegzauaue :) - Ue zyr duneim utemytme, situ psu kueedym “ Uehu!» zhaIezhynt.

« ( Wife referring to Hapitu :) – If only you were not in the world, how many souls would “take a breath” - in this version, in a joking manner, the wife teases her husband and idiomatic unit « Uehu!» zhaIezhynt - interpreted as "would have taken a breath” .

Depending on verbal circumstances, stable constructions with increased expressiveness can go into the category of interjections, for example : adydyd Iey mygue – « sorrow, horror »; azalykhtaler (alykhyr) sogeptsI – « swear »; di the – « Jesus! »; a zineue tsyuhy − « disapproval », ah, dydyd Iey mygue − « o woe to me », « horror »; ah Jyde (Mygue) − to show a strong desire ; guegu mygueri − it expresses reproach ,disapproval ; a symygyue zarabg − « woe is me!»; tobe Iistofrileh! − « oh, my God!»; tobe yarebi ! − «Christ! »; wellhyli-bilehyi-talehyi − «swear» etc. Such judgments create a stylistic background for the utterance, bring color, brightness, serve to enrich the discourse and are considered as typical of the structure of the Kabardino-Circassian language.

Interjections are an open, not fully formed class of words, the final number of which has not yet been fixed. In the Circassian language dictionaries we found a little more than 100 words, about 500 words were discovered by us. This indicates the replenishment and enrichment of their number. We agree with the opinion of I.I. Meschaninov that they "continue to be created during the development of speech is not as random cries and the words" (Meshchaninov, 1978). The reason for this is the requirement of the system of the language itself for the translation of emotional connotations.

Analyzed word mostly used in everyday speech. It is in the involuntary and spontaneous narration that the whole palette of meanings of interstitial words appears. Thanks to these qualities, they are widely used in fiction. Author, including certain interjections in his work, through the language constructs is trying to convey a certain characteristic features, the emotional state of your character that is used for full and complete disclosure of the image of the literary hero and for the image of realism, impressive, expressive and painterly inherent conversational style of communication.


Many scientists worked on the development of the interjections of the Adyghe languages: their opinions are far from identical. However, in most cases, philologists pointed to their individual, universal properties. There is no doubt that these words are a vivid representatives of affective vocabulary with their grammatical, syntactic, stylistic and semantic features, with a kind of sound design, closely related to intonation, gestures and facial expressions. The present study showed that interjections are one of the main representatives of emotive vocabulary that they are exceptional and multifunctional in nature and participate in many processes of forming human speech and the linguistic culture of the language as a whole. Among other signs, in interjections all the variety of prosodic modification is demonstrated, they play a significant role in the construction of discursive structures.

Interjectional words make up a rather large amount of vocabulary of the Kabardino-Circassian language, relating to the expressive sphere of speech. These are the so-called voice signals, which serve to immediately express a person’s experiences in a certain life situation. In many Caucasian languages, the process of studying interjectivism is not finished yet, many problem points are still waiting to be solved.


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29 March 2019

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Anatolyevna, A. A. (2019). Interjections As Significant Emotional Element In Lexical Structure Of Kabardino-Circassian Language. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 43-51). Future Academy.