The article presents interpersonal relationships of teenagers with peers and adults, which are the most important condition for individual personal development. It is commonly known that teenage years are considered to be the most difficult period. It is a turning point in the life of each individual. For some people, this period is barely noticeable, and for others teenage this time is a period of storms, emotions, and a particular change of mood. Almost every teenager faces such problems as an increased proneness to conflicts with other people; behavior problems in the family and at school; isolation, depression, suicide attempts; lack of friends; deviant behavior and so on. It is also important to note that a teenage period is the period of personality formation of teenagers, their will, self-esteem, self-awareness and character. It happens during a hormonal explosion that occurs in a teenager’s body. The main stage in the formation of interpersonal relationships also takes place in a teenage period. The basis of interpersonal relationships is communication of individuals with each other. Although the need for communication is established in early childhood, this need increases in teenage years. The whole life of a teenager is based on communication, establishing contacts with peers or adults. Therefore, problems relating to interpersonal relationships do not lose their relevance.
Keywords: Interpersonal relationshipsteenage yearscommunicationproneness to conflicts
A teenage period is the period of personality formation of a teenager, his will, self-esteem, self-awareness and character. It happens during a hormonal explosion that occurs in a teenager’s body (Belinskaya, 2014). The main stage in the formation of interpersonal relationships also takes place in a teenage period. Interpersonal relationships are directly the relationships that develop in real life between individuals. Their main peculiarity is the emotional basis. It can be pulling feelings when a person shows his interest in the object of communication. There may be also separating feelings when a teenager does not perceive his interest and negatively acts towards the others. The basis of interpersonal relationships is communication of individuals with each other. The need for communication is established in early childhood. But during teenage years, this need is only increasing. The whole life of a teenager is based on communication, establishing contact with peers or adults. Thus, intimate and personal communication with peers becomes the leading activity for teenagers. If a teenager fails in communication, then a chain of problems such as increased anxiety, lack of self-confidence, distrust of the surrounding world may follow. Establishing interpersonal relationships, teenagers learn to obtain the necessary information, learn from experience, enrich themselves with moral knowledge and values, learn the rules of behavior in the society, and create their own communication style (Allautdinova, 2013). That is why problems concerning interpersonal relationships do not lose their relevance. Based on the knowledge how interpersonal relationships and communication were established, we can explain the problems of the development of a family or an individual.
In our article we plan to trace the dependence of interpersonal relationships on teenager’s ability to communicate with each other. For this reason we need to analyze the theoretical material on the problem of the formation of interpersonal relationships in teenage years; study the psychological characteristics of teenagers; consider communication as the basis of interpersonal relationships. The works of A.A. Bodalev, A.V. Petrovsky, J.L. Kolominsky, I.S. Kon, D.I. Feldstein, A.S. Vygotsky, I.N. Gorelov, I.V. Dubrovina, M.I. Lisina, A.V. Mudrika, V.S. Mukhina, L.F. Obukhova, B.D. Parygin are devoted to this problem. Most scholars argue that interpersonal relationships develop, manifest and establish in communication. Communication is a complex process of interaction between people, which includes the exchange of information as well as the perception and understanding of each other. Communication is typical for any living beings, but the communication process become conscious, connected with verbal and non-verbal acts only at the human level.
Teenage years begin with a change in the social situation of development. L.S. Vygotsky formulated the idea of a social situation of development as a “a system of relationships between a child of a certain age and the social reality as a “starting point” for all dynamic changes that occur in development during a certain period. In each period the child acquires new personality forms of the personality” (Istratova & Koshel, 2014). School remains the main social environment as in the early school years. The peculiarity of the social situation of teenage development is that a teenager wants to integrate into a new system of relationships for him. He wants to communicate more with peers and protect himself from parental care. On this basis, there are frequent conflicts of teenagers and adults. The social situation of the development also depends largely on relationships in the family. If there is peace, understanding, benevolence, respect and trust in a teenager’s family, then a teenager will easily overcome the difficulties that he may have in the process of communication and learning (Temirova & Gogitsaeva, 2014).
Purpose of the Study
A person lives among people, and the sphere of interpersonal relationships covers the whole range of his life. The relationships arise in the process of communication and teenage years play an important role in the formation process. Without interpersonal relationships it is impossible to complete the formation of the personality. That is why it is important to trace the establishment of interpersonal relationships of teenagers and create favorable conditions for their formation. The purpose of our research is to analyze the formation conditions of interpersonal relationships among teenagers.
Methods and methodology of the research:
- analysis of scientific literature;
- methodology for determining the psychological climate by L.N. Lutoshkin;
- test for self-control assessment in communication by M. Snyder;
- methodology “Personal aggressiveness and proneness to conflicts” by E.P. Ilyin and P.A. Kovalev;
- questionnaire of interpersonal relationships by A.A. Rukovishnikov (QIR);
- methodology “Communication and organization abilities” by V.V. Sinyavsky, V.A. Fedoroshin (COA) (Zhazhina, 2012).
A teenage period is the transition from childhood to adulthood. This is the period when childhood comes to an end. It is the period of life when the development of the personality, the formation of character and self-esteem take place most intensively. The center of the teenager's life becomes communication with peers. A teenage period is not only a transition period, but also a period of crisis. The crisis of a teenage period has always appealed to many scholars. It is accompanied by mood swings for no reason, heightened emotion towards self-assessment, especially appearances or abilities. Teenagers can experience sensitivity and callousness, or shyness and licentiousness. Teenagers show their independence, rejection of authorities and rules. Many authors believe that the crisis of teenagers is associated with a new level of self-consciousness. “Based on the analysis and assessment of their behavior and activities, teenagers form self-consciousness” (Vakhitova, 2015). At the beginning of a teenage period children have a desire to be more and more like adults. Teenagers want to feel like adults and want to be treated the same way. On the one hand, parents really begin to accept children as adults. For example, they can consult with them on everyday questions or allow them to walk with their friends for a longer time. But on the other hand, teenagers cannot correspond to all demands that adults place on them. “A teenager has not developed such qualities as independence, seriousness and responsibility. Therefore, it is still impossible to treat him as an adult. All teenagers want to be like adults. This desire leads them to external and internal changes” (Allautdinova, 2013). It all starts with the imitation of their “idols”. Teenagers begin to copy their character traits and behaviors.
The leading activity is also changing in a teenage period. Intimate and personal communication with peers comes in place of learning activity. But at the same time, educational activity does not go anywhere; it simply goes to the background. Communication for teenagers is an information channel through which they master social principles, moral norms and rules, establish relationships with each other. Teenagers have two systems of relationships. The first one is with adults; the second one is with peers. Relationships with adults are formed unequally, on the contrary with peers. There are three types of relationships: companionship, friendship and episodic. There is always a leader in the group of teenagers and teenagers value such relationships very much. At the end of a teenage period, there is a need for a close friend. Sometimes teenagers want to trust, tell anybody all secrets. A close friend must keep them, be sensitive and attentive.
According to (Erickson, 1969), a teenage period is forming around an identity crisis. All changes in self-consciousness of a teenager are of great importance for his development. Identity is a property of the human mind, which is expressed in the ability of a person to represent his belonging to different groups. When a child is unable to attain his identity, it leads to a crisis. The basis of identity formation is personal self-determination. A teenage period opens a new world for a child, including the inner one. There is an ability to be aware of oneself - personal reflection. In this regard, a teenager begins to ask himself many questions: Who am I? Do others like me? Is it nice to chat with me? But a teenager is not able to answer all these questions correctly. Only at the end of teenage years he is able to do it. Throughout the entire period a teenager will study himself, his emotions, motives, values, abilities and hobbies. Due to this aspect, a teenager develops his self-awareness.
In a teenage period, the relationships between boys and girls begin to change. There is an interest in the opposite sex. Therefore, they begin to pay more attention to their appearance. In an older teenage period, romantic relationships may be between boys and girls. They can write notes, have dates, go to the movies together. As a result, teenagers begin to perfect themselves to please each other. “Physiological development provides a sexual desire between a boy and a girl, which is characterized by increased excitability” (Gogitsaeva, 2014). Teenagers increasingly begin to devote themselves to self-education. In an older teenage period, much attention is directed to the development of volitional traits. For example, boys begin to spend more time on sports to develop their endurance and strength. A teenage period is a difficult time. This is manifestation of stubbornness and willfulness. This is the time for personal identification. This period prepares a child for a later life as a conscious person who is able to choose and make conclusions. The family and teachers have a great impact on children. The influence of any adult on a child is clearly seen. Adults for children are a source of auditory, tactile, sensor-motor effects. A child finds support and support in communication with adults. Adult enrich children with experience and set tasks for them to master new skills. Children see an object to follow in the actions of adults, they copy their behavior.
Teenagers completely change their relationships with adults. This is one of the components of a teenage period. Now they are seeking independence and self-assertion. But the requirements of parents to their children remain at the same level (Borisova & Gurieva, 2014). Hence, there is a conflict between children and adults. Adults do not understand the inner world of teenagers. Teenagers start to refuse control from parents and they begin to defend their rights. They stop fulfilling the requirements of adults, they do not want to change their behavior. Teenagers spend time with friends; they less often go to bed on time. Adults lose their former significance in the eyes of teenagers. Depending on how parents relate to new ideas of their children to be independent, the process of independence may be accelerated or delayed. If parents do not suppress the desire of their children to be independent, then the process of becoming a child’s personality goes without problems. If parents interfere with self-reliance, then children may have problems in the future. Relationships with parents will be even worse.
Despite all contradictions, teenagers need support. It is good when adults act as a friend, thereby they can greatly facilitate the teenager's search for his place in the system of new relationships. The joint activities of teenagers and parents can create favorable emotional contacts that will support teenagers. Since teenagers are very vulnerable, it is very important to find this contact. They may feel the need to share with adults their experience, talk about the events in life, but it is difficult for teenagers to begin such close communication (Kochisov &Kochisov, 2015).
It is typical for teenagers to imitate someone's behavior. Most often the object of imitation is a significant adult for a teenager who has achieved a certain success and status in life. For example, it may be a famous athlete, an actor, an actress, a movie character, a modern singer, etc. They try to imitate the chosen idol in everything: in clothes, image, manners of behavior, hobbies, etc. It is dangerous when a teenager chooses not the best person to follow, for example, a famous bully or a criminal. Such imitation will not lead a teenager to anything good. Parents should pay attention to this fact in time and, if possible, stop it.
Psychologists have proved that the relationships in a family affect the formation of teenager’s self-concept, his self-esteem. Family relationships are also reflected on how a teenager will interact with peers (Gurieva, 2014). The relationships of a teenager with others is largely determined by the atmosphere in the family. If a teenager is brought up in a family where there is love, mutual aid, respect, warmth reigns, then the whole process of growing up will be more or less smoothly for a teenager. And if a child grows in a dysfunctional family, a teenager will feel abandoned and useless. In this regard, he will show callousness, egoism, aggression towards others.
“Family upbringing is a system of relationships between parents and children” (Temirova & Gogitsaeva, 2014). There are several types of family upbringing: authoritarian, democratic, permissive.
Authoritarian style is hyperprotection over children. Parents require high achievements from a child. They can punish children for failures and provide tough control. Authoritarian parenting style loses power and fear of parents during a teenage period. Consequently, there are conflicts in the family. Characteristic personality traits can be: loss of self-worth; unstable life position; lost own desires.
There is the second variant: hate for parents; aggressive and conflict behavior; deviant behavior; frequent conflict resolution with hands.
Democratic style of communication with children implies a personality orientation. Children in such families are brought up independently. Parents have an active-positive attitude towards children. They try to understand their children and provide them with the necessary support. Children in such families usually know how to make decisions independently, and how to build friendly relations with others. They are able to compromise on a controversial issue.
Permissive style suggests that parents do not interfere in the life of their children. They are absolutely free and have the right to do whatever they want. Parents are indifferent and disinterested in their children. If a child is brought up in such families, then he is usually independent, indifferent in any activity, incapable of attachment. A teenager also may be a deviant, an irresponsible boor, and a dissolute liar. “It is diverse styles that a teenager gets in everyday communication with adults who teach him strategies of communication in real interaction with people” (Gurieva & Udavikhina, 2015).
Scholars have identified several groups in which a teenager is formed: formal and informal. Role relationships in the group are important for teenagers. The status has a strong influence on the identity and behavior of teenagers. The mechanism of influence formation on teenagers has a psychological climate.
Our study was conducted on the basis of Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “North-Ossetian State University after К. L. Khetagurov”. 28 people took part in it.
The following methodologies were used:
1) Test for self-control assessment in communication by M. Snyder.
This methodology is designed to study the level of communication control. According to M. Snyder, people have three types of communication control: low, medium or high. Low communication control characterizes a person with a high level of impulsiveness in communication and interaction with individuals. Medium communication control characterizes a restrained personality with low emotionality in communication. People with medium communication control are sincere and direct in their interaction with others. High communication control characterizes a person with high control of his behavior.
There were 10 sentences that describe the reaction to some events. Each sentence should be marked as a “true” or “false” statement. The text of the questionnaire is in Appendix 1.
2) Methodology for determining the psychological climate in a group by L.N. Lutoshkin.
The methodology is designed to identify relationships in a team, a group emotional state. On the right side of the sheet there are qualities that characterize an unfavorable climate, on the left side favorable qualities are given. In the center of the sheet there is a scale where a person can choose the degree of expression of a statement with the help of points (from +3 to –3). The result processing is performed by calculating the average score using the formula Y/n, where Y is the sum of answers, n is the number of questions in the questionnaire.
3) Methodology “Personal aggressiveness and proneness to conflicts” by E.P. Ilyin and P.A. Kovalev (Zhazhina, 2012).
This methodology is designed to identify a person’s propensity for conflict and aggressiveness. There are some statements. A person should put a “+” in the survey card and “–”, if he/she does not agree. All answers to the questions correspond to 8 scales: “hot temper”, “offensiveness”, “suspiciousness”, “touchiness”, “intolerance to the opinions of others”, “vindictiveness”, “compromise”, “intransigence”. 1 point is awarded in accordance with the selected answer. You can score from 0 to 10 points on each scale. The total indicator on the scales “offensive”, “intransigence” shows positive aggression. The total indicator on the scales “intolerance to the opinion of others”, “vindictiveness” shows negative aggressiveness. The sum of points on the scales of “uncompromising”, “hot temper”, “touchiness”, “suspiciousness” gives a general indicator of conflict.
4) Questionnaire of interpersonal relationships by A.A. Rukovishnikov.
This methodology is intended to assess typical ways of relating to others. Participants should answer questions in 3 blocks: “inclusion”, “control”, “affect”. Each block has 4 scales. The points range is from 0 to 9. The more participants approach extreme points, the more they have an application in human behavior.
5) Methodology “Communication and organization abilities” by V.V. Sinyavsky, V.A. Fedoroshin.
The methodology makes it possible to identify the qualitative peculiarities of communication and organization abilities. People are asked to answer “yes” or “no” for each question. The result processing is carried out according to 2 scales “communication abilities” and “organization abilities” and the number of answers coinciding with the key is calculated.
A teenage period is a development period of a person between childhood and adulthood. This period is not easy for children and their parents.
The main stage in the establishment of interpersonal relationships is precisely in a teenage period. Interpersonal relationships are directly those relationships that develop in real life between people. The basis of interpersonal relationships is communication of individuals with each other.
The need for communication is established in early childhood. But this need increases in a teenage period. The whole life of teenagers is based on communication, establishing contact with peers or adults. Therefore, intimate-personal communication with peers becomes the leading activity in a teenage period (Gukalenko, 2003).
Interpersonal relationships should be considered the most important condition for personal development of teenagers. When establishing interpersonal relationships, teenagers learn to get the necessary information, learn from experience, enrich themselves with moral knowledge and values, learn the rules of behavior in society, and create their own style of communication.
Scholars have found that children who have a lack of parental attention and warmth, experience special difficulties in communication. Most often, social and emotional disorders arise as a result of a long-term impact on a child of traumatic situations, disturbances in interpersonal relationships with adults and peers.
For most children who experience difficulties in learning and behavior, frequent conflicts with others and aggressiveness are typical. Such children are unwilling and unable to admit their guilt, they are dominated by protective forms of behavior, and they are not able to resolve conflicts.
Disruption of relationships in various communities inevitably entails a disruption in the development of the personality of teenagers, which affects their behavior, relationships with others and affects the overall activity.
To achieve this goal, we have developed a program for the development of communication skills for teenagers. The objective of the program is to help teenagers to realize their individuality, develop their communication style, and master ways of communication with others; develop interpersonal communication skills among teenagers and improve interpersonal relationships in a team.
The study results showed that as a result of the implementation of the program for the development of communication skills, the assessment of communication control has changed. At the beginning of the experiment, there were 27% of teenagers with high communication control, then it became 60%. There were 43% of teenagers with an average communication control, then it became 30%. There were 30% of teenagers with low communication control, finally, it became 10%. The results show that the group's communication control has increased significantly. Teenagers who had an average level of communication at the beginning of the study improved their results and then had a high level. Teenagers, who had a low communication control, then had the average level. On the whole, the development program fulfilled the tasks and achieved good results in the development of communication skills, and as a result, the improvement of interpersonal relationships in the team of teenagers.
Having analyzed the theoretical material on the problem of interpersonal relationships in a teenage period and studied the psychological characteristics, we came to the conclusion that all psychological changes occur against the background of puberty and changes in the anatomical and physiological structure of the body; during this period some changes also occur in cognition. They have new feelings such as a sense of maturity, self-awareness, reflection, volitional qualities and others. The leading activity of teenagers is intimate and personal communication with peers. Communication for teenagers is the formation of relationships with others. The ability to communicate correctly is a condition for normal development of teenagers in society. A teenage period develops two systems of relationships: with adults and peers. Sometimes these two systems conflict with each other. We have designed a program to develop the communication skills for teenagers. The study found that a high level of well-being of interpersonal relationships is a possible subject to conduct the development of communication skills. Thanks to the development program (Burtseva, 2013), the group of teenagers improved interpersonal relationships in the team and communication skills during the study. The results of the study showed that within the implementation of similar programs in a teenage period, the communication control, psychological climate in the group, communication and organization abilities will improve, the indicator of aggressiveness and conflict will decrease. Interpersonal relationships in the team will improve.
This is a space for a link to grants and programs, thanks to which the research described in the article was carried out. If there are no links, this text is erased.
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29 March 2019
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Nebezheva, А., Shibzukhova, D., Kochisov, V., & Gogitsaeva*, O. (2019). Psychological Conditions Of Interpersonal Relationships Formation Of Teenagers. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2078-2086). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.241