The article presents some formation and development aspects of Grozny. In the period under review, Grozny was a district city of Terek region like Mozdok and Kizlyar. The fortress of Grozny, founded in 1818 during the creation of the Sunzhenskaya military line, later played an important role in conducting the aggressive policy of tsarism. During hostilities, Grozny became the seat of the commander of the left flank of the Caucasian military line and the assembly point of military units heading into the depths of Chechnya and Dagestan. In 1871, Grozny became a district city with the right to city self-government, in which the police district office and other city services were located. In the very first year of turning Grozny into a district centre, various administrative, managerial and economic institutions began to grow. In the XVIII century some areas of the North Caucasus maintained political ties with the Russians, but in general the region was not yet a part of the state administrative system. In addition, Georgia, which had the southern borders with the North Caucasus, was ruined by the wars with Turkey and Persia, and sought to strengthen its North Caucasian ties.
Keywords: Fortress Groznayacossacksdistrict cityhill peopletrade fairsoil field
Russia stopped the final conquest of the North Caucasus after the conquest of the Transcaucasus and the end of the Napoleonic wars. Undoubtedly, “the formation of the main methods and directions of the Russian colonial expansion at its final, most bloody stage is associated with General A.P. Ermolov” (Gapurov 1999). Convinced that punitive expeditions directed against the hill peoples only provide temporary success, Ermolov set about creating new strongholds with permanent garrisons in the highlands. Denoting the tasks of subordinating Russia to the hill peoples, he noted that the Caucasus, as a huge fortress, protected by a half-million garrison, would have to be stormed or seized trenches. Since the assault would be expensive, it was decided to raise a siege.
One of the first proposals of General Ermolov was the implementation of measures for the further imposition of Cossack land tenure. Ermolov developed the strategy and began to implement a broad plan for transferring the military line from the Terek River to the Caucasus Mountains’ foot and the transition to direct subordination of the foothill and mountain societies by force to the Russian military administrative authority. The fortress along the Sunzha River was created in such political conditions when the left flank of the Caucasian line, passing along the Terek, lost its original meaning. The uprisings in Kabarda, Ossetia, threatened the trade route between the Central Caucasus and Transcaucasia. To move to the foothills of the Caucasus and secure the Vladikavkaz-Tiflis road, the government decided to create a new line of fortifications (Tuaev). Thus, in Chechnya, the construction began on a fortress called the Groznaya. The construction of new fortresses in the North Caucasus and the growth of the Russian population were, purely colonial activities, as the Russian historian J. Z. Akhmadov noted, but they led to a trade increase between the Russians and the indigenous people (Akhmadov, 2009).
The second half of the 20th century is one of the most important periods in the history of Chechnya. The devastating effects of the many years of the Caucasian war have affected various areas of economic, social and social development. The cruel national colonial policy of tsarism served as a hindrance for the rapprochement of the national suburbs peoples with the center. To strengthen its southern borders, the Russian state began to put fortresses on the territory of the North Caucasus. The political situation in this region was characterized by the growing influence of the Russian Empire and the strengthening of economic and political ties with the indigenous population.
The authors discuss some issues of transforming the fortress of Grozny from a military-strategic point into an industrial and economic center not only of Chechnya, but also of the entire North Caucasus.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to identify the specifics of the city life birth at the initial stage of the Grozny’s formation and to consider some features of its socio-economic structure.
In the study of this topic, historicism principles and a systematic approach were used. These methods allowed to consider the events and facts that occurred in the post-reform period in the history of Chechnya and to draw up a logical sequence of historical events within the scope of the problem.
It happened 200 years ago. On the left bank of the river. Sunzha, in the place where the river forms a peninsula with a narrow isthmus near the Khankal gorge. On 10 (22) June 1818 a solemn prayer service was served in the Russian camp, and the first fortress on Sunzha was laid under the gun thunder. It was to play an important role in Russian history. Prior to this event, on the orders of Proconsul A. Ermolov, more than two dozen Chechen villages were destroyed: Chegan (near the Krasnyy Molot plant, now the Berkat shopping center), Alkhan-Yurt (the park named after S.M. Kirov, a former cinema Cosmos), Khan-Kala, Kuli-Yurt, Turti-Khutor (Zavodskoy district), Sarachan-Yurt, Mamakin-Yurt, Delak-Yurt (Hippodromny microdistrict), Yangi-Yurt, Sunzhensky and others located in the territory of Grozny. In October 1818, the troops of General Vel’yaminov, defeating the Chechen village of Staraya Sunzha, expanded the structure of the fortress. Residents of neighboring Chechen villages, immediately leaving their homes, settled in the mountainous areas. In the auls abandoned by them, Grozny subsequently grew. Due to the difficult situation, the fortress was quickly built in four months. In the fortress which was initially considered a “hot spot”, therefore, the Alkhan and the Churt, Sunzhenskaya, the Khankala and Argun valleys. From Alkhan to the Churt valley from north to west there was an ancient road, called in the Russian sources the Cherkess (Cherkassk) road. It connected the Black Sea with the Caspian Sea, the Crimea with Dagestan and further to Persia. In the place where the Grozny fortress was laid, there was a ford through the Sunzha - Ottoman carriage. This territory of the Y. Lermontov public garden is one of the most beautiful places in the center of modern Grozny. Crossing Sunzhu in this place, the road went to the Khankal gorge, which was not only a landscape remarkable, but also a historic gate from the plains to mountain Chechnya, which for centuries attracted various streams of people. The tsarist authorities from here systematically sent regular troops from Grozny into the depths of Chechnya and Dagestan throughout the Caucasian War. The fortress of Grozny has been of great strategic importance and has kept in conquest the Priterechnyy and Sunzhensky Chechens since the 1820s. (Khasbulatov, 2001).
According to Sunzha, Chechen peaceful villages of Sunzhinskaya, Khachakhi, and Chertugai were located. At the considered time, the Grozny fortress was mainly inhabited by the military who formed the garrison of the fortress, occupying the barracks located on the territory of the fortress, while they themselves lived outside its borders.
In most cases, the officers did not come here of their own free will, but they were evicted for “harmful thoughts”, for “attempts at a coup d’état”. There were cases when some of them showed sympathy for the mountain peoples, dressed in Caucasian clothes, adopted their customs, etc. The officers, of course, mercilessly exploited the soldiers for personal gain, and it happened that being desperate, they escaped from the units, having no documents or money to return home. Fearing to be convicted of desertion, in most cases the soldiers went to the hill peoples, because they knew that they would find shelter and benevolence there. So, not far from the village of Vedeno, a whole settlement was formed by fugitive soldiers. In addition, in many villages of Chechnya fugitive soldiers lived, to whom the Chechens gave a part of their already poor property; and after they converted to Islam, they married to Chechen women. In the 1820s-40s the fortress of Groznaya became the place of exile of the Decembrists, writers, poets. The nature of the Caucasus, despite its beauty, was harsh. Until the early 1840s there was no inpatient hospital in Groznaya. Thus, the royal administration, sending to the Caucasus a “guilty” person, of course, hoped that he would get sick and die there. Here A.S. Griboedov read the acts of his immortal comedy “Woe from Wit”; M.Yu. Lermontov lived and worked, L.N. Tolstoy created the first works. Troops from different territories, including the North Caucasus, were organized in the fortress to suppress recalcitrant Chechens. Punitive expeditions subjected auls to ruin and destroy. The forests surrounding the fortress were completely cut down to advance the troops. It caused significant damage to the ecological environment of the fortress. Nevertheless, despite the negative aspects, there were peaceful life periods in the history of the fortress. Gradually, the fortress began to turn from a military-administrative center into a center of lively economic and trade relations of the mountaineers with its inhabitants and merchants, who brought goods even from central Russia” (Kazakov, 1989).
Thus, gradually the fortress began to grow in various kinds of villages, in which the Chechens composition was small. They were mainly translators and guides at headquarters. Since 1852, Chechens and officials of various administrative bodies began to appear in the fortress.
Subsequently, there were four Chechen aul on the left bank of the river Sunzhi: Yangi-yurt, Kuli-yurt, Sarachan-yurt and Grozny; their population was over 1000 people (Kazakov, 1989). The fortress of Grozny became the administrative center. In mid-1859 the commander-in-chief of the Caucasian army (Berzhe, 1859), Prince Baryatinsky, organized a reception of deputation from the mountaineers (Khasbulatov, 1994).
For the Chechen population, the fortress of Groznaya became not only an administrative, but also an economic center. First crafts began to develop, especially those that the local craftsmen were famous for. General Ermolov wrote to his friend: “I am sending you a pistol, in which the entire rim is made in Groznaya by a man who is self-taught. He never saw any tool and uses a chisel, an awl and needles only.”
Undoubtedly, weapons held a special place in the life of a Chechen. Weapons production in Chechnya is reported in Russian sources. So, in 1812 officer Butskovsky A.M. testified to the production of gunpowder and good-quality guns from the Chechens. Moreover, the weapons production in Chechnya was specialized: some of the craftsmen were engaged in the manufacture of bows, arrows, and crossbows, other workers made swords, sabers, and the third chain mail. Armament was created in the tense struggle with a sufficiently mobile equestrian enemy, which required special craftsmanship.
By the second half of the 19th century, the type of fortress was transformed. It lost its former significance, as a fortress and as noted in the descriptions of eyewitnesses, Groznaya is increasingly called the city.
Although in certain historical periods Russian-Chechen relations were complex, nevertheless, from the earliest period of development, they had economic nature. Relationships due to economic interests, the exchange of industrial and trading experience brought people together and promoted the interpenetration of the cultures of Chechens and Cossacks, which led to acquaintance with traditions and customs, linguistic borrowing.
The Cossacks and the Highlanders met in an informal setting. They competed in the art of possession of weapons, a horse and trade. In 1850, with the permission of Imam Shamil, influential representatives of the mountaineers appealed to A.I. Baryatinskiy, the head of the Caucasian line left flank) with the request to establish monthly 3-day bazaars near the fortress. The mountaineers asked to be allowed to bring their products for sale and industrial goods exchange from the central part of Russia.
In the spring of 1850, at least 500 highlander carts arrived at the first fair. It should be noted that the local bazaar was created by Russian settlers and existed at this place since the 1830s. It was very popular among the inhabitants of the neighboring villages. Although the three-day fair of 1850 was large-scale, both the Russians and the highlanders were satisfied with the results of the fair, the next one took place 10 years later.
Thus, after the end of the Caucasian War the fortress built for strategic purposes becomes a place of trade and economic relations. The outer settlement appeared in the western part of the fort, and in the south a settlement was formed by retired soldiers. Later it became the village of Grozny. The northern part of the settlement was a settlement of mountain Jews, which by the middle of the 19th century resembled a village. In 1860, two fairs, autumn and spring, were held by order of the Caucasian governor-prince Prince Baryatinskiy. Chechen villages were revived in the right side of the Sunzha river.
In the period under review, the important historical events occurred in Chechnya, such as the end of the Caucasian War, the accession of Chechnya to Russia, the implementation of bourgeois reforms in Russia and the involvement of Chechnya in the sphere of capitalist relations, etc. (Isakieva, 2016)
By the decree of the Senate of 1870, the fortress was transformed into a city with the right and privileges granted for 5 years. “Regulations on the city of Grozny” become legal on January 1, 1871.
There were significant changes in the economic life of Grozny in the post-reform period. They expressed in the development of large capitalist industry, to some extent, the formation of the oil city.
The city growth was noticeable in the 1880s-1890s, when the sale of bread, cattle, and wool in exchange for manufactured goods began with the settlement of the Sunzhenskaya Plain and the development of agriculture on it. However, despite the growth of economic importance, in the second half of the 19th century Grozny remained a deaf and provincial city. In the Terskiye Novosti newspaper of the mid-1880s, Grozny is described as “miserable and peeled, like a bare tree, where there is eternal silence, exactly at the cemetery” (Khasbulatov, 2017).
An important event for the city was the driving of the Vladikavkaz railway through the city. After the opening of the railway communication, Chechen merchants made trips to major trading cities and set up economic ties with Russian merchants, purchasing factory-made goods and luxury goods from them. Russian merchants came to Chechnya and opened shops there. Famous merchants were Chernyavskiye brothers, Nikolaev and others. Their grocery and manufacturing shops were opened here. In 1892, according to statistics, 844 traders were registered in Chechnya. 273 people among them were traded in Grozny. By 1900, their number increased to 3 thousand people (Kolosov, 1965.)
With the development of the economy, the emergence of the rural bourgeoisie, the growth of crafts and handicraft industry in the mountain villages and Cossack villages, there is a need to create credit institutions. In this connection, a mutual credit society was opened in Grozny, at the head of which were Russian and Chechen capitalists. The Council included F.I. Voronov, I.D. Arsanukayev, M.T. Matsiev, A.Sh. El’murzayev, A.A. Vishnevskiy, A.A. Arsamirzoyev, E.K. Meder and others. Changes in the economic development of Chechnya caused the strengthening of trade and economic relations with Russia. Domestic trade and the number of fairs and bazaars significantly increased. In Grozny, along with fair trade, permanent store trade was emerging (Shtan’ko, 1948.) By the end of the 19th century Chechnya has relatively strong market relations with the industrially developed centers of the Priazovye, the Black Sea Coast, the Donbas and even the Urals. Direct trade relations also existed with Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod. At the end of the 19th century bread goods from Chechnya went by rail to Dagestan, Kuban, Central Asia, Transcaucasia and the internal provinces of Russia (Ibragimova, 2007).
The construction of the railroad opened access to the Grozny oil, which was developed at the beginning of the 19th century to domestic and foreign markets. Large oil fields appeared in the environs of the city. Along the line of the Grozny-Rostov railroad, oil refineries began to be built, forming a new Zavodskoy district from the end of the 19th century. With the growth of the oil industry, foundry-mechanical, sawmills, brick factories in the city of Grozny appeared. By the end of the 19th century, Grozny was turning into a commercial, industrial and economic center not only of Chechnya, but of the entire North Caucasus. A post office was established in the city of Grozny, a regular movement of stagecoaches to Vladikavkaz began. Since in 1857, due to the increasing complexity of the situation in the left flank of the Caucasian army, the General Staff was transferred there. Now, through Vladikavkaz, communication was carried out with Central Russia (Vedomosti, 1886).
Accordingly, from the beginning of its foundation, Grozny was an essential part of the Russian state, and its history was determined by the development of the productive forces and production relations in the whole country.
Of course, one of the main capitalism elements is the growth of the urban population and the formation of a working market. The presented statistics about the growth of the population of Grozny in the early years are rather fragmentary and contradictory. However, in general, they show, although not always accurately, a steady population growth: 1868 – 229 people; 1870 – 4000 people; 1873 – 8452 people; 1874 – 9004 people; 1875 – 8859 people; 1876 – 8963 people; 1882 – 6187 people; 1888 – 6214 people; 1889 – 6383 people; 1891 – 10836 people; 1892 – 13588 people.
The displaced persons who fled from crop failures and taxes from the central regions of Russia, seasonal workers employed for agricultural, carpentry and other works were not considered. About this category of the population there is no data, although according to the periodical press in the 1880s.- 1890s. they overran Grozny (Kolosov, 1965). It is noteworthy that the statistics on the population of Chechnya, belonging to the first part of the 19th century, are often contradictory statistical data; they can be assessed only visually. The hill peoples did not keep records of population, and Russian authors and travelers did not always succeed in it. The well-known researcher Tornau wrote that “all the numbers signified the Caucasian population were taken approximately. It is possible to say that according to the mountain notions, it was not only useless to count people, but even to sin: that is why they resisted the people’s census” (Khasbulatov, 1994).
The rapid growth of the population in the early years of the fortress transformation into a city was due to the government setting a preferential payment period, in which the population was not taxed, and a plot of land was provided for the construction of housing. The industrial crisis caused the decrease in population in the 1880s. and affected the Grozny oil industry. In the 1890s. the population growth is observed again. From 1890 to 1892, the population of Grozny increased by almost 3.5 times, while the population in the Terek region increased by only 60% (from 4.77612 to 79.898 people) (First General Census of the Population, 1905).
The population of Grozny grew with the development of industry and commerce, diverting the rural population from agriculture to the city.
It should be noted that the main suppliers of cheap labor were the masses of immigrants. They were peasants of the central provinces of Russia, driven from the land by poor harvests and excessive taxes. The press reported that the immigrants arrived in Grozny with their entire families and at any time of the year. Usually, these are poor people whose desperate need has been expelled from Russia. They wandered in search of work and were ready to work under any conditions. Until 1869 there were no beggars on Sunzha, after that they roamed in whole companies. Among them were the retired thin soldiers, sorrowful old men in torn military coats or overcoats without shoulder straps ... and finally, destitute Chechens, beautiful Chechens with a proud bearing and unimaginably “picturesque” rags (Shtan’ko, 1948).
Gradually, the changes that took place in the economy of Chechnya and the Cossack villages, where the production of agricultural products assumed a commodity nature, led to an expansion of the domestic sales market. So, for example, if the total turnover of two fairs (autumn and spring) in 1874 was 836 thousand rubles, then in 1890 it was already almost 2 million rubles, i.e. more than doubled, which is much more than at the fairs of such old-timers of the North Caucasus as Georgievsk, Mozdok, Stavropol, etc. From year to year the turnover of trade enterprises grew. In 1890 in Grozny there were more than 700 merchants, the turnover of their shops was equal to 2042035 rubles.
Long before the beginning of the oil industrial development, the Grozny fairs were trading systematically with kerosene (coal oil) locally produced, as well as imported from Baku. However, the Grozny coal oil had a greater demand than the Baku one, since it was cheaper and differed in better quality. Because of this, sales and production increased. There is some data of the growth and demand: in 1873, at the fair in Grozny coal oil costed 600 rubles was sold for 250 rubles.; in 1874 coal oil costed 500 rubles was sold for 300 rubles; in 1875 coal oil costed 800 rubles was sold out (Terskie sheets. № 99. 1886).
So, by the end of the 19th century the young city of Grozny became a major center of the entire North Caucasus, where the formation and formation of a stratum of the national commercial bourgeoisie took place. For example, in 1884, the large trading company of Matsiyevy was founded. Another representative of this stratum El’murza acquired 1350 tithe in the vicinity of Grozny and opened several large stores in the city. Chermoev Tapa (Abdul Mezhid), an owner of vast land areas, invested in mills and hotels. The large livestock producer and landowner Akhmatkhan Elmurzayev, the owners of grocery-manufacturing company Akhmad and Aidi Arsamirzoyev, the founders of Staro-Yurtovskaya Oil, the capitalists and landowners Bashirovs, Batukayevs had annual turnover of at least 15-16 million rubles.
The Chechen capitalists Bashirovs, Shaptukayevs, Arsmirzoyevs, Kurumovys, El’murzayevs, who outside of their national borders established trade relations with the cities of not only the North Caucasus, but also Central Russia, turned out to be entrepreneurs.
In the early 1890s the industrial development of the Grozny oil region began to unfold. In 1892, oil production reached 450 thousand pounds. The well-known entrepreneur I. K. Akhverdov began drilling wells at the Ermolovskiy area with a steam engine from a depth of 131 meters, which marked the development of the Grozny oil industry. Then other wells from a depth of 140 meters or more were also made. “Day and night, powerful fountains of oil gushed forth from the depths, enriching the capitalists, the top Terek Cossack troops and the top Grozny society (traders, landowners, large homeowners)” (Khasbulatov, 1994).
The oil refining industry was developed and formed together with oil production. The Zavodskoy district was formed along the railroad behind the Grozny station. In 1900, there were 4 oil refineries in operation, several boiler-mechanical workshops appeared; and the milling industry was represented by steam and water mills.
By the end of 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century sufficiently strong relations between Grozny and the industrialized industrial centers of the Priazovye, the Black Sea Coast, Moscow, the Urals, and Ukraine were established and strengthened. Oil and oil products (kerosene) were sent to these regions, and from there coal, cars, textiles, cars, metal products, etc. were delivered to Grozny.
In Grozny in the post-reform period, there were 41 brick and tile factories, 4 canning plants, 1 winemaking factory, 1 brewery, 4 soap works, 4 pottery plants, 4 wheelmaking plants, 3 lime plants, 35 sawmills, 873 mills, all merchants – 984 people. The amount of production reached 358851 rubles, trade institutions were 224, all traders – 323 people. All 224 trade institutions for the year made a turnover of 2455.390 rubles (Kazakov, 1984).
The provision on the city of Grozny, approved in November 1870, was based on the city reform of 1870. It introduced all-power elective bodies of city self-government: the city duma, the city government, and others. Introducing a new system of administrative-territorial administration and legal proceedings, developing trade and money relations caused a need for people with a certain literacy and knowledge of the Russian language. According to the census of 1897, among Chechens, literate men were 4.3%, women – 0.1%. There was no city school in Grozny. The mountain school functioned widely educated many indigenous Grozny residents (Abdulvakhabova, 2017). There was only one hospital for 10 beds and 4 pharmacies; a hospital was opened for military personnel. One hospital was opened for 40 beds in the oil fields for oil owners. The total number of medical personnel in Grozny was 13 doctors, 10 medical assistants and 6 midwives who served not only the urban population, but also the entire population of Chechnya.
For the first time, the state savings bank was opened at the post and telegraph office in Grozny. There was the first telephone station, stagecoaches, phaetons. All this changed Grozny.
To sum up, in the post-reform period, the city of Grozny turned into a developed industrial center. Factories appeared in Grozny and around Grozny at that time. After the railway, there was an interchange of goods from the shores of the Caspian and Black Seas. Chechen merchants exported their goods to other cities of the North Caucasus such as Dagestan, Kizlyar, Mozdok, as well as the Transcaucasus and even to Russia. They brought products and fabrics of factory production from there. In the history of the North Caucasus, including Chechnya, the post-reform period was a turning point, which should be considered a new stage, primarily in the socio-economic development, manifested in the emergence and further development of capitalist relations here. In the post-reform period, Grozny achieved a significant upturn in economic development due to the rich deposits of oil and oil products in the vicinity.
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29 March 2019
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Isakiyeva, Z. S. I., Khasbulatova, Z. I., Khasbulatov, S. A., & Tepsuyev, M. S. (2019). Some Issues Of Development Of Grozny In The Post-Reform Period. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1934-1942). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.225