The paper considers the formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities in multicultural and multiethnic conditions. The relevance of study is confirmed, the purpose and the object of the study are formulated, the used scientific methods are given. The formation of this competence, which implied the sequence of stages caused by the logic of formation of a communicative competence and assuming the ascension from orientation in a situation of interethnic speech communication to confident solution of communicative tasks and further to the production of the communication models in multicultural environment is demonstrated. Requirements to bachelors of humanities were considered when defining the criteria base. The study covered tests, questionnaires, polls complemented with the results of conversations, analysis of written and oral texts. The formation of a communicative competence included the sequence of problem-speech situations built according to the logic of development of the formed attribute. In the course of the study almost every student passed into the higher level group. Positive changes were mainly noticeable in all formation components of a communicative competence: motivational, contextual, activity. Thus, the formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities was generally characterized by positive dynamics.
Keywords: Communicative competencebachelormulticultural environmenthumanities-minded person
The Republic of Kalmykia is the multiethnic region, representatives of different ethnic groups and nationalities live there: Kalmyks, Russians, Kazakhs, Dargins, Avars, Chechens, Armenians, Azerbaijanians, Koreans, Tatars, Ukrainians, etc. Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov is the only state university and the center of science and education in the republic. Currently, students from 41 countries of the world and 26 regions of Russia study at Kalmyk State University. Students’ training in such conditions contributes to the development of ideas of tolerance and interaction of cultures in the professional environment. The communicative competence of students studying in the conditions of multicultural and multiethnic environment serves the basis for their success during the implementation of all other competences in multicultural environment. A graduate possessing professional knowledge in the corresponding area, but having poor experience of communication with the representatives of other ethnic groups, for whom it is difficult to state the information, to convince, to present the position, etc. will not be professionally prepared. The communicative competence is a prerequisite of a complete professional competence of a future graduate. The National Educational Doctrine of the Russian Federation until 2015 defines the importance of the Russian language as a uniting factor of a multinational state as one of the major tasks. In our opinion, the solution of this task can contribute to education of personality seeking for the maximum implementation of capabilities, open for new experience, capable of conscious and responsible choice in different life situations. The communicative competence of humanities scholars acts as the system of personal and professional qualities ensuring efficient solution of communicative tasks. It is important to teach a student to solve various communicative problems in different spheres and situations of communication via language means. The communicative competence includes the acquisition of all types of means of communication, fundamentals of culture of oral and written language, basic skills of communicative means in various spheres and situations of communication. The concept of a communicative competence includes the acquisition of not only the necessary set of speech and language knowledge, but also abilities in the field of communicative aspect of any professional activity, as well as the practical application of the means of communication required for the development of a socially active personality able to feel confident in the modern world. The communicative competence becomes part of a general cultural competence, humanitarian culture of personality, a component of its creative, world outlook and behavioral qualities necessary to be included into various types of activity.
Works of many scientists are devoted to problems of professional education, high school pedagogics and psychology (Boni, 2014; Conway, et al. 2015; Ryshchak, 2015; Didenko & Klyucharev, 2013; Nerland, 2018). The study on professional and pedagogical culture, multicultural environment was critical for this work (Bengoa, et al. 2018; Aguzarova, 2014; Bashmakova & Ryzhova, 2014; Volynkina, 2014; Matis, 2016). The competence-based approach and the concept “communicative competence” are considered in detail in works of scientists (Coccetta, 2018; Isakova, 2017; Perri, 2018; Zimnyaya, 2004; Minenkova, 2015; Perevoznikova, 2018; Podjyanova & Koneva, 2017).
At present, the problem of formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities is insufficiently studied in terms of its formation in the conditions of multicultural environment. Modern professional education shall be aimed to create conditions for the development of a bachelor of humanities as a carrier of communicative competence capable to join in traditions and values of ancestors and seeking to keep the national originality, unique ethnic culture, and be able to solve professional problems together with the representatives of various cultures.
The technology of formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities focused on work in multiethnic and multicultural professional environment.
Purpose of the Study
To consider the formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities in the conditions of the multicultural environment.
The following methods were used in the study: analysis, generalization, pedagogical experiment.
The communicative competence belongs to sufficiently studied general cultural and professional qualities of an expert. However, this quality in the context of multiethnic and multicultural communication reveals new aspects of a problem. Cross-cultural communications also become actual these days. Initially the concept of cross-cultural communication includes equal cultural interaction of representatives of various linguocultural communities taking into account their originality and distinctiveness thus leading to the need of considering the ethnocultural context of communication to achieve various objectives of intersubjective interaction.
Communicative skills are one of the main professionally important qualities of a young specialist necessary for any successful professional activity related to modeling and implementation of situations of intersubjective interaction. Strict requirements are imposed on bachelors of humanities. Generally, the professional communication pursues such objectives as to identify information, to recognize the qualities of a partner (motives, abilities, character); to engage in business, project, to build long-term stable relations, to compete, to proof superiority in knowledge, abilities, competences, to gain recognition. (Didenko & Klyucharev, 2013). The major purpose of interpersonal communication is to ensure the required psychological effect that includes the following: to produce and correct the impression; to cause any feeling, to motivate for reflection; to correct the behavior, to recognize the position of a partner; to foster, maintain and support any experience. The communicative competence is expressed by the ability to select and perform the necessary actions depending on the purpose of the contact: the recognition of a person is bound to actions aimed to clarify the motive, which can be achieved through his observation in communication with other people; to trigger the interest there is a need to create the situation revealing his personal and professional prospects. To establish a contact there is a need to choose a subject, material, to raise questions for discussion, to find the optimum form of discussion. The most important situation of communication is the motivation to accept values, viewpoint, opinion of the initiator of a conversation. Thus, the communicative competence of a humanities scholar is based on theoretical training and practical experience in the field of interpersonal knowledge and interpersonal relations; laws of logic and argument; culture of speech and speech etiquette; communicative technologies.
The communicative competence of a bachelor of humanities is considered as a set of sufficient professional knowledge, communicative and organizing skills, ability for self-control, empathy, culture of verbal and nonverbal interaction. (Aguzarova, 2014). It is considered as personal and professional quality expressed in the relation with people and as communicative and organizing skills connected with mutual exchange of information and knowledge by people; with the formation of interpersonal relationship; with management of personal behavior and behavior of others, workflow management.
Within the given study the communicative competence of a bachelor of humanities (a teacher, a psychologist, a social worker, experts of professional group “person-person”) is associated with the readiness for communication in multiethnic and multicultural environment at the professional level, ability to act as a role model of verbal communication, possession of the necessary set of means and kinds of communication (tool aspect of communicative culture); ability to build communication according to purposes of a situation, reaching the maximum efficiency of communicative actions (aspect of functionality); strive not only towards personal objectives, but also to consider the interests of partners in communication and society in general (ethical aspect); ability to focus on the process of communication, on ingenuity, perfection of its forms, its organization (esthetic aspect); ability to consider national and cultural norms of communication (ethnocultural or sociocultural aspect).
In our opinion, the communicative competence of a bachelor of humanities represents the interrelation of special, linguistic, psychological, professional and ethical, didactic and methodical training, readiness for professional self-education.
The following act as criteria of formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities: acceptance of humanitarian meaning of this competence as conditions of personal and professional self-realization in multiethnic environment; understanding of the specific mission as a carrier of language culture; possession of the system of knowledge of language standards as an approximate basis of a communicative competence; possession of various forms of speech activity as a tool of professional, business and interpersonal communication; ability to project and implement various speech situations. (Didenko & Klyucharev, 2013)
The levels of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities are specified according to the above criteria.
The following serve as
substantial and target conditions – reflection of communicative experience of a future specialist as a specific component of education content and as one of its priority aims implying the development of an approximate basis of students’ behavior in speech situations within objectives, content and technologies of the educational process;
organizational and pedagogical conditions – ensuring orientation of educational process towards the formation of a communicative competence by simulation modeling of situations, practical application of various means of cross-cultural communication implying statement and solution of communicative tasks together with students;
methodical conditions – orientation of educational process towards the development and formation of a communicative competence, use of innovative pedagogical technologies, interactive self-checking techniques in educational process, application of educational and methodical complexes, specially and ethnocultural tasks, exercises ensuring professional orientation of educational process, communicative competence, application of diagnostic techniques to define the formation of a communicative competence among students of humanities;
psychological conditions – creation of an atmosphere of developing dialogue, exchange of creative achievements, mutual support, goodwill, trust. The study showed that in order to develop the necessary skills in either type of speech activity, language and linguistic competences, active oral and written practice is required for every student of a group. It is not enough to fill a lesson with conditionally communicative exercises, it is important to give the bachelors of humanities an opportunity to think, solve problems, argue over the solutions of these problems. For students to perceived a language as means of interpersonal, cross-cultural interaction and influence on a partner, it is necessary not only to acquaint them with ethnocultural realities, but also to search for ways of their inclusion into the active dialogue of cultures thus avoiding mistakes connected with national identity of students (grammatical and lexical level).
The formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities is considered as the sequence of
1) situation of reflection of a communicative task. In this situation a student shall realize the importance of cultural and speech education, functionality, heuristicity; meaningfulness; problematical character of speech communication, to accept the specifics of verbal and cogitative activity, its connection with other types of communication; the purpose of such education is to develop a linguistic personality; this situation implies the formation of a personal sense of speech culture as a factor of its formation as identity, as a subject of native culture and as a participant of future dialogue of cultures;
2) situation of the choice of means of speech communication taking into account traditions and conditions of ethnic environment, it is built as a model of real communication, but is organized so that a student has an opportunity to learn and apply the abilities and develop them independently; this situation is characterized by the formation of aspiration and ability to state and make your thoughts clear, and hence, to understand thoughts, intentions, internal state of a partner; the tool of implementing this situation is to make students realize the need to make their thoughts and communication clear, attractive, acceptable for a partner, to overcome prejudices, to accept the point of view of another person, to accept him the way he is;
3) communication situation in the context of business and intersubjective problems taking into account their ethnocultural interpretation; the function of this situation is to create the ability to find mutually acceptable solutions, to demonstrate the partners of communication their importance, to convince them of the value of personal ideas; the methods of this situation are tasks to search compromise solutions, display contradictions in former positions and search for arguments while believing in efficiency of the proposed option; the functions of the specified situation also include the development of bachelors’ ability to reveal motives and meanings of behavior of other people, their intentions, to generate doubts in the importance of a former position, to show new meanings and values allowing partners realizing themselves more fully, to support their attempts to accept and realize new meanings;
4) situation of realization of functions of the bachelor of humanities as an initiator of the models of speech communication created based on the ethnic culture. Students and teachers act as active partners of communication, they are induced to conscious and independent use of language and speech means. Classes have social character, frontal work is replaced with partner, individual and group work. In this situation students face the need to agree with the carrier of another culture, to plan their activity in advance. There is the formation of a subjective attitude towards other students, i.e. ability to see a similar personality, to consider their interests, readiness to help. While communicating with peers a student learns to control the actions of a partner, acts as a role model, compares others to himself. In this situation we pay attention to the formation of skills and abilities of comparative analysis of cultures, ability to be an intermediary between native and “alien” cultures, which, along with the abilities to collect, implies the ability to master sociocultural norms. In this situation when studying the Russian language, a student sees the connection of a grammatical unit with a context, a speech situation and features of its implementation in a statement and a text. Such understanding of grammar in text analysis will contribute to the development of speech abilities and skills to design personal texts depending on purpose, conditions and the situation of communication.
While preparing for such forms a teacher shall identify the situation and conditions of communication, to define possible topics for a conversation, to estimate social factors (age, sex, nationality). The readiness of a student to communicate with a stranger or a person with whom a speaker has official relations, was defined by the ability to support the topic of a conversation (or imperceptibly shift to another topic), tactfulness of behavior, respect for the interlocutor and emotional responsiveness, ability to conduct argument, to have endurance and self-esteem. The classes on rhetoric and standard of speech included exercises for “timid people”, as well as a way out of certain situations and means of conflict prevention. The school of communication for students of humanities included conversations and debates, business games (press conferences, conversations “At a round table”, “Fight of speakers”). Scientific, moral, and legal problems were considered. The discussion of a specific text required preliminary work on its main idea, arguments, structure, ways of communication, features of language. Students gained the experience of analyzing the position of the author of a text and developed their personal opinion on a given problem. When discussing a free topic, which is not connected with a certain text, students received a task to collect materials for the given problem, to systematize it, to choose logical arguments and facts for their further statement. Each participant of a conversation or debate expressed his opinion, could support someone and disagree with others, ask questions, clarify and add information, etc. Nonverbal means of communication were also thought over.
The work on the formation of a communicative competence of a bachelor of humanities implied the development of speech culture; ability to convince; qualified business conversations, negotiations; professional defense of opinion in discussions; knowledge of rational and effective technology of public statements.
The work on the formation of a communicative competence of a bachelor of humanities in the conditions of multicultural environment implied the improvement of Russian speech culture of a university graduate. The formation of a communicative competence of a bachelor of humanities implied the sequence of stages caused by the logic of formation of a communicative competence and assuming the ascension from orientation in a situation of interethnic speech communication to confident solution of communicative tasks and further to the production of the communication models in multicultural environment. (Boni, 2014).
The training was first of all aimed at the expansion of the general view on humanities, development of good speech (mainly in the sphere of business and scientific communication), abilities to use dictionaries and reference books on the Russian language. The formation of a communicative competence at the first stage was aimed to motivate students for communicative success. In this regard the following tasks were solved: to contribute to the acceptance of the meaning of this competence as a condition of personal and professional self-realization in multiethnic environment by specialists of humanities; to understand the specific mission as a carrier of language culture; to understand the gained experience of communication, to develop a personal model of communicative behavior. (Minenkova, 2015).
The study showed that the experience of formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities is especially successful when different technologies are applied: dialogue, game, design, computer, integration. A dialogue was mainly defining the subject-subject orientation in pedagogical process, ensured the adaptation of students to various situations of multiethnic communication. The discussions contributed to search and formation of personal position regarding the discussed problems, exchange of views and ideas.
The technology of educational dialogue was generally used at the second stage of pedagogical work when the necessary skills and abilities of implementing the communicative tasks were already created, vocabulary and level of proficiency in Russian allowed students entering into an active dialogue. The author of this study is a tutor of students’ science at the department since 2000. The students participating in the experiment were involved in scientific conferences held by the Department of Russian and General Linguistics, as well as in scientific seminars within the annual Days of Students’ Science. The students of the experimental group took part in professional orientation events (The Presentation of the Department, Major, The entrant session, The School of the Russian literature).
At the second stage the emphasis was placed on the accumulation of subjective experience, creation of psychological and pedagogical conditions for students to understand their internal need for self-change in educational activity, encouragement and support of emotional and strong-willed manifestations promoting the formation of stable valuable attitude to the Russian language, presentation of personally significant values and attitudes of students in their activities to master the Russian language and culture, develop skills of analysis and self-reflection. (Ryshchak, 2015).
The leading pedagogical tool at the second stage included the communication situations in the context of business and intersubjective problems taking into account their ethnocultural interpretation (Coccetta, 2018) and realization of functions of a student as an initiator of the models of speech communication created based on the ethnic culture. At this stage of a communicative competence the stable interest in the Russian language and the Russian culture was fixed as to an element of the general culture and a subject of professional activity, alongside with the expansion of vocabulary, development of logic, figurativeness, meaningfulness of speech expression. The subject-object orientation remained for students of the initial level. They did not accept models of personal communication type, inactively worked in situations, took a passive position in dialogues. Students of high level strived to master new types of training, demonstrated the required skills. The main attention in the design of situations was paid to modeling of professional situations, creative activity, situations of doubts and reflection, presentation of personal original ideas to the audience and defense of the point of view, acceptance of liability, various forms of debatable discussion, situations of alternativeness of judgments, solution of possible disagreements, respect for opinion of others, assessment of the situation in the social environment.
The pedagogical tools of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities included experience to overcome communicative contradictions, conflicts and efficient solution of communicative tasks, including the following: to understand and be understood by others; to achieve consent and accept ideas expressed by partners; to influence motivation and behavior of other people.
The formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities included the sequence of
Thus, the formation of a communicative competence of bachelors of humanities was generally characterized by positive dynamics. It is possible to conclude that the communicative competence of a bachelor of humanities includes skills representing certain actions brought to perfection and speaking abilities inseparably linked with the personality of a speaker, its ability to correctly assess a speech situation, readiness to change earlier plan of speech interaction, ability to adequately perceive speech behavior of a partner, ability for efficient communication in the conditions of multicultural and multiethnic environment.
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29 March 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Vladimirovna*, E. E. (2019). Communicative Competence Of A Bachelor In Humanities: Formation In Multicultural Conditions. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1809-1818). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.210