On The Afinitiy Of Nostratic And Nakh Languages


The article is devoted to the Nostratic macrofamily of languages and Nakh-Nostratic similarities. The article can specify the issue of defining the boundaries of the Nostratic family, or clarify the groups of languages making up the Nostratic macro-system. The data on the Nakh languages (Chechen, Ingush, Batsbi) included in the body of the article shed light on some aspects of the general issue of the Nostratic macro family (similarities of root morphemes, regular sound similarities, etc.) and expand the borders of the Nostratic macro family. The data on the Nakh languages might help solve the issue of the chronological depth of divergence of the Nostratic languages. The article compares about 50 Nostratic roots with Nakh analogues. According to the authors, the range of linguistic realities of the Nostratic language macro-family which are similar to the Nakh ones, is quite wide. Genetic affinity of the Nostratic and Nakh languages - Chechen, Ingush, Batsbi – is possible due to a wide corpus of related root morphemes, including morphemes of the main vocabulary (nominal, verbal). Similar or corresponding root morphemes in the Nostratic and Nakh languages reflect various concepts related to humans, natural phenomena, spatial relationships, actions, processes, pronouns. Sound similarities are also rather regular. Based on linguistic facts - correspondence of a significant number of root morphemes and regularity of sound correspondences, the authors assume that the Nakh group of Caucasian languages can be included into the Nostratic macro family and expand its borders.

Keywords: Nostratic languagesChechen languageProto-languageProto-Nakh languageDagestanianreconstruction of proto-language


One of the urgent problems of theoretical linguistics is the issue of Nostratic languages (identification of the groups of languages included in the Nostratic macro-family, and identification of the boundaries of this macro-family) as well as the issue of the depth of chronological divergence of the languages of the Nostratic macro family. If Afro-Asian, Indo-European, Ural, Dravidian, Altai languages, as well as one of the groups of the Iberian-Caucasian family – Kartvelian have been included in the Nostratic macrofamily, the status of the Nakh group of the Caucasian family (Chechen, Ingush, Batsbi) is uncertain. This article is devoted to this issue.

The research material consisted of 50 nominal and verbal root morphemes of the main vocabulary of the Nakh languages denoting various concepts (names of persons, natural phenomena, spatial relations, actions, processes) and their correspondences in the Nostratic languages, as well as regular sound correspondences in the systems under consideration.

The novelty is due to the fact that inclusion of the Nakh group of the Caucasian languages in the Nostratic macro family has never been discussed.

Theoretical significance of the research is due to specification of possible genetic affinity of the Nakh and Nostratic languages, and expansion of the range of languages included in the Nostratic family. The research can shed light on the issue of the chronological depth of divergence of the Nostratic languages, and specify existing theoretical concepts about the division of languages into language families.

Practical importance of the research is due to the possibility of using the materials of the article and conclusions for teaching the language theory in universities and making changes in the educational literature on linguistic disciplines

Problem Statement

The issue of affinity of the Nostratic and Nakh languages has not been studied yet. In terms of distant affinity, the Nakh languages along with the North Caucasian languages have recently been included in the Sino-Caucasian macro family. However, there are no convincing evidence and vivid lexical correspondences. The question of possible relations between the Nakh and Nostratic languages is relevant. The research confirmed this hypothesis

Research Questions

The research subject is vocabulary of the Nakh and Nostratic languages.

Purpose of the Study

The article aims to identify lexical correspondences in the Nakh and Nostratic languages.

Research Methods

Comparative historical and comparative typological research methods were used.


The study revealed 50 lexical parallels between the Nakh and Nostratic languages, including 9 pronouns (personal, interrogative, relative), 28 nouns and 13 verbs in the main vocabulary. Regular sound correspondences in the Nakh and Nostratic languages were also identified.


a) PIE * ego : L ego ‘I’, OHG ih , Skt aham , Av azam , Slav az ‘I’. ~ Proto-Nakh * jaħ : Chechen jaħ ‘honor, dignity’, Ing jaħ . Related to Lak jaħ 'will', ‘will power’, Rutul ja`ħ ‘courage'. The original meaning of stem «ego, I» is ‘face’, cf. Chechen jüħ ‘face’, pl. jaħħaš. Semantically development sees from ‘face’ toward ‘my face, my person’ to ‘I, me’. Russin ja corresponds to Chechen jaħ.

1. b) PIE * es- / *as - ‘I’: Baltic * аs , OCS * azъ ‘I’, Iran * az(a) ‘I’ ~ Hurrian-Urart *es ‘1’ ~ Proto-Nakh * as ‘I’ (erg.): Chechen as , Ing az , Bac. as . Related to Dag. * ez - // * zo ‘I’.

Proto-Nostratic *wa- / *we- ‘1st personal pronoun stem’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994):

~ PIE * we- / *wo - ‘we (inclusive)’: Skt vayam , Avestan vem , Gothic weis, Hitt. vesh , Tokh. wes , Slavic * vie ‘we both’ (EDSL 21: 23-24) ~ Proto-Kartvelian *we ‘we’ ~ CHECHEN vai ‘we (inclusive)’, * vaiš ‘ourselves’: Chechen vai , väš , Ing vai , Bac. vai ‘we’.

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *wa - / * we - ‘1st personal pronoun stem’: Egyptian wy ‘I, me’, Chadic: Ngizim wa (inclusive) ‘we, us, our’.

~ Proto-Nakh *waj ‘( inclusive ) we’: Chechen waj , Ing. waj , wej , Bac. waj .

PIE * e-, *ei-, *i - ‘he, she, it’, OCS i, ORus i, ja, jе ‘he, she, it’, Av a, Skt a ‘this’ (Pokorny 1959; Watkins, 1985) ~ Proto-Nakh * i ‘he, she, it; that’: Chechen i ‘1. this; 2. he, she, it’, dial. а , Tush i , iħ, e ~ id. Related to Chechen а ‘conjunction and’ , Slavic * i ‘and’.

PIE * is -: L. is , Gothic is, OHG ir (< * is ) ‘he’, Lith. jis . ~ Proto-Nakh * iz(a) ‘he, she, it; this, that’: Chechen iz(a), Ing. iz , Bac. is . Extended form from Proto-Nakh * i ‘he; it’;

PIE *sua-, *sue-s, *esue-s ‘you’ (pl.), Latv. jus ‘you’, jusu ‘вас’, Skrt. yuşmaka ‘yours’, Iran. * yuš - ‘you’, Pers. šuma , Bel. (west.) šuma , (east.) šawa, Hit. šumaš ‘you’, ‘to you’ (Джаукян, 1967: 96). ~ Proto-Nakh šu ‘you’ (Ch., Ing., Bac. šu ); Abkh.-Adyg. šuǝ (Kab. фэ , Adyg. шъуэ , Abkh.-Abaz. шуа-ра , Oubykh. шуы-гъуэ ‘you’ (Шагиров, 1977); Tsakh. шу , Tab. * ушву , Archi * швен , Rout. dial. жу , Lak * су , Lezg. * шун ‘you’ (Elementi 121, Трубецкой, NW 79). Original Erly Nakh is *swa (> Nakh. * šwa > šu , erg. aša ). In some Caucasian and Indo-European languages initial с [s] fell out, e.g. Rutul ве , Bodukh. вин , Kryz. вин ‘you’; Avestan vo , L. vos , Ossetic va , Slav. * vy , Old Prus. wans ‘you’.

Proto-Nostratic *k’a- / *k’ǝ - demonstrative pronoun stem (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994):

~ PIE. * k [h] e - / * k [h] o - / * k [h] i - demonstrative pronoun stem: Hittite ki-i ‘this, that’, Greek *ke in keinos ‘that’, L ce in cedo ‘give here’, ci in cis ‘’, Old Irish ce in bith ce ‘this world’, Gothic hi- pronominal stem in himma , hina, hiri ‘come here!’ (Pokorny, 1959; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985).

~ Proto-Kartvelian: *- k [h] - pronoun stem: Georg. [- k- ], Mingr. [- k- ], Zan. [- k- ] (Klimov, 1964).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic * k [h] a - / * k [h] ǝ demonstrative pronoun stem: Burji ku ‘this’, Darasa qunni ‘this, these’, ikki ‘that, that’, Kambata ku ‘this, these’ ().

~ Proto-Nakh * qa demonstrative pronoun stem: Chechen qu / haqu ‘this’ (Erg. pl. qāra / hoqāra ‘these’; Dat. pl qārna / hoqārna ), Ing. uq(a) , Bac. oqu ‘of this’ (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic *sa- / *sә - ‘this, that’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994): PIE. * sa - ‘ demonstrative pronoun this, that, it’: Sanskrit sa-h demonstrative pronoun ‘that’, Greek ó , Gothic sa ‘that’, Old Icelandic sa, su ‘that’, OE. se ‘that, one, he’, OHG si ‘she’; Tocharian A- demonstrative pronoun (Pokorny, 1959; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985) ~ Proto-Afroasiatic *sa- demonstrative pronoun; Proto-Ugrian *- ‘he, she, it’: Finnish han (< * san ) ‘he, she’.

~ Proto-Nakh. * sa / * a-sa ‘this, that, it’: Chechen cu / o-cu ‘that‘, erg. pl. cāra / o-cāra ‘those’, Ing. cu . Oblique stem of demonstrative and personal pronoun i ‘he, that’(= PIE i ‘that’). Hence Ossetic aci ‘this’, oci ‘that’. Phonetic changes: * sa ‘this, that > * > cu (cf. qu / hoqu erg . this’ < * a-qu ). A sibilant s represented in Akki dialect by sigaħ ‘here’, Bacbi ise ‘here’ but Chechen cigaħ ‘over there’, eccaħ ‘in this place’.

Proto-Nostratic *mi- / *me- interrogative pronoun stem; *ma- / *me- relative pronoun stem (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994):

PIE * me- / *mo - interrogative and relative pronoun stem: Cornish ma , may ‘that’; Breton ma , may , Hitt. maši- ‘how much, how many?’, Tokh. B maksu interrogative and relative pronoun stem, makte ‘how?’, A mant ‘how?’ ~ Proto-Kartvelian *mi-n interrogative and relative pronoun stem ‘who’, * ma - ‘what’ (Klimov, 1964).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *ma - / * me - interrogative and relative pronoun stem: Proto-Semitic ma- / *mi- - id. > Akkadian manna, man ‘who’, Ethiopic mi ‘what’, mannu ‘whu’, mnt ‘what’.

~ Sumerian me-na-am ‘when’, me-a ‘where’, me-še ‘where to’ (Illič-Svityč, 1971).

~ Proto-Nakh *ma- / *me- / *mi- interrogative and relative pronoun stem: Chechen mila , Ing. mala ‘who’, Bac. me n (interrogative), mena (relative); Chechen minex , Bac. menax ‘somebody, someone’, menux ‘wich’; Chechen mas ‘how many’; miel , dial. mal , Ing. miel , Bac. mel’ ‘how much’, Chechen muxa , Ing. mišta , Bac. moħ ‘how’; Common Nakh miča ‘where’, maca ‘when’.

Names of body parts

Proto-Nostratic * dak- / * dek - ‘to take, to seize’: PIE * dek - / * dok - ‘to take’, Greek dekomai ‘to take, to acsept, to receive’; L. doceo ‘to teach, to instruct’, Old Church Slavic deso, desiti ‘to get, to find’, Avestan dasәm ‘property, possessions, belongings’ (Pokorny 1959; Bomhard & Kerns,1994) ~ Proto-Nakh * dak ‘willow twig, branch, arm, right hand’, * dakin ‘right’: Chechen dak ‘willow’, dika ‘good’ (< * dekin < dak-in < dak ‘right hand, good hand’), Bac. dako ‘goat willow’, diki n ‘good’ (Vagapov 2011). Hence PIE * t’ek h -m ‘ten’: Sanskrit dasa ‘ten’, Greek deka ‘ten’; L. decem ‘ten’, Old Irish deich ‘ten’; Old Church Slavic desetь ‘ten’, Armenian tasn ‘ten’ (Pokorny, 1959; Bomhard & Kerns, 1994). Semantic development from * dek - ‘right hand’ to ‘and right hand, also right hand’ (= ‘five finger of left hand plus five finger of right hand’) > ‘ten’.

Proto-Nostratic * t’al- / * t’әl - ‘to stretch out, to extend’: PIE * t’el - / * t’ol - / *t’l- ‘to stretch out, extend, lengthen’: Sanskrit dirghah ‘long, tall, deep’, Greek dolixos ‘long’; Hittite da-lu-ga-e-eš ‘long’, da-lu-ga-as-ti ‘length’, Old Church Slavic dъlgъ ‘long’, Avestan dasәm ‘property, possessions, belongings’ (Pokorny, 1959; Bomhard & Kerns, 1994), Rus. доль ‘length’, даль , длина , Proto-Slavic * dolnь ‘hand, palm’ от * dolъ ‘lowest part (arm)’, E. doll ‘a doll’ (< ‘hand, arm’), cf. dial. doll ‘arm’ (Makovsky, 2004).

~ Proto-Nakh. * dal ‘elbow (as measure of length)’: Chechen duol – id., gen. dalaran , pl. dalarš , Ing. duol, Bac. dol . (Vagapov, 2011). Cf. also: Dargin dulai ‘forearm; right’, dulgha ‘sleeve’, Dargin dial. /Icar./ dulug ‘shoulder, forearm’, dalug /Chirag./ ‘elbow’, Avar. rul’ ‘upper arm’, Tsakh. d j oles, deles ‘near by, close to’ (< ‘at hand’).

Proto-Nostratic * k [h] an- / * k [h] ǝn- ‘to do, make’: PIE. * k [h] on- ‘to do, make or prepare in a proper manner’: Chech konat ‘to do, to achieve’, vy-kon ‘achievement’; Old Church Slavic u-konъ ‘execution, deed’; Ossetic känyn ‘to do, to make’, Greek δια-κονος ‘servant, waiting-man’, έγ-κονις ‘maid-servant’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994). Cf. also Tokharian kän ‘do, make, happen’, происходить’ (Makovsky, 2004), Old Russian у-чинить , Russian чин-ить, по-чин-ить, при-чин-ить (Pokorny, 1959), кон, конец, начало, конечность , початок, почин , Shugnan kin - ‘to do, make’.

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *k [h] an- / * k [h] ǝn- ‘to do, to make right, to establish’: Arabic kana ‘to be, to exist; to happen, to make’, Hebrew kun ‘to be correct, right, proper, prepared’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994).

~ Proto-Nakh. * ka ‘hand’ > *kan ‘hand; brash / bunch of grapes; ear II’: Chechen ka ‘hand’ > kan ‘hand; brash / bunch of grapes; ear II’, kāna ‘handful’, Ingush ka (Vagapov, 2011). Semantic development from ‘arm, hand’ to ‘to do, to make, to labour’.

Proto-Nostratic * k [h] ar- / * k [h] ǝr- ‘to do, make; a work’: PIE. * kor- ‘to do, make, a work’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994), Sanskrit kara ‘hand’, karnas ‘handle’, Persian kar - ‘a work’; кимр. carn ‘handle’, Russian черен-ок ‘handle’, Ossetic kärna ‘task’ (< ‘commission, message’). Cf. also Gothic harjis ‘army’ (< ‘detachment, brigade, phalanx, cohort’), OHG. heri , OE. here ‘army’, Lith. kãras ‘war’, kãrias ‘army’, kare ‘war’, karys ‘warrior’, Old Prussian kāra ‘army; people’ (Walde, 1927–1932).

~ Proto-Nakh. * ka ‘hand’ > *kar : Chechen ka ‘hand, grip’ > karaħ ‘in hand(s)’, kāra ‘glove’, gen. kāran . Ing. ka ‘hand’, Bac. ko ‘hand’, oblique stem kor, koren botx ‘needlework, fancywork’ (Kadagidze & Kadagidze,1984) (cf. Ossetic kärna ‘task’), kor ‘gauntlet, glove’ (Vagapov, 2011). Universal semantic development from ‘hand’ to ‘to do, make, labour’.

Proto-Nostratic *k [h] ar- ‘hard, strong, firm’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994):

~ PIE. *k [h] ar- ‘hard, strong, firm’: Greek karkinos ‘crab’, kartos , kratos ‘strength, might’, kratus ‘strong, mighty’; Gothic hardus ‘hard, stern’; Old Saxon hard ; OHG hart ‘hard’ (Pokorny, 1959; Watkins, 1985; Gamkrelidze & Ivanov, 1984).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *k [h] ar- ‘hard, dry’: Proto-Semitic *k [h] ar-ar- ‘to be or become hard, dry’ > Ethiopic karra, karara ‘to be dry’, Amharic karrara ‘to become hard, to dry out’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994).

~ Dravidian: Tamil karumai ‘strength, greatness’, Malayalam karu ‘stout, hard’, Kannada kara, karu ‘greatness, power’ (Burrow & Emeneau, 1984).

~ Proto-Nakh. * kar ‘head; horns of deer; high hair-do’, * kart ‘head’: Chechen kur ‘head; horns of deer; high hair-do’, pl. karraš , kuorta ‘head’ (Maciev, 1961); Ing. kuorta , Bac. korto , korto ‘head’ (Kadagidze, 1984). The same is true for * kart ‘head, horn’: Germanic * kart ‘stag’ > OE. heort , E. hart , Old Norv. hjortr ‘hart’; Lith. kerte ‘corner’ (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * k am- / * k ǝm- ‘to chew, to bite, to eat’: PIE. * k’emb- / *k’omb- ‘to chew, bite, crush’, k’ombos ‘yooth, spike, nail’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994), Sanskrit jámbhate ‘to chew up, to recognize’, jámbha-h ‘tooth’, Greek γόμφιος ‘a gringer-tooth’, OE. camb ‘comb’, Latvian zuobs ‘tooth’; Albanian dhёmb ‘tooth’, Tokharian A kam , B keme ‘tooth’ (Pokorny, 1994; Gamkrelidze & Ivanov, 1984).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *k’am- / * k’ǝm- ‘to chew, to bite, to eat’: Proto-Semitic * k’am- ‘to chew, to bite, to eat, to grind’ > Arabic kamah ‘to eat’, kamh ‘wheat’, Hebrew kemah ‘flour’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994).

~ Proto-Nakh. * gāmi / * qāmi ‘teeth, jaw, denture’: Chechen giēma ‘кожемялка в виде деревянных челюстей’, qiēma ‘jaw, denture’, k’oms / q’oms ‘tooth’, k’omsar / q’omsar ‘tusk, fang’ (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * q al ‘throat’: PIE. * k’el- / *k’ol- ‘throat, to swallow’ (Bomhard, Kerns: 508): Old Irish gelim ‘to feed, to graze’, Latin gula ‘throat, gulley’, OE ceole ‘throat’, OHG kela ‘throat, gulley’.

~ Proto-Kartvelian q’eli ‘neck, throat’: Georgian q’eli ‘neck, throat’, Zan q’ali, ali ‘neck, throat’, Mingrelian ali ‘neck, throat’, Svan mǝ-q’la, mǝ-q’li ‘throat’.

~ Proto-Nakh. * qallan : Chechen qalla ‘to eat, swallow’ (> t’e-qalla ‘have a bite’, qallar ‘bread’), Ing. qalla , Bac. qalla n – id. (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * nas - ‘to breathe, to blow’: PIE * nas ‘nose’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994) ~ Proto-Nakh-Dagestanian * nas- / *naš- ‘moist; humid; sniveling, snotty’: Chechen naš-/ nuoš- in našbala / nuošbala ‘to become juicy’, Ing. muošbala . Probably Adyg naš, Gorgian neswi , Megrelian * našvi ‘melon’. Semantically cf. Proto-Nakh * mar ‘nose’ ~ PIE * mare ‘lake, sea; salt’; Russian soplo ‘nozzle’ ~ sopli ‘snivel, snot’.

Proto-Nostratic * p h ar - ‘to preceede, to surpass’: PIE * p h er -, Sanskrit parah ‘far, distant’, Greek paros ‘before’, L. per ‘along, over’, Goth. faur ‘for, before’, frauja ‘master, lord’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994) ~ Proto-Nakh. * pħa ‘arm, hand’ > * pħar ‘arm, hand’ > Ch. pħar ‘expert, master’, pħars ‘arm, forearm’ (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * p h at’ - / * p h ǝt’ - ‘to hasten, to move quickly; foot’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994): PIE * p h et’ - / p h ot’ - ‘foot’, Sanskrit pat (gen. sg . padah ) ‘foot’, Greek gen. podos , L. gen. pedis ‘foot’. ~ Proto-Afroasiatic * p h at’ - / * p h ǝt’ - ‘to hasten, to move quickly; foot’ (ibid.). ~ Proto-Nakh. * pħa ‘extremity, arm, foot’ > Ch. * pħad ‘foot, calf’ > Ch. pħid ‘calf; frog’, dial. pl. pħadariš ; Bac. pħit’ (Vagapov, 2011). Cf. also OE pad ‘frog’, Swed. padda ‘toad’ and Nakh bada ‘to run’.

Proto-Nostratic *wir- / *wer- ‘to stretch, to extend, to expand’: PIE wer - / * ur - ‘to stretch, extend, wide, broad, extended, great, large’: Sanskrit uruh ‘wide, broad, extended, great, large’, varas - ‘width, breadth, expanse’, Avestan vouru - ‘wide, broad’, Greek eurus ‘wide, broad’.

~ Proto-Afroasiatic * war - ‘to stretch, extend, spread out’: Semitic Arabic warafa ‘to stretch, extend, become long (shadow)’, Ethiopic ward , warad ‘breadth, width’, Amharic ward ‘breadth, width’.

~ Dravidian: Tamil viri ‘to expand, spread out, open’, Malayalam viriyuka ‘to expand, open’, virivu ‘expansion, breadth’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994).

~ Proto-Nakh *wariē ‘thigh’: Chechen warie (Maciev, 1961), dial. waraw , warunda, waruw , gen. warun , Ing. woruw ‘thigh’ (Aliroev, 1975; Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * p h al - / * p h ǝl - ‘thumb’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994): PIE * p h al’ - ‘thumb’: L. pollex ‘thumb, big toe’, Late Church Slavic palьcь ‘thumb’; Polish (dial.) palic ‘finger’ (Pokorny, 1959; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985).

~ Proto-Uralic * pälkä ‘thumb’: Lapp balge ; Mordvin pel`ka (Erza), pεl`kε (Moksha) ‘thumb’, Udmurt põly ‘thumb’, Komi pel ‘thumb, top, pinnacle’, Mansi pal’e ‘thumb’ (Collinder, 1955).

~ Kartvelian * polo ‘big hoof’ (Klimov, 1964).

~ Proto-Nakh. * pħa ‘extremity, arm’ > * pħa l ‘hand, thumb, finger’ > Chechen pħal-ig / p’al-ig (Vagapov, 2011) > p’elg ‘finger’; pħōla ‘trade, handicraft’ < pħalu (Aliroev, 1975), pħalgha ‘workshop, forge’, Ing. p’elg ‘finger’.

Names of persons

Proto-Nostratic *mag- ‘young, child’ (Bomhard &Kerns, 1994):

~ PIE *mag - ‘young’, * magu ‘young person, child’: Old Irish macc ‘son’ Gothic magus ‘boy, servant’, OE magu ‘child, son, servant’ (Pokorny, 1959; Walde 1927–1932; Watkins, 1985); Old Czech mezenec ‘ring-finger’, Russian мизинец ‘little finger; the youngest son / brother’, Lith. ma as , Latv. mazs ‘little, small’.

~ Proto-Dravidian *maka ‘young person, child’: Tamil maka ‘child, infant, son or daughter, Malayalam makan ‘son’, Kota mog ‘child, wife’, Kannada maga ‘son’, Tulu mage ‘son’, Telugu maga, moga ‘male’, Malto maqe ‘boy’, maqi ‘girl’, maqo ‘small, little, young’ (Burrow & Emeneau, 1984):

~ Proto-Nord-Caucasian *maga ‘small, little’: Chechen māza in māza - p’ielg ‘ring-finger’ < māza (little) and p’ielg (finger), Cez. nak’ila ‘little finger’, Tab. *mic’i t’ub ‘little finger’, Cham. mik’ib , тинд. muk’utub , Bagv. muk’ub ‘little’, Botl. mák’i , Cham., Bagv. mač’ , тинд. mak’a ‘child, baby’, mik’a ‘finger’, Abaz. mač’, Adyg. mak’e ‘little’. With a metathesis Nakh. * gam ‘chaff, dust’: Chechen gam – id., * zami / * žami ‘small, little’ > zima / žima (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic *mar- ‘young man’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994):

~ PIE *mar - ‘young man’, * meiri - ‘man; manly’: Greek meiraks , Avestan mairya ‘young man, youth’, Sanskrit marya - ‘young man, husband’, maryaka - ‘male’, Pushtu mere ‘courageous’ (Pokorny, 1994; Walde, 1927-1932), French mari ‘husband’, курд. mer ‘man’.

~ Proto-Afroasiatic * mar ‘(young) man’: Proto-Semitic * mar’ > Arabic mar’ ‘ man’, Himyaritic mari ‘lord’, Syriac mare’ ‘lord’, Akkadian maru, ma’u ‘ son, offspring; young person.

~ Dravidian: Tamil mari ‘young of sheep, horse, etc.’; Kota mayr ‘young of animals (except cattle)’, Gondi mari, marri ‘son’, Malayalam ma r i ‘young of animals’, Kannada ma r i ‘the young of any animal’, Tulu mari ‘a young animal’, Telugu maga, moga ‘male’, Brahui mar ‘son’ (Burrow &Emeneau, 1984).

~ Finno-Ugric: Marian mari ‘man, husband, Marian’, Enean mar ‘stag, buck’.

~ Proto-Nakh *mar ‘(young) husband’, * mairin ‘male; manly, courageous, brave’: Chechen mar ‘husband’, maira ‘husband; courageous, manly’, Ing mar ‘husband’, maira ‘manly’, Bac. mair ‘husband’. Cf. also Dargin marg ‘male’, Svan mare ‘man’, Urart mari ‘noble young man’ (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * s y aw - / *sy әw - ‘to give birth, to be born’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994): PIE. * sew - / * sow - / * su ‘to give birth’: Sanskrit sute, suyate ‘to beget, to procreate, produce’, suta ‘son, child, offspring’, Avestan hunu-š , Greek hyios , E. son , Old Church Slavic syn , PIE. * sun-us ‘son’ ~ Proto-Nakh. * hun ‘seed; breed’: Chechen gen. hun , Ing. hu , Bac. huw / huj ‘seed; pit’. Cf. also Avar h`on , dial. h`un ‘seed’, Karatin h`h`un , Andi šen ‘sperm, seed’, Godob. šuni , Dargin. he, hwi, šwa , Chamal. hy n , huni ‘seed’; Lezgin. axt. sun (), Urartu hin -iš ‘son’. Semantically cf. Irish mac ‘son’ and Ossetian myggag ‘seed, family, race, breed’ (Makovsky, 2004), Chechen k’ant ‘son’ ~ k’a ‘grain, wheat’.

Proto-Nostratic *k’ir y - / *k’er y - ‘to decay, to rear out, wither, waste away, become old’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994): PIE. * k’er(h) / *k’or(h) - ‘to decay, rear out, wither, waste away, grow old’: Sanskrit jarati ‘to become decrepit’, jara-h ‘becoming old’, jarana-h ‘old, decayed’, jirna-h ‘old, worn out’, Avestan zar - ‘to grow old’, Armenian cer ‘old’; Greek geraios ‘old’, geron ‘an old man; ( adj .) old’, Old Church Slavic zreti ‘to ripen, to mature’, zrel ‘ripe’ (Pokorny, 1959; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985).

~ Dravidian: Tamil kiram, kiratu ‘old age; aged person’, Malayalam kiravan ‘old man’, Kannada kerava ‘old man’.

~ Proto-Nakh. * gieru ‘mature, old, widowed’: Old Chechen žir-ghaz ‘старая дева’, Chechen žieruo ‘widow, divorced’, žiöra ‘widowed, divorced’, žiöra-baba ‘old woman, witch, hag, harridan, crone’, žij ‘sheep, ewe’, pl. žerčij , Ing. žieruo ‘widow, divorced’, žiöra , Bac. žero ‘widow, divorced’, žer-pst’u ‘widow, divorced’ (Maciev 1961; Vagapov, 2011). Cf. also Sanskrit jiryati ‘to become decrepit, to become rotten, become old’, Lithuanian žirnis ‘горох’, L. granum ~ Chechen žir ‘sawdust, rot’.

Proto-Nostratic *k’an- ‘to get, acquire, create’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994): PIE * k’en - ‘to beget’, * gent ‘born; son’: Sanskrit janati ‘to produce, create’, janas - ‘race’, Avestan zan - ‘to beget, to be born’, Greek γενος ‘race, stock, kin’, L. geno ‘to beget’, genus ‘class, kind, birth, origin’, Armenian cnanim ‘to beget’, cin ‘birth’, Welsh geni ‘to give birth’ (Pokorny, 1959; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985; Gamkrelidze & Ivanov, 1984).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *k’an- ‘to get, acquire, create’: Proto-Semitic *k’an- ‘to get, acquire, create’ > Hebrew ḳānāh – id., Arabic ḳanā – id., Ethiopic ḳanaya ‘to acquire, create’.

~ Dravidian: Tamil kanru ‘calf, young animal / tree’, Malayalam kannu ‘young of cattle’, Kannada kanda ‘young child’, kandu ‘calf, young plantain trees’ (Burrow & Emeneau, 1984).

~ Sumerian gan ‘to bear, to bring forth, to give birth to’.

~ Proto-North-Caucasian *k’an ‘bottom, home; uterus’: Proto-Nakh * k’an ‘home; uterus’ > * c’an ‘home, kin’ in Chechen c’a ‘home; uterus (home of child)’, Dat. c’ien-na ; c’ienuo ‘home, house’, pl c’ienuoš , k’ant ‘boy; son’, c’onga ‘navel’; Avar. k’inu , Lak č’an , Lezgin k’an ‘bottom’, Khinal. c’va ‘home’, k’an ‘bottom’; Arči c’c’an , Avar c’c’ino ‘navel’; Proto-Aduge * c’ǝ , Proto-Abkhaz-Abaza c’a ‘bottom’ (Vagapov, 2011).


Proto-Nostratic *anah- ‘to breathe, respire, live’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994):

~ PIE. * an - ‘to breathe, to respire, to live’, PIE * an (e)- ‘breath; to breathe’: Old Swedish ange ‘vapour’, Old Icelandic andi ‘breath, soul’, Gothic anan ‘to breathe’, Germ. * ana ‘to breathe’; Old Irish anál ‘breath’, anim ‘soul’, Irish ene ‘soul’, L. anima ‘breath, soul’, animal ‘a living being, animal’, Greek anemos ‘breath; wind’, Sanskrit anas ‘breath’, an - ‘to breathe’ (Pokorny, 1959; Watkins, 1985; Gamkrelidze, Ivanov, 1984).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic: Egyptian nh - ‘to live, life, living persons’, Coptic ōnh ‘to live, be alive’.

~ Proto-Nakh *‘ an ‘steam, vapour; breath; soul’ (‘ is a pharyngeal sound): Chechen ‘a ‘vapour, breathe’, gen. ‘änaran , Chechen dial. ‘ en , Ing. ‘a , Bac. ‘a . The meaning of ‘breath’ in the Chechen language. ‘a is reconstructed on the basis of ‘a-merza ‘courteous, polite’, ‘a jajna ‘an ‘to sit with bated breath’. Chamal. ‘vapour’, hana ‘cloudiness, mist, fog’ might fall into the same category.

Proto-Nostratic *gil- / *gel - ‘to shine, to glisten’: PIE. * ghel- / *ghol- / *ghl - ‘to shine, glisten’: Avestan zaranya ‘gold’, Sanskrit hari-h ‘tawny, yellow’, hiranya - h ‘gold, string’; Greek xloros ‘grinish-yellow’, Latin helvus ‘light bay’, Old Irish gle ‘clear’, glass ‘blue, green’, Gothic gul ‘gold’, Old Icelandic gull ‘gold’, gulr ‘yellow’, OHG gelo ‘yellow’, Lithuanian žãlias ‘green’, Old Church Slavic zelenъ ‘green’, zlato ‘gold’ (Pokorny, 1959; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *gal- / *gәl - ‘to be or become shining, bright, clear’: Arabic gala ‘to clean, to polish’, Harsusi gelo ‘to polish’ ~ Uralic: Finnish kiilta ‘to sine’, to glisten’ ~ Altaic: Mongolian gilaγan ‘bright, shiny’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994).

~ Proto-Nakh * gha- ‘leaf, verdure’ > * gha-l ‘stem of the grass’ > * xal : Chechen gha ‘leaf, verdure’, xal ‘stem of the grass; piece of thread’, dimin. xēlig, xala ‘difficult; bilious, choleric’ (Maciev, 1961); Lak xxal , Lezgin ghal ‘thread’ (Vagapov, 2011). Cf. Old Church Slavic zolъ ‘malicious’ from ‘yolk’.

Proto-Nostratic * p h en- ‘to nourish, to nurture’: PIE * phen - ‘food, protection’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994) ~ Proto-Nakh. * pħāni ‘fat, oily’ > Chechen ħēna ‘fat, oily’ (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * s y in y - / * s y en y - ‘to change, to deteriorate, to grow old’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994):

~ PIE. * sen - ‘old’: Sanskrit sana-h ‘old, ancient’, L. senex ‘old, aged’, Old Irish sen , Gothic sineigs , Lith. senas ‘old’ (Pokorny, 1959, Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985), Proto-Semitic * san-an - ‘to grow old, reach old age’ > Arabic sanna ‘to grow old, to age’, Hebrew sanah ‘to change, year’, Ugaritic šnt ‘year’, Harsusi senet ‘year’, Sokqotri sanah ‘year’ .

~ Proto-Nakh.-Dag. * san ‘tree; year’: Chechen šuo ‘year’, šarah ‘in year’, šira ‘old’ < ‘last year’s’, Ing. šuo , Bac. šo ; Avar son , Lak šin , Archi ssan , Budukh san , Rutul sen , Tsakhur sen ‘year’ (Komrie & Halilov, 2010).

Proto-Nostratic * s y am- / s y әm - ‘to be hot, sunny’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994): PIE. * sem- / *som - ‘summer’: OE sumor ‘summer’, Old Irish sam ‘summer’, Sanskrit sama ‘season, year, summer’, Armenian am ‘year’ (Pokorny, 1994; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985), Proto-Semitic * šamš - ‘sun’: Arabic šams ‘sun’ < * sams , Hebrew šemeš ‘sun’.

~ Proto-Nakh. * samә ‘reality; day, light’: Chechen semә ‘wakeful, waking, vigilant’ < * sami , samax ‘in reality, waking (not in a dream), samō ‘vigilance’, samәvāla ‘waken’, samәvâqqa ‘wake up’ (Maciev, 1961; Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic *s y ir- / s y әr - ‘to twist, to turn, to tie; band, cord, any cord-like object: sinew, tendon, nerve, vein’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994): PIE. * ser- / *sor - ‘band, cord, string, thread; sinew, tendon, vein’: Sanskrit sarat ‘thread’, sara-h ‘cord, string’; Prakrit sara ‘string, garland, necklace’; Greek erma ‘chain, necklace, band’, Old Lithuanian seris ‘thread, cobler’s thread’; Tokharian A sar - ‘vein’ (Pokorny, 1994; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985), Proto-Asiatic *s y ir- / s y әr - ‘to twist, turn, tie; band, cord, any cord-like object: sinew, tendon, nerve, vein’: Arabic surr , Hebrew šor ‘umbilical cord’ ~ Proto-Altaic *sir- ‘sinew, tendon’, Sumerian šer ‘to tie, to bind’, šerser ‘chain’.

~ Proto-Nakh. * sāra ‘wire, switch; lash’: Chechen sāra ‘wire, switch, twig; lash’, pl. sērij . sāri ‘nest egg’ < ‘first egg’ (Maciev, 1961; Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * t y[h] awr ‘bull, steer’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994), PIE. *(s)teur- ‘bull, ox’ (Iran. staura ‘big domestic animal’; German * steur -: OE. staora , E. steer ‘young bull’; Latin taurus , Lith. tauras , Old Church Slavic turъ , Albanian tarok , Gall. tarvos , Old Irish tarb ‘bull’ (Pokorny, 1959), Semitic * stur ‘strong, firm, hard, stalwart’.

~ Proto-Nakh. *(s)ta-r ‘bull, steer’: Chechen stu / su // tu ‘bull, ox’, Ing. ust , Bac. pst’u . The original form is * sa(r) / *ta(r) / *sta(r) , cf. Chechen oblique stem ster-an (gen.) < star-in, pl. sterčij < *staršij , also in star-gha ‘young bull, bullock’. Similar forms to Ing. ust ‘bull’ represented in Sanskrit uşţra ‘buffalo, camel’, uşţar, uşţa ‘bull, ox’, Avestan uštro ‘camel’.


Proto-Nostratic * dag- ‘to shine, to burn brightly; day: PIE * dag - ‘to burn’, Avest. daga ‘to burn’, Lith. degu, degti ‘to burn’; Sumerian dág ‘shining, bright, clean’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994) ~ Proto-Nakh. * dāgan ‘to burn’: Chechen daga , Ing. daga , dak’a n (Vagapov 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * dan- ‘to run, to flow: PIE * den - / * don / * dn - ‘to run, flow’, Sanskrit dhanvati ‘to run, to flow’, Old Persian dan- ‘to flow’ (Pokorny, 1959; Bomhard & Kerns, 1994) ~ Proto-Nakh. * dān ‘to run, to flow’: Chechen n , Bac. da’a n (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * k an- / * k ǝn- ‘to observe, to perceive’: PIE. * k’en- / *k’on- / * k’n - ‘to perceive, to understand, to know’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994), Sanskrit janati ‘to know, to recognize’, Avestan zan - ‘to know’, Khowar noik ‘to become visible, to appear’; Armenian can-eay ‘knew’, an-can ‘unknown’, Goth kannjan ‘to make know’, Old Church Slavic znati ‘to know’ (Pokorny, 1959).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *k’an- / * k’ǝn- ‘to observe, to perceive’: Somali - qiin- / qaan , Yaaku qeen - ‘to know’.

~ Dravidian: Tamil kan ‘eye, aperture’, Malayalam kan, kannu ‘eye, nipple’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994).

~ Proto-Nakh. * gan ‘to see’, iter. * gien ‘to see’: Chechen gan ‘to see’, zien ‘to check, to examine’, Ing. ga , Bac. d-agan ‘to see’ (Vagapov, 2011). Semantic development from ‘to see’ to ‘to know, to be acquaintance’.

Proto-Nostratic *maG- ‘to be of great influence, importance, or power’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994): PIE. * meg (h) - / *mog (h) - ‘to be of great influence, importance, or power’: Sanskrit mahati, mahayati ‘to magnify, to esteem highly, to revere’, Avestan mazant - ‘great’; Gothic magan ‘to be able’, OE magan ‘to be able, to have power’, Old Church Slavic mogo ‘I can’ (Pokorny, 1994; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *mag- / *mәg - ‘to be of great influence, importance, or power; glorious, illustrious’: Proto-Semitic * mag-ad - ‘to be of great influence, importance, or power; glorious, illustrious’ > Arabic magada ‘to be glorious, illustrious, exalted’; Hebrew meγeð ‘ excellence, excellent or choice things (always of gifts of nature)’.

~ Kartvelian: Georgian maγali ‘high, great’, Zan maγali ‘high, great’ (Schmidt, 1962; Jahukyan, 1967).

~ Proto-Nakh. * magan ‘1. can, be able, may; 2. suit, fit, be appropriate’: Chechen maga n (Maciev 1961; Nichols & Vagapov, 2004), Ing. maga , Bac. mak’a n .

Proto-Nostratic *mat (h) - / *mәt (h) - ‘middle, in the middle of, with, among’: (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994): PIE. * met (h) - ‘middle, in the middle of, with, among’: Greek meta ‘in the midst of, among’, Avestan mat - ‘with’; Gothic mith ‘with, among’, Albanian mjet ‘middle’, Old Church Slavic mogo ‘I can’ (Pokorny, 1959, Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *mat (h) - / *mәt (h) - ‘middle, in the middle of, among’: Semitic: Arabic matn ‘middle of the road’; Egyptian mtt ‘ middle’, mtw ‘with’, Coptic meta ‘middle’.

~ Proto-Nakh. * matt ‘middle’: Chechen muott ‘tongue; place, bed’, gen. mettan < matt-in , mettamuott ‘center, den, lair’, Ing. muott , Bac. mot’t’ (Maciev, 1961; Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * pel - ‘to tremble, to sake; to be frightened, fearful, afraid’: PIE pel : L. pello ‘to beat, push, shake’, Greek pallo ‘to sway, to shake’, Old Church Slavic ‘dread, fear, fright’ (Bomhard, Kerns: 255) ~ Proto-Nakh. * pel - dijlan ‘to sway, to wobble’, * pallu ‘butter-fly’: Chechen piel ‘flat, prone, lateral side’, Majstian dial. pil ‘feather’, piel dijla ‘to sway, wobble’ (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * s y aw - / * s y әw - ‘to be dry, arid, withered’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994): PIE. * saw-s- / *su-s - ‘dry’: Sanskrit sosa-h ‘dry, withered’, Greek. ayos ‘dry, withered’, OE sear ‘dry, withered’, Old Irish sam ‘summer’, Lithuanian sausas ‘dry, arid’ Old Church Slavic suxъ ‘dry’ (Pokorny, 1994; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985) ~ Proto-Kartvelian * šw-er / šw-r - ‘to dry, to become dry’ (Klimov, 1964) ~ Afroasiatic: Egyptian šwy ‘to be dry, arid, hot’, Coptic šowe ‘to dry up, to be dry’, šow ‘dry’ ().

~ Proto-Nakh. * sausan ‘to swell, swell out, distend’, Chechen sovsa (Maciev, 1961), Ing. sovsa , sapsa n . Single-action verb sijsa ‘to hiss, pant, puff, grumble’, having correspondences in Indo-European languages: Avestan suši , Persian šuš , Mundzhan šiš // šuš ‘lung’, Xotanosak suvä ‘lungs’, Ossetian sūs // sоs ‘hollow, porous’, ‘lung’, * sau - ‘to swell’ (Abaev II 381; Edelman, 1986), Sanskrit śvas - ‘to breath, make hoarse sounds’, Latvian sausas - ‘dry’, sust, susu - ‘become dry’, OHG. suson ‘to hiss, buzz’, Germ. sausen ‘to noise, whistle’, PIE. * saus - ‘dry up; consume; blow; become dry’ (Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic * saw - / * sәw - ‘to sleep, rest’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994): PIE. * swe -p / * swep - / * swu-p ‘to sleep’: Sanskrit swapiti (Vedic swapati ) ‘to sleep, fall asleep’, Avestan x w ap - ‘to sleep’, Greek. ipnos ‘sleep, slumber’, Latin sopio ‘to put to sleep’, OE swefan ‘to sleep’, Old Icelandic sofa ‘to sleep’, Lithuanian sapnas ‘dream’, Old Church Slavic sъnъ ‘sleep’ (Pokorny, 1994; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985) ~ Proto-Kartvelian * s 1 w-en- ‘to rest’ (Klimov, 1964) ~ Afroasiatic: Egyptian swh ‘to spend the night’. Semantic development from ‘to wheeze’ to ‘to sleep’.

~ Proto-Nakh. * hup- ‘breath, whiff’, *hup-āla ‘to blow (on hot water etc.)’. Imitative stem, literally ‘to «hup»-say’. Chechen hup ‘breath, whiff’ , hup-āla ‘to blow’, hup bāxa iter. ‘to blow’ (Maciev, 1961).

Semantically development from ‘to wheeze, to breath’ to ‘to snore, to sleep’. Cf. Rus, сопеть ‘to wheeze’, dial. ‘to blow’.

Proto-Nostratic *wig y - / *weg y - ‘to carry, convey’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994): PIE. * weg (h) - / *weg (h )- ‘to carry, convey, weigh’: Sanskrit vahati ‘to carry, transport, convey, lead, conduct, rob’, Latin veho ‘to carry, convey’; Gothic wigan ‘to convey’, OE vegan ‘to carry, weigh’; OHG vegan ‘to move, shake, weigh’, Greek oxia ‘’, Lithuanian (Pokorny, 1994; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic *wag y - / *wәg y - ‘to carry’: Arabic wazara ‘ to take a heavy burden upon oneself and carry it’, wizr ‘heavy burden, load’, Hebrew wazar ‘criminal, guilty’ ~ Proto-Finno-Ugrian * wighe - ‘to bring, to carry, to convey’

~ Proto-Nakh. * v-igan / * j-igan / * d-igan ‘to bring, carry, convey’: Chechen v-iga n ‘to convey, rob’ , Ing . v-iga ‘to convey’, Bac. v-ik’a n – id. (Maciev, 1961; Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic *ħheg h - ‘to be weighed down, pressed, to be oppressed, to be distressed, vexed, afflicted, troubled’ (Bomhard, Kerns, 1994): PIE. * ħeg (h) - ‘to be weighed down, pressed, to be oppressed, to be disheartened, vexed, afflicted, troubled’: Greek axos ‘pain, sorrow, grief, distress’, Gothic agis ‘fright, fear, terror’; OE ege ‘fear’, egesa ‘fear, terror’, egesian ‘to terrify’; OHG egis-lih ‘terrible’ (Pokorny, 1994; Walde, 1927-1932; Watkins, 1985).

~ Dravidian: Kannada agi ‘to tremble, fear’; Telugu agurvu ‘fear, terror’ (Burrow & Emeneau, 1984).

~ Proto-Nakh. * agan / * iēgan / * d-iēgan / * j-iēgan / * v-iēgan ‘to shake, fall; fear’: Chechen iēga n ‘to fall; to shake, shiver, to fear’, v-iēga n ‘to shake’, v-iēguo n ‘to shake; make to shake’. Probably is iterative variant from * āga (cf. Ing. āga ‘to shake, tremble’, Gunzib eka , j-eka ‘to fall’, Bežtin. jekal , Archi ekas , jekas ‘to fall’), transitive iēguo / iēgajan / v-iēguo ‘to shake, tremble’, cf. Gothic ogjan ‘be frightened’ < ‘to start, begin to tremble’, wagjan ‘to shake; jolt’, in-wagjan ‘to excite’ (Maciev, 1961; Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic *war- / *wer- ‘to look, watch out for, observe, care for’: PIE wer- / *wor - : Gothic war - ‘careful’, OE wær , E ware !, Old Icelandic vara ‘to warn’, Latv. veru ‘I look’ (Gamkrelidze, Ivanov, 1984).

~ Proto-Afroasiatic: Egyptian warh - ‘to guard, protect’, Chadic: Ngizim wa (inclusive) ‘we, us, our’.

~ Proto-Ugric *warз ‘to watch over, look after, guard, to wait for / on’: Hungarian var - ‘to wait, to be waiting, look out for’, varo ‘waiting’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994)

~ Proto-Nakh *wariē ‘ware’, warlah, warijlah ‘warily’ (Maciev, 1961; Vagapov, 2011).

Proto-Nostratic *wal- ‘to strike, wound, destroy’ (Bomhard & Kerns, 1994), ‘to die’: PIE wel - / * wol - ‘to strike, wound’: Luwian u(wa)lant- ‘to death’, u(wa)lantal(l)i- ‘mortal’, Hieroglyphic Luwian wala- ‘to death’, walatali- ‘mortal’, Old Icelandic valr - ‘the slain’, OE wæl ‘slaughter, carnage, field of battle’, wælan ‘to torment, to afflict’, OHG wal ‘battlefield’, Lith. vele ‘the soul of a dead person’, velnias ‘devil’, Tokharian A wal ‘to die’ .

~ Proto-Altaic * öl - ‘to be weak from hunger, wither, starve to death’: Evenki ‘to die of hunger, starve to death’, Yakut öl - ‘to die’, Turkish ölmek ‘to die, to fade, to wither’, öldürmek ‘to kill’, ölüm ‘death’, ölü ölük ‘dead, feeble, lifless’, ölücü ‘mortal’.

~ Proto-Nakh *v-alan ‘to die’: Chechen v-ala , Ing. v-ala , Bac. v-ala n ‘to die’ (Aliroev, 1975; Kadagidze & Kadagidze, 1984; Vagapov, 2011).

PIE * ueik - ‘to cut, tier’, Tokharian A wak ‘to tear, break’, OE. wacan ‘wake up, awake, alive’, waeccan ‘to be awake’ (E. wake ), dial. wake ‘ice-hole’, Goth. wakаn , Ice. vaka , Old Nordic pp vakinn ‘waking’, Norv. våkne ‘wake up’, vekke ‘вызывать (чувства), wake, Swed. väcka ‘wake; excite’ (Watkins, 1985; Makovsky, 2004).

~ Proto-Nakh *v-âqqan ‘wake up’ (< ‘to break dream’): Chechen v-âqqan ‘wake up’ in sama-vaqqa ‘wake, wake up’, past p. vaqqina ‘waking’, Ing. v-aqqan , Bac. v-aqa n ‘wake up’ (Maciev, 1961). The same verb with gender mark d - represented in Chechen d-âqqan ‘to cut; take, take off, take out; extract; seize, occupy; take a photograph’ (Maciev, 1961; Nichols & Vagapov, 2004), having correspondences in Caucasian (Avar baqize ‘take off’, Karatin b-oqal’a ‘take off, draw out; take, extract, derive; take / spend time; take a photograph’) and Indo-European languages: PIE. *dek- // *tek- ‘to take; to cut > to burn’: Icelandic taka ‘to win’, Old Nordic taka , Goth. tekan ‘to touch’, OE. tacan , E. take (Watkins, 1985; Vagapov, 2011)


Based on the regular sound correspondences, we can conclude that the Nakh and Nostratic languages are related languages as illustrated further in the Table 01 .

Table 1 -
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Vagapov, A., Ovhadov, M., Navrazova, H., & Abdulvahabova, L. (2019). On The Afinitiy Of Nostratic And Nakh Languages. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1742-1755). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.203