Psychological characteristics of students’ adaptation as conditions for their preparation for a future professional career are revealed in the article. Components of the social psychological adaptation of students, contributing to formation of readiness to build a professional career, are substantiated. Main directions in promotion of this type of readiness in the teaching process in the university are identified. A program for development of social psychological adaptation of students and their psychological readiness to build a future effective professional career is presented. Experimental data features of development of social and psychological adaptation of students and their psychological readiness for building an effective professional career during university training process are shown. More attention should be paid to the formation of the personality adaptation characteristics of future staff to create such a social psychological environment. Social psychological adaptation involves the adoption of the rules and laws of a particular organization, the ability to adapt to new conditions. Social psychological adaptation implies the individual readiness to establish interpersonal and business relationships with colleagues, the adoption of values and group norms of behavior. Many students are concerned about the creation of their own career development project at almost all stages of university education, regardless of the profession specifics they get. The future employee will have to get acquainted with the interaction peculiarities in the organization, determine the significance of each employee in the activity process, and be included in the formal and informal groups.
Keywords: Psychologicaladaptationstudentprofessional careerreadiness
An integral part of a modern person life is his professional activity and career. The individual satisfaction with his life and its harmonious development depend on it. Today, career ladder construction begins in the early stages of personal and professional self-determination (Rogacheva, 2006). With the advent of new technologies, in the mass consciousness of Russians, an increasing interest in the topics of “making a career”, preparing and nominating young leaders, formation of charismatic qualities, ecology of a career, achieving corporate heights are often noted. These are the needs of the market that future employees must meet mastering their professional activities in higher educational institutions.
The professional development of an individual is largely influenced by learning years at universities, since it is this period that determines the future positions of a specialist in a professional environment and is the foundation for building his future professional career (Khrebina & Zvereva, 2010).
It seems to be necessary to create a psychological atmosphere of constructive cooperation to ensure the future effective work of the employee, where everyone is interested in realizing his abilities. More attention should be paid to the formation of the personality adaptation characteristics for future personnel to create such a socio-psychological environment (Khrebina, 2007). Social psychological adaptation involves the adoption of the rules and laws of a particular organization, the ability to adapt to new conditions. Social psychological adaptation implies the readiness of the individual to establish interpersonal and business relationships with colleagues, the adoption of values and group norms of behavior (Panchenko, 2006). Many students are concerned about the creation of their own career development project at almost all stages of university education, regardless of the profession specifics they receive (Khrebina, Khrebin, Shapovalova, Terentyeva, & Yundin, 2018). The future employee will have to get acquainted with the peculiarities of interaction in the subdivision, determine the significance of each employee in the activity process, and be included in the formal and informal groups. Consequently, the adaptation of students to the future organization is one of the important tasks that must be solved at the stage of university education.
The relevance of this study lies in the fact that entry into the organization is always associated with the solution of several problems that are necessarily accompanying this process. First, it is the person adaptation to new conditions that are not always successful and whose success depends on the correct interaction of both sides: the person and the organizational environment (Rean, 2006). Secondly, it is the ability development to human behavior changes, with absence of which it seems to be impossible to safely enter an organization (Volanen, 1987). These problems determine not only whether a person is able to enter an organization, but how an employee will function in an organization, how his interaction and professional career will be built in an organization (Zeer, 2005). In this regard, a necessity to prepare the student for constructive social psychological adaptation in a professional environment conducive to successful career growth appears.
In this regard, the following research questions arise: to conduct a theoretical analysis of psychological research on the problem of the individual social and psychological adaptation as a condition to prepare a student for a future professional career; to study the main components of successful social and psychological adaptation of students, contributing to the readiness formation to build a professional career; develop and test a psychological development program of social and psychological adaptation development of a person as a condition to prepare a student for a future professional career.
Purpose of the Study
Thus, the aim of our research is to study the development peculiarities of the social psychological adaptation of students as a condition for future professional career preparing. In order to study the characteristics of social and psychological adaptation of students, and test the hypothesis about the student social and psychological adaptation as a special personality characteristic can influence the success of his career in future professional activities, as well as the development of student social and psychological adaptation as the condition for future professional career preparing will be successful, providing specially organized psychological support of this process. Experimental work was carried out. The students aged from 18 to 22 years old took part in the study; the total sample size was 120 people.
The solution of the set tasks and the hypotheses testing were provided by a complex of complementary research methods: psychodiagnostic (observation, conversation, testing); experimental (ascertaining, forming and controlling); statistical processing method (Student t-test). The test describing the behavior of K. Thomas was used to study the behavior style in a conflict situation (Sheinis, 2001). The aim is to determine the behavior style, to study the personal predisposition to conflict behavior. The technique allows to distinguish the following indicators: rivalry (ind.1); cooperation (ind.2); compromise (ind.3); avoidance (ind.4); adaptation (ind.5). We used the multivariate personality questionnaire by R. Kettell to study the characteristics of the social psychological adaptation of students (Derkach, 1996). The purpose of the technique is to study the intellectual, emotional-volitional characteristics, communicative properties and features of interpersonal interaction. The method allows to distinguish the following indicators: “self-esteem adequacy” (ind.22) - reveals a tendency to overstate and overestimate capabilities; “isolation-sociability” (ind.6); “timidity-courage” (ind.12); “restraint-expressiveness” (ind.10); “subordination-dominance ” (ind.9); “straightness-diplomacy” (ind.16); “credulity-suspicion” (ind.14); “conformism-non-conformism” (ind.19) - reveals the communicative properties and features of interpersonal interaction; “intelligence” (ind.7); “pragmatism-developed imagination” (ind.15); “low self-control-high self-control” (ind.20) - studies intellectual features; “emotional lability-emotional stability” (ind.8); “susceptibility to feelings-high standard of behavior” (ind.11); “rigidity-sensitivity" (ind.13); “self-confidence-anxiety” (ind.17); “low self-control - high self-control” (ind.20); “relaxation-tension” (ind.21) - reveals emotional-volitional characteristics.
The method of social and psychological adaptation diagnosis (SPA scale) developed by C. Rogers and R. Diamondan (1954) was used to study the formation characteristics of social and psychological adaptation of students. This method allows us to study the social psychological adaptation features and the associated personality traits. The method allows to distinguish 6 integral indicators: adaptation-disadaptation (ind.23); acceptance - non-acceptance of oneself (ind.24); acceptance of others - non-acceptance by others (ind.25); emotional discomfort-emotional discomfort (ind.26); internality-externality (ind.27); domination-subordinate (dependence on others) (ind.28); escapism – “avoiding” the problem (ind.29).
Analysing the results of the experiment ascertaining stage due to the indicators of the behaviour style diagnostic technique by K. Thomas conflict in the control group, we obtained the following data: rivalry was the preferable behaviour type of 80% of students, the remaining 20% of students preferred the cooperation type.
Analyzing the results of the experiment ascertaining stage due to the indicators of the behavior style diagnostic technique by K. Thomas conflict in the experimental group control group, we obtained the following data: rivalry was the preferable behavior type of 70% of students, 10% of students preferred the cooperation type, 10% - compromise, and 10% - avoidance. Analyzing the results of the experiment ascertaining stage due to R. Kettell method in the control group, we obtained the following data: 17% of tested students had a low level of conformism, 54% of students experienced tension in communication with their peers, 52% had a high level of anxiety, 33% of students were suspicious to their classmates, 24% had low self-esteem and 24% of students were closed. Analyzing the results of the experiment ascertaining stage due to the indicators of R. Kettell method in the experimental group, we obtained the following data: 18% of the students had a low level of conformism, 50% experienced communication tensions, 31% of students were closed, 56% had a high level of anxiety, 28% had a low self-esteem, 23% of students were suspicious to others. Analyzing the results of the experiment ascertaining stage in terms of social psychological adaptation methodology by C. Rogers and R. Diamondan in the control group, we obtained the following data: 58% of respondents had a low level of social adaptation, 59% of students had high levels of self-perception and 41% had the low level to admit others, 35% were externalities, 24% - tended to dominate, and 40% of students experienced emotional discomfort. Analyzing the results of the experiment ascertaining stage due to the indicators of social and psychological adaptation by C. Rogers and R. Diamondan in the experimental group, we obtained the following data: 52% of students had high rates of disadaptation, 38% had a high level of self-perception and 31% had low level of perception of others, 44% of students were externalities, 48% of students experienced emotional discomfort and 25% tended to dominate. Based on the results of the ascertaining experiment, we can conclude that both groups are at the same level of development, and are almost identical in terms of the conducted diagnostics indicators, and this gives us the opportunity to conduct a formative experiment.
The formation of an experimental sample in this case was carried out on the basis of students who, according to the results of the experiment ascertaining stage established a low level development of the readiness to build a career. A sample of 36 people was formed on a voluntary basis among them.
The study of the idea state of students about the professional career building features was conducted during the conversation using the following scheme:
1) What career goal do you set for yourself? (a1)
2) What are the stages on the way to achieving your career goals? (a2)
3) What can be used to achieve a career? (a3)
4) What obstacles may arise in achieving the goal and how they can be overcome? (a4)
5) What are the perspectives of your self-improvement your chosen profession opens up? (a5)
Each item was evaluated by a10-point scale. The average level of readiness to build a career was revealed by the formula for each respondent:
where а1, а2, а3, а4, а5 – points scored on relevant questions.
The level of personality traits development was established according to the following methods: COI methodology, test questionnaire modification of achievement motivation by A. Megrabyan (2001), questionnaire of behavior stylistic self-regulation, a method for self-relationship studying by S.R. Panteleev (2008), questionnaire of volitional self-control to study the state of personal qualities affecting the career building.
The program “Developing of student social psychological adaptation as conditions to prepare for a future professional career” was worked out to develop social psychological adaptation to future professional career building among the students in the experimental sample of an appropriate level. The aim of the program was to develop the social psychological adaptation of students as a condition for their readiness to build their future professional career. The content of the proposed program includes three main blocks: personal, communicative and behavioral.
Formative work with students was carried out during 2016-2018. Two measurements of the social psychological adaptation state and psychological readiness of students for the implementation of their future professional career, an ascertaining and controlling methods were conducted to check the developed program effectiveness. In both cases, they provided the study of the development level of social and psychological adaptation and the psychological readiness of students to implement their future professional career.
Analyzing the results of the experiment control stage due to R. Kettell methodology indicators, which characterize the respondent readiness to build their future professional career in the experimental group, we obtained the following data: 44% of students became confident in themselves and their capabilities, 19% of subjects did not experience tension, 31% of students showed restraint and adequacy of reaction to the effects of the surrounding social environment, 54% of students became more sociable and open to others. Consequently, our program has given positive results, and has affected the personal characteristics of students.
The obtained data were verified by methods of comparative mathematical analysis to confirm the effectiveness of the work we have carried out. This comparison will determine the presence of reliable or unreliable differences between the stages of verification. Significant diversities suggest speaking about a difference between the stages of verification, unreliable differences do not allow to draw such conclusions. Significant changes were identified in terms of the experimental group respondents before and after the formative experiment. Thus, changes occurred in terms of indicators diagnosed by K. Thomas method for determining the type of behavior in a conflict situation: rivalry type (ind.1), cooperation type (ind.2), compromise type (ind.3), avoidance type (ind.4). If students showed rivalry in relations with others earlier, they began to prefer cooperation, to come to alternatives then.
Special significant changes occurred in terms of the indicators of social psychological adaptation technique by C. Rogers and R. Daimondan in the experimental groups: “adaptation” indicators (ind. 23.), "acceptance of others" (ind.25), “emotional comfort” (ind.26), “internality” (ind.27) and “escapism” (ind.29). After the formative experiment, 50% of students showed a high social adaptation, 56% showed a high level of acceptance, although only 25% of students adequately perceived the people around them prior to the experiment. The changes occurred at 16 of the 29 studied indicators, which is 55% and is the effectiveness indicator of the proposed program.
Our work allowed the students to interact constructively with each other, to accept other team members, to collaborate and participate actively in the life of the team, to raise the level of communicative competence, and, as a consequence, increase their social psychological adaptation level.
A comparative analysis of the primary and secondary diagnostics of the control group showed a few changes only. Thus, the indicator “timidity - courage” (ind.12) has changed, the majority of students showed the average level of this characteristic development. Significant changes were recorded in terms of “internality” (ind.27) and “escapism” (ind.29). 41% of students have inadequate perception of the people around them, 47% experience emotional discomfort and 53% have an overestimated level of self-perception. Despite the identified statistically significant differences, the changes are not significant, because the overall level of the control group development remained the same. In total, 3 indicators out of 29 statistically significantly changed, which is 10.3%.
A comparative analysis of the obtained results in the experimental and control groups after the introduction of the development program of student social psychological adaptation as a condition of preparing for their future professional career building allows us to state that it is effective.
This position proves repeated diagnostic testing. Secondary diagnostics revealed positive changes in the experimental group. According to the results of the Student t -test, statistically significant changes occurred in 12 indicators out of 29, which is 41%. Statistically significant changes occurred in terms of the rivalry type (ind.1), the cooperation type (ind.2), the compromise type (ind.3). The students of the experimental group tried not only to make concessions to each other in various situations of communication, but also began to cooperate with each other. 18% have a high need for communication and ease in establishing social ties and strive for leadership in the experimental group. 16% of the respondents are closed and have a low need for communication in the control group. We also recorded significant changes in indicators: “isolation-sociability” (ind.6), “restraint-expressiveness” (ind.10), “self-confidence - anxiety” (ind.17) and “relaxation-tension” (ind.21). 31% of students show restraint and adequacy of response to the effects of the surrounding social environment in the experimental group; the reactions of the other students in this group depend on the stimulus nature that affects them. In the control group, 18% of subjects show expressiveness, 6% are restrained, the response of the others depends on the stimulus that affects them. 44% of the students are confident in themselves and their capabilities in the experimental group; this level of confidence is only 6% in the control group.19% of subjects did not experience tension in the experimental group; 16% experienced strong emotional tension in the control group.
Among the priority personal qualities necessary for a future successful career, students consciously distinguish the ability to the social and psychological adaptation, sociability, aggressiveness, focus on success, the ability to manage their emotions and self-confidence. Indeed, students view the development of social psychological adaptation as a condition of their readiness to build and implement a future professional career.
The priority personal qualities necessary for a successful career are sociability, aggressiveness, focus on success, the ability to manage emotions and self-confidence. The results of the ascertaining experiment allowed us to conclude that both groups of students have approximately the same level of social psychological adaptation development, and are almost identical in terms of their psychological readiness to build and implement a professional career in the future. This gave us the opportunity to consider these groups as equivalent. Analyzing the results of the experiment control stage in terms of the social and psychological adaptation level in the control group, we obtained the following data: 42% of the subjects showed a high level of disadaptation, 41% showed non-acceptance of others and 71% experienced emotional discomfort, and 18% of students preferred not to perceive problems and not to solve them. Thus, after the secondary diagnosis, the results have not been changed. 80% of students prefer the rivalry type of behavior; the remaining 20% of students prefer the cooperation type. From the obtained data, we can conclude that the secondary diagnosis results of the control group are almost identical with the results of the primary diagnosis.
The obtained data were verified by mathematical analysis methods to confirm the effectiveness of our work. The obtained raw points from the results of the primary and secondary diagnostics of students showed significant changes in the experimental group and were verified using the statistical data processing method (Student's t-test). The revealed dynamics in the development level of the social psychological adaptation of students and psychological readiness to build their future professional career confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed program. At the same time, social and personal sphere of the subjects contributed to the development of social psychological adaptation level.
Each person must develop his own strategy of adaptive behavior in the process of professional activity, a structurally organized set regarding stable social-psychological personal characteristics that ensure the fulfillment of vital needs.
A formative experiment was conducted in order to develop social psychological adaptation and the readiness of students to build and implement a professional career in the future. It consisted in the development and implementation of the program “Development of the social psychological adaptation of students as conditions for their preparation for a future professional career”.
The repeated diagnostic study was conducted using the method of statistical data processing to determine the implementation effectiveness of the proposed program (Student t-test). The obtained data testify to the positive dynamics of the following indicators of the social psychological adaptation level among experimental group students: the level of social adaptation, acceptance of others, readiness for confrontation with a problem situation and finding a solution have increased; the preferred type of behavior in a conflict, and psychological readiness for building a future professional career have changed, namely: students became confident in themselves and their capabilities, tensions decreased, restraint and adequacy of reaction to the effects of the surrounding social environment increased, sociability and openness to others increased.
Consequently, the developing process of social psychological adaptation of students is one of the significant conditions of preparing them for their future professional career, has a positive effect on the personality formation of students, and the results can be recommended for widespread use in the psychological services work of higher institutions.
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29 March 2019
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Shapovalova, M., Khrebina, S., Khrebin, M., & Serdyukova, E. (2019). Social And Psychological Adaptation Development Of Students. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1607-1614). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.186