The article deals with some current issues of fairness model fulfillment in regional politics regulation by the example of Chechen Republic. Implementation project of the fairness model in social and economic spheres of Russian society requires new approaches for regional politics regulating. It is necessary to create a politics system, which will take into account a variety and peculiarities of regions development. The purpose of the regional policy is developing methods and principles of inequality elimination, which hinders not only a particular region, but also socio-economic development of the whole country. The subject of the study is a process of influence of different chances and possibilities for regions on the social fairness factor. A graphic display about understanding of different aspects of regional social policy aimed at social fairness implementation shows the results of sociological survey on the issue. Basing on the empirical studies, the authors provide a description about various aspects of regional social politics, aimed at the fairness model fulfillment. The authors think that the main result of social politics fulfillment in the Chechen Republic should be providing equal possibility to consume minimal social benefits and services, formation of such economic conditions in the region that could raise the living standard.
Keywords: Fairness modelregionalpoliticsRussianstandards
Fairness model is a key and core value in axiology thanks to its moral and ethic content. However, the peculiarity of fairness is in its unique status as it penetrates all spheres of the social life from economics to intellectual culture. This understanding proves differential approach study of its main characteristics. Hence, the concept “social fairness” should be viewed as a sociocultural value model, reflecting organization of the social life.
Exactly this approach discloses degree of concept development “social fairness” in the national literature in the system of values thanks to the works of Т. А. Alexeeva, Z. А. Berebeshkina, L.Davidovich, V. Ye. Rutkevich, А. А. Guseinov, О. G. Shenina, А.L. Аndreev, B.N. Кashnikov and others.
The issue of fairness has always been acute in social sciences. As it is universal and many-sided it includes philosophical, political, legal and psychological aspects. Altogether, underlying causes of social fairness violation and real mechanisms of its recovery are in the social-economic sphere.
Basing on this, it is important to determine the essence and place of social fairness in this sphere; as plea for fairness should cover labour activity of workers as well as of different social groups, including children, people with restricted abilities, pensioners, as well as many kinds and spheres of human activity, allowing normal functioning of the social structure on the whole.
Russia has a variety of regional conditions and traditions, different ethnic make-up. This all determines and complicates the unification of the regional politics. In some previous articles, we tried to determine theory inadequacy relying on the economic growth as panacea to poverty. Poverty coping strategy as one of the most important principles of fairness should be active and systematic.
The ideal fair social conditions in modern Russian society are in first, creating equal possibilities for personal capabilities fulfillment and survival needs satisfaction; second, in reward adequacy, which people and their associations receive from the society and its institutions, for their actions and life style. During its development, the society, basing on the experience of social facts, creates “ideal types” of social relations, ideal believes (principles) of fairness, which are then orienteer for activity.
Social and political scientists differentiate the concepts of “regional state politics” and “regional policy”.
The issue is that in territories, regions, republics people have unequal chances for providing and rising their welfare. Regional inequality of chances and possibilities can hardly be “fair”.
Social politics in the center and regions should be aimed at equaling these chances and possibilities. However, here another reason of regional inequalities retention and aggravation comes to the foreground – inability, failure, and sometimes, unwillingness of regional authorities to understand the situation and fulfill the programs of social development, which meet the needs of a certain region, as it is done for example in the Chechen Republic.
The author of the theory of the “ideal type” М. Weber divides the people’s representation world into two acts: values and estimations. Values turn our individual consciousness into objective and generally valid judgment. He understands them as tenets of a certain historical epoch, as flow of interests peculiar to this or that epoch (Weber, 1990). Herewith, expressing general tenets of the day and being historical values are relative. In other words, they are certain models, frames accepted in the society at a certain stage of its development.
Fairness as a value model is a certain “ideal type” of frame, a social ideal of a certain historical epoch, developed by social consciousness basing on different social premises (cultural, economical, moral and others) and presenting in it social concepts of perfection in different areas of the society. Being a social ideal, fairness model reflects certain views of a certain epoch about right social system organization, containing requirements of compliance of the reality to the ideal order. The world of values is, first of all, the world of the culture in general, is personal culture, his moral consciousness, his devotion – those values which reflect personal spiritual wealth. Values indicate fairness model, distinctive products of man’s intellectual activities, which transform and demonstrate social character of the events.
A special mechanism, which fulfills fairness ideas in socio-economic sphere, is social politics.
The purpose of the social policy is creating conditions for the individual life activity equal to the development of the society, which is one of the most important criteria of social fairness fulfillment (Konstitution of Russian Federation, 2007). Today, the social policy includes not only the underprivileged and unemployed, but also waged workers; together with the social security system, it includes income regulation, labour policy and other. Proclaiming laying the groundwork for human life and activity as its main aim, the state enters the commitment not to harm the interests of different social groups, do not treat them as marginal according to some features (physical imparities, age and others).
In many countries, the social policy efficiency is achieved through redistribution of social functions between central and local authorities. Russia is not an exception. However, today it is not enough. It is necessary not only redistribute social functions inside (among all the levels), but to attract to their fulfillment business, different social formations, social groups, citizens.
There is such a tendency in Russia. It is caused by that there was no real conception of the social politics in Russian society during previous reforms. The state was not within a certain legal tradition to provide social rights and warranties. Which country should be an example during the transitional period – the USA, continental Europe or countries of the North Union, Great Britain, Ireland? (Lebedeva, 2017)
It should be noted that the USA has no institution of the social warranties, no concept of social rights and their codification on the legislative level, but there is a system of social welfare with numerous insurance companies, charity organizations, local and federal social programmes, there is a court which can collect from those who failed their responsibilities.
The USA has “charity industry” which includes social and state organizations. There is a social welfare connected with social services. The situation is different in Continental Europe. It has the system of relations between employers and workers, which allows create the system of legally ensured social warranties (Topornin, 2015).
The functional system of the social policy is under the influence of processes in economics and the society. It is clearly seen during transitional periods when social programs need funding, but financial possibilities are decreasing.
The key issue in Russia is changes in the social policy or certain ways of its fulfillment, also, there is an effort to change one utmost socio-economic structure of the state by the other. The society transforms within this process.
Market reforms brought out different kinds of property in Russia. It resulted in the appearance of new social groups – industrial financial capital holders. In these conditions of the political potential, which it has in the social structure formation, economy has grown considerably. Wealth concentration in the hands of industrial magnates with the increase of poverty of the main part of the population discords with the principle of social fairness and democracy.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the regional policy is developing methods and principles of inequality elimination which hinders not only a particular region but also socio-economic development of the whole country.
The main aim of this state policy is providing economic, social, legal and institutional basis of federalism in Russian Federation; and providing unified minimal standards of social welfare, which is guaranteed by constitutional right of the citizens despite economic opportunities of the regions.
Regional policy is one of the federal policy direction connected with disclosing certain features of regions’ development and creating mechanisms regulating its relations with the federal center.
Fairness model implementation in socio-economic relations is a complex and widespread event, which needs state regulation via flexible social policy. This policy should not only take into account individual interests, interests of different social groups and communities, but also do their study and research. First, certain rules are necessary on the scientific bases, with the account of ethno-historical characteristics of multinational Russia and mentality of its population. For the implementation of the social fairness principle it is necessary not only detect but also determine fairness norms (in legislation, rules and customs), but also create the mechanism of their observation.
Implementing the fairness model, it is necessary to consider population of any territory, even distant one not only a source of labor resources but as a citizen with all rights. The main result of such regional social policy is creating equal access and consumption of minimal of socially important services and benefits, formation of such economic conditions in the region, which can enhance the standards of living. Her, regional policy itself is a complex system of actions, norms providing fulfillment of individual interests and needs lifelong (Ibragimov & Shamileva, 2015).
State system approach to full employment and wage growth, providing minimal social standards, approaching it minimal cost of living, social integration of underprivileged citizens, guaranteeing them equal access to the education, social infrastructure (that develops human resources) on the background of total economic growth allows fulfilling fairness social projects.
Fairness concept tries to give the answer to the question: if there is a mechanism of social regulation in the society, which allows a person fulfilling their personal qualities during labour activity. As valuation, fairness characterizes socio-economic position of a person in the society, proves adequacy of social structures and relations to its interests.
Speculating about a certain level of social fairness, it is necessary to take into account regional aspects of this problem that allows determining different kinds of social unfairness, conditioned by objective and subjective development factors of Russian Federation subjects.
It does not mean that in some regions people are more talented than in others. The issue is that in different territories, regions, republics have unequal chances for increase their wealth. Regional inequality of chances and possibilities cannot be treated as fair.
The aim of the social policy is creating conditions for individual life activity relevant to the level of the society development, which is the main criterion of social fairness implementation. As today social policy includes not only the underprivileged and unemployed but also wage-workers; together with social welfare it includes income regulation, employment policy and corruption fighting.
A graphic display about understanding of different aspects of regional social policy aimed at social fairness implementation shows the results of sociological survey on the issue: “Understanding social fairness by the Chechen youth in contemporary reality”. This survey is annual as a poll by laboratory scientists of the laboratory investigating socio-political, legal and cultural processes of CSRI of RAS. 850 respondents took part in the survey – students of three state universities of the Chechen republic (GSOTU named after М. D. Мillionshikov, ChSU, ChSPU). Sample collection is by quote, with probability respondents sampling, representing socio-age group by sex, age, and education. It included students of the 1-4 courses of humanitarian, technical and science majors from different regions of Chechen republic, cities Argun, Shali, Grozniy. The questionnaire included 19 questions; with 11 open ones (Shamileva, 2017).
Today issues arise in the form of social conflicts, caused mostly by stereotypes, which are in by the table data.
As the survey shows, the student youth prefers stereotypes about social fairness connected with moral–ethic values and legislative norms. Most of the respondents answered the question: what implements social fairness answered: “Every person observes moral-ethic norms”-23.3%; “Equality of all the citizens under the law”- 31%; “Absence of difference in life standards and welfare” - 15.7% and equality of possibilities to fulfill their capabilities” only 10%.
Determining the most important state measures for achieving social fairness respondents put in the first place “Providing social responsibility of every person in his/her place (study, work, family)” - 27.7% of respondents. On the second place in this measures hierarchy is “Providing basic medical service”- 26.1%. For students it is important “Creating conditions for corresponding to profession, education, qualification” - 20.4%; 19.6% of the respondents answered that every person should take care of their welfare themselves (Shamileva, 2017).
As estimation, fairness characterizes socio-economic position of a person in the society, and determines adequacy of social structures. Fairness as a social requirement reflects understanding about adequate welfare level, and the last demonstrates itself in a more real way on the background of unfairness, which an individual encounters in everyday life (see. table №2)
If the policy is oriented to the individual interests, who has favorable conditions for all-round development, than increasing activity of every individual (which is an absolute factor of fairness fulfilment) fosters dynamic development of social sphere and increasing social potential of the society.
For a person (irrespective of an ethnic background) deviations from these norms are factors, which foster society marginalization. Evidence of social unfairness is unemployment, which is a key factor in marginalization process. It is necessary to study social employment structures in Russian Federation subjects as every region introduces its peculiar features into the whole structure of Russian society.
Formation of this system is complicated by various socio-economical regional conditions. In some regions – unemployment increases, in others there is lack of the labor force. Regions differ by character and type of unemployment, deficit of labour force, socio-demographic, professional, educational and other parameters of the working and unemployed population. Despite severe consequences of the post-conflict situation caused by war actions resulted in the destruction of social and economic spheres of the Chechen Republic there is positive tendency of unemployment decrease. Infrastructure recovery during last 10 years provided employment to 65% of labor active population and decrease unemployment up to 9% (ChechenStat, 2018).
However, regional authorities understanding importance of fairness model fulfillment strategy perceive the aim to develop industry, small business, agriculture and other sectors of the economy as primary.
We can conclude:
From the sociological point of view, fairness is a concept about obligatory, requiring correspondence between practical role of every individual (social layers, groups) in the life of the society their social position, between their rights and responsibilities, labour and pay-off, actions and social appraisal, crime and punishment.
Understanding and fairness models are historically conditioned, that is needs and interests of a certain epoch determine them.
The concept of fairness model itself belongs to values whose connection with everyday material, social, political, legal situation and people welfare is directly evident. That is why all reforms in our country first touch on ideas of fairness.
Summarizing all, let’s note that accepted in the society fairness model, on the one side is determined by peculiarities of economic, socio-political and legal relations, moral grounds of the society, and on the other side determines the character and prospects of social being, theoretical forms of its understanding. Fairness in the system of values reflects human, group, personal aims and interests, as well as peoples’ understanding about their fulfillment in pluralistic societies.
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29 March 2019
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Shamileva, R., Мankiev, А., Gadaev, V., Abubakarova, М., & Dadaev, H. (2019). Current Issues Of Regional Politics In Implementation Of Fairness Model. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1572-1578). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.182