Formation Of Social And Personal Viability Of Adolescents With Deviant Behavior

Abstract

Nowadays under modern sociocultural conditions, a high growth of juvenile delinquency, in general, and recurrent juvenile delinquency, in particular, is observed. The problem of the unpreparedness of adolescents with deviant behavior after graduating from special educational organizations of a closed type to independent life activity in society is still relevant. Social and personal viability is considered in the article as an integrative personal quality that characterizes the readiness of an individual for self-determination according to his own life scenario. The purpose of social and pedagogic rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior is formation of their social and personal viability. As a means of formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior, various content-based rehabilitation and educational situations are considered. It will determine possibilities of one’s return to society and further successful socialization. Results of the survey of teachers of special educational organizations of a closed type are presented. The purpose of the research is to determine the level of awareness of teachers of the essence of social and educational rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior. Essential characteristics of concepts “social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior”, “rehabilitation and pedagogical situation”, “social and educational rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior” are revealed. The view of the authors on this problem is substantiated. A detailed description of specific principles and functions of the formation process of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational organizations of a closed type is presented.

Keywords: Viabilityadolescentsdeviant behaviorrehabilitationorganizations

Introduction

The significant amount of data accumulated in recent years indicates that family distress and, in general, life stresses have an adverse effect on the age-appropriate social adaptation of adolescents (Makhnach, 2016). In modern sociocultural conditions, a high increase in juvenile delinquency, in general, and recurrent juvenile delinquency, in particular, is observed.

In our country, a teenager who has committed a socially dangerous act, but has not reached the age of criminal responsibility, by a court decision, is sent to special educational organizations of special educational institutions of a closed type to undergo a rehabilitation course. The determined period of validity of the coercive measure of educational influence does not depend on the term of punishment provided by the sanction of the article of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, according to which the act of a minor is qualified, but it cannot be more than three years.

These educational organizations present one of the most promising types of rehabilitation facilities for minors with behavioral, educational and developmental problems. At the same time, the organization of the rehabilitation process in special educational organizations of a closed type is constantly criticized because it does not effectively prepare the adolescent to counteract the repeated crime factors. The problem of the lack of readiness of adolescents with deviant behavior after graduating from special educational institutions of a closed type to independent life activity in society is still relevant.

This fact aggravates the demand for scientific substantiation, development and practical implementation in socio-pedagogical activities of special educational organizations the process of formation in adolescents with deviant behavior. The relevance of the study is reasoned by the lack of conceptual approaches to the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational organizations of a closed type in pedagogy. Modern achievements of pedagogical and psychological sciences, in particular, the concept of developmental education, the psychology of personal development, the concept of development of educational systems create the necessary theoretical and methodological basis for the development of the concept of the formation of socio-personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior.

During the course of the study, a massive anonymous survey of teachers working in special closed educational institutions was conducted. The purpose of the survey was to identify the level of awareness of teachers of the essence of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior. More than half of the teachers who participated in the survey (134 people out of 242, or 55%), identified the concepts of “recovery” and “rehabilitation” as synonymous. Choosing the characteristics of the content of individual professional activities for socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of teenagers and deviants, they were guided by the following indicators: subordinated, discipline, responsibility in training activities and workplace.

At the same time, teachers understand that “recovery” is an indicator only of the good adaptability of pupils to the conditions of a closed type institution, to its requirements and regime. Such “recovered” pupils (often activists and the support of educator) often “secretly” violate the regime, smoke, drink alcohol, use the cult of force, and, having left the institution, commit repeated offenses with greater caution. At the same time, the overwhelming majority of the teachers who answered the questionnaire (212 out of 242 people, or 88%) were convinced that a true recovery of a teenage deviant is possible only with deep personal changes.

In this regard, for the successful socialization of adolescents after graduating from special educational organizations of a closed type, personal qualities are necessary that will allow them not only to cope with difficulties, but also to develop successfully in the future (Laktionova & Makhnach 2007; Laktionova, 2010).

Social adaptation of pupils of special educational organizations of a closed type is possible only with profound personal changes as a result of their social and pedagogical rehabilitation, which should be focused on the humanistic paradigm, which is most effectively manifested in the formation of social and personal viability among adolescents. Teenagers-offenders, after a certain period of stay in special educational organizations of a closed type, return to the society, to those socio-cultural conditions from which they were once withdrawn. In this regard, the formation of their readiness for the manifestation of social and personal viability in various real-life situations of daily life is a necessary condition for their non-return to the criminal environment.

Problem Statement

Viability is one of the most important individual and personal characteristics of a person. It is the ability of a person to manage his own resources (health, emotional, motivational and will, cognitive spheres) and build a normal, full life in difficult conditions, overcome serious problems, recover, develop and set new goals (Makhnach & Laktionova, 2013). The “viability” construct is also the subject of cross-cultural studies that study victims of violence, terrorist acts, environmental disasters, and adolescents who are prone to use psychoactive substances (Anthony, 1987; Cairns & Cairns 1994; Fraiser, Richman & Galinsky 1999; Rutter, 1993).

The researcher Naumenko (2013) considers viability as “the systemic quality of a person, characterizing the organic unity of a psycho-physiological and social abilities of a person to effectively use means for positive self-expression and self-realization within a specific cultural-historical society”.

According to the author, “social and personal viability characterizes a vital activity of a person at the level of subjectivity (in the interpretation of E.I. Isaev and V.I. Slobodchikov): 1) the awareness of individual of the continuity, constancy and identity of his physical, mental and personal I; 2) the ability to manage behavior in accordance with social norms, rules and laws; 3) a positive critical attitude towards oneself and own life activity of a person in all its forms and manifestations, as well as to its results; 4) the ability to positively plan own life activity and the implementation of this plan in general; 5) the ability to change behavior and clarify the meaning of existence depending on the change of life circumstances” (Slobodchikov & Isaev, 2000). Subjectivity is associated with the process of self-organization of personality, which involves changing the relationship between personal characteristics and characteristics of a subject (Pakhmutova, Bakhtina, & Rybakov, 2017).

In the process of self-organization, the value orientation for success in life becomes a condition for self-development as a subject of the necessary personal qualities. The development of professionally important personal qualities is reflected in the success of the activity of a subject. However, the process of self-organization of an individual takes place under the conditions of social situation of development, which in this case is represented by a special educational organization of a closed type. Therefore, self-organization, like subjectivity, is social in nature and its formation is determined by the peculiarities of society in which the subject is situated.

Social and personal viability of a person is considered by the authors right after Makhnach and Lactionova (2013) as “a social-personal phenomenon of subjective management of own resources (emotional, motivational and will, cognitive spheres) in the context of social, cultural norms and environmental conditions for the purpose of social adaptation”.

The analysis of psychological and pedagogical research on the phenomenon of “viability” allowed formulating the understanding of the authors of the essence of social and personal viability with deviant behavior (Guryanova, 2005). Thus, social and personal viabilty is an integrative personal quality that characterizes the readiness of an individual for self-determination (moral, personal, social, professional) according to his own life scenario, as well as the willingness to manage this scenario and be responsible for the results of his decisions on life-determination.

The concept of “social and pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior” is actively used in pedagogical research. In the majority of studies (Argunova, 2009), socio-pedagogical rehabilitation is viewed as the process of incorporating adolescents into various activities (educational, labor, socially useful, socially oriented), which contributes to the restoration of their status, the formation of a positive experience of life, the acquisition of pro-social forms of behavior for successful socialization. Considering that the studied process of social and pedagogical rehabilitation is implemented in the conditions of special educational organizations of a closed type, the authors propose a definition of the concept of “social and pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior” through generic difference, due to which it will become not only obvious, but integrated into existing system of pedagogical definitions.

Thus, socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of deviant adolescents in special educational organizations of a closed type is a specially organized pedagogical process aimed at changes in the value-semantic sphere of a personality of adolescents with deviant behavior in order to form their social and personal viability (adoption of social and cultural norms, vital activity rules and the readiness of adolescents to manifest social and personal viability in various situations of everyday life ) as a necessary condition for return to society and further successful socialization.

Proceeding from the fact that “the purpose of any pedagogical process is its purpose, understood as a multilevel phenomenon”, the purpose of socio-pedagogical rehabilitation of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational organizations of a closed type is the formation of their social and personal viability (Karpova, 2005). Considering that educational process is a dynamic system, and the dynamics is reasoned by the changing interaction of its subjects, its content should be presented in the form of a system of pedagogical and educational tasks (Slastenin, Isaev, & Shiyanov, 2002). Taking into account the target and content orientation of this research, as the means of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior the different in content rehabilitation and pedagogical situations which require a teenager to manifest the qualities of a subject of vital activity which will determine the possibility of his return to society and further successful socialization. In this regard, the rehabilitation and pedagogical situation is a specially planned event-related personal-affirming situation affecting the vital interests of a teenage deviant and forcing him to harmonize his social-personal viability.

Research Questions

The methodological basis for the design of rehabilitation and pedagogical situations as a means of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in the process of social and educational rehabilitation was presented by the ideas of the theory of person-centered education (Serikov, 1999). The realization of the ideas of personal approach in the process of formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior is a necessary condition for the formation of personal experience of pupils, the development of the “core of subjectivity” taking into account its social situation in the process of social and pedagogical rehabilitation. Determining the means of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational organizations of a closed type, the authors also relied on the methodology of the event-based approach to education (Grigoriev, 2001; Serikov, 1999; Slobodchikov & Isaev, 2000), the idea of which is that everything that happens in pedagogical process of special educational organizations of a closed type should have an event character.

Also during the process of research, the authors relied on the ideas of the competence-based approach in education. The theory and practice of a competence-based approach in the field of education presupposes such a design of the process of education, during which students develop a holistic experience in the solution of difficult life problems, implementing key personal functions and social roles, as well as the experience of mastering and carrying out independent activities in a certain area of life activity (Bolotov & Serikov, 2003; Winter, 2005).

Purpose of the Study

In accordance with the types of personal collisions and the analysis of real experience of social and pedagogical rehabilitation of deviant adolescents in special educational organizations of a closed type, the following types of rehabilitation and pedagogical situations are identified:

- the situation of success of adolescent in socially significant activities, actualizing the desire to relive this feeling, overcoming all difficulties;

- the situation of a “collision” of a teenager with events, the world of things and actions, in which they experience a shortage of social and personal competence and a desire to improve themselves is awakened;

- the situation of reflection of own progress of a person along the path of harmonization (modification) of social and personal viability in the process of self-change;

- the situation of the search for the motives and purposes of everyday life, life meanings and values in an open society for further successful socialization;

- the situation analysis, evaluation and search for a solution to life problems of an adolescent that exist in an open society and hinder him in further successful socialization;

- the situation of the meeting of an adolescent with “significant OTHER”, actualizing the need of pupils for self-change and self-development.

Pupils of special educational organizations of a closed type are minors with deviant behavior, which consists in rejection and violation of the existing social and cultural norms of everyday life. The study used the generalized characteristics of the passive form of deviant behavior (behavior that deviates from the moral norms of human society and manifests itself in various forms of rejection of the existing social reality) and the active form of deviant behavior (behavior contrary to legal norms that threatens social order, health and well-being of others people). In this regard, the design and use of rehabilitation and pedagogical situations should be differentiated, taking into account the form of manifestation of deviant behavior and personal characteristics of adolescents.

Thus, for the adolescents with an active form of deviant behavior, the following sequence of rehabilitation and pedagogical situations is recommended: a) the situation of success in a socially significant and personally attracting activity that contributes to the desire to relive success, overcoming all difficulties; b) the situation of searching for life values, motives and goals of own life of a person in an open society for further successful socialization; c) the situation of meeting with “significant OTHERS”, actualizing the need of pupils for self-change and self-development; d) the situation of reflection of own progress of a person in the process of harmonization of social and personal viability as a result of self-improvement.

For the adolescents with a passive form of deviant behavior, the following sequence of rehabilitation and educational situations is recommended: a) the situation of meeting with “significant OTHER”, which actualizes the need of pupils for self-change and self-development; b) the situation of searching for life values, motives and goals of own life of a person in an open society for further successful socialization; c) the situation of analysis, evaluation and search for a solution to life problems existing in an open society and hindering further successful socialization; d) the situation of a “collision” of a teenager with events, the world of things and deeds, in which they experience a shortage of social and personal competence and a desire to improve themselves is awakened.

Research Methods

Having characterized the content-activity component of the process of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior, the authors will consider the corresponding functions and principles of the organization of this process. Traditionally, the functions of the pedagogical process are (Slastenin, Isaev, & Shiyanov, 2002): educational and informational; developing; pedagogical; value orientation (axiological) and social adaptation. Based on the above mentioned aspects:

- educational and informational function of the process of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior is manifested in the formation of specific knowledge, skills and abilities, experience of reproductive and productive creative activity in life self-determination and personal self-construction necessary to resolve rehabilitation and pedagogical situations;

- the developmental function of the process of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior is implemented in a substantial restructuring of the semantic sphere of the personality of an adolescent for life self-determination and self-reflection as a result of the use of mechanisms of sense-consciousness and sense-creation in resolving rehabilitation situations;

- the educational function of the process of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior is manifested in the actualization of the mechanism of self-education in order to form the personal qualities necessary for socially approved life activity and conscious and accepted as a result of resolving rehabilitation situations;

- axiological function of the process of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior as one of the forms of pedagogical process is manifested in changing attitudes and value systems as a result of resolving rehabilitation and educational situations as a necessary condition for the return to society and further successful socialization;

- the function of social adaptation of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior is implemented in the harmonization of their social and personal viability, without a positive manifestation of which successful socialization is impossible.

Findings

The process of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational organizations of a closed type is subject to the general principles of organization and functioning of pedagogical process (holistic approach, continuity and focus of education, integration and differentiation of joint activities of teachers and pupils; team education), at the same time the process of the formation of social and personal viability is also characterized by specific principles, about the agreed features of the educational environment of special educational institution of closed type. The specific principles of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational organizations of a closed type include:

- the principle of developmental orientation of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior (content of rehabilitation and pedagogical situations for adolescents with deviant behavior should lead to systematic clarification and detailing of the phenomenon of personal well-being through successful socialization and, accordingly, contribute to its social and cultural identification in various life situations);

- the principle of actualization of personal orientation of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior (the strategic idea for all rehabilitation and pedagogical situations presented to adolescents with deviant behavior should be the existential problem of “the content of the phenomenon of personal well-being and ways to achieve it in real situations of everyday life as result and content of successful socialization”);

- the principle of actualization of the competence-oriented direction of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior (combination of the experience of individual rehabilitation and pedagogical situations and collective reflection of possible ways to solve it with the aim of optimally designing an individual behavior strategy for successful socialization).

Conclusion

The compliance with the specific principles and functions of the organization of the formation of social and personal viability of adolescents with deviant behavior in special educational organizations of a closed type will contribute to the manifestation of the following personal functions of adolescents (Serikov, 1999): the selectivity of personal and other life experience regarding its value in comparison with sociocultural attitudes, traditions and rules; the reflection of own life situation, self-assessment of behavior, status in a team, communicative and business success in accordance with the socio-cultural attitudes, traditions and rules; the correlation of the existing personal experience with the strategic values and personal plans - the achievement of the state of mental and social well-being; the self-regulation and responsibility in decision making in a variety of life situations in order to avoid manifestation of deviant behavior and / or minimize the consequences of possible negative impacts of the surrounding socio-cultural environment; the need for self-realization through creativity and going beyond the bounds of tradition in the design of individual life strategies in order to achieve a state of mental and social well-being; the ability to be free, independent of external factors, the orientation in making vital decisions on individual characteristics and the need to preserve and maintain spiritual and social well-being. .

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29 March 2019

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Cite this article as:

Pakhmutova, M., & Paatova*, M. (2019). Formation Of Social And Personal Viability Of Adolescents With Deviant Behavior. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1466-1473). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.170