Professional Interest Development Of Vocational Technical Institution Students During Extracurricular Activities
The article justifies the relevance of the preparation of qualified specialists in the system of vocational secondary education. The authors revealed the possibilities of extracurricular activities in the process of the formation of professional interest of students of vocational education institution. Professional interest is considered not only as a factor contributing to the employment of graduates in the chosen profession, but also as an essential condition for successful training and education of students in secondary vocational institutions. In accordance with the course of study, the authors analyzed the individual preferences of the students of the vocational technical institution for the organization of extracurricular activities and identified priority areas of work in order to stimulate professional interest. Extracurricular activities, having a large pedagogical potential, is a suitable space for the development of professional interest of students. Effective use of extracurricular activities is impossible without taking into account the inclinations and individual needs of future specialists. It was found that the preference for spending free time in the process of growing up changes: gradually the desire to spend extracurricular time for entertainment gives way to the need for work and professional development, which requires an adjustment of the program of extracurricular activities in compliance with the changing needs of future specialists. The article presents the possibility of the increase of extracurricular activities effectiveness in order to shape the professional interest of students.
Keywords: Extracurricular activitiessecondary educationprofessionqualification
Social and economic development of any country depends on the quality of vocational education. It can be explained by the lack of qualified personnel impedes the development of production and agriculture. This situation actualizes the work on the promotion of vocational secondary education among school pupils and the orientation of graduates to the employment in the field of the acquired profession. The system of vocational secondary education aspires to improve the quality of training, education of a competent, flexible, competitive specialist with a sustainable motivation for self-realization in the chosen profession. This makes obtaining of qualitative vocational education impossible without the development of professional interest, since the formation of professional interests contributes to the solution of one of the most difficult and most important tasks of vocational training - the formation of readiness for future professional activities (Chernikova, 2006; Potemkin, 2001; Tsibizova, 2016; Rachkovskaya, 2009). Formed professional interest becomes one of the conditions for the successful training of students and the employment of graduates in the mastered profession. The understanding of the value of the chosen profession is to form the conviction of a student that getting an education in the chosen profession is a necessary step on the path to success. Confidence in the chosen profession becomes the basis for sustainable professional interest.
Investigating the professional interest level it was found that the students were driven by external motives for choosing a profession that falsely direct them to receive education in their chosen profession.
This situation presents an obstacle to the effective work of vocational institution. In this regard, nowadays the priorities in the work of the technical institution are as follows: the disclosure of the specifics of secondary vocational education; the representation of the future scope of activities; the development of the desire to get and improve professional skills; the motivation to implement their professional skills in practice. The authors believe that it is possible posed tasks with the help of the gradual formation of professional interest in the process of extracurricular activities of students of vocational technical institution. Thus, the formation of professional interest among students of vocational technical institution becomes the primary task of professional education.
The term “professional interest” has been widely studied in science since the 20th century; modern scholars give a different definition of this concept. Grossu (1975) investigates professional interest as the orientation of an individual to certain professional activities that stimulate the development of the personality and its creative forces. Bessarab (1981) defines professional interest as the emotionally expressed focus, attention and action of a student to acquire theoretical and practical knowledge and skills. Afanasyev (1968) gives the following definition: “professional interest is a selective, emotional, cognitive attitude, expressed in the pursuit of a certain activity, to practical mastery”. Thus, professional interest presents a complex set of mental properties and states, including selective cognitive, emotional and volitional activity, aimed at the chosen professional activity.
Scientists have proved that it is possible to form professional interest only in the process of acquiring a profession. Due to the fact that the education of students is realized not only in institution, but also behind the walls of an institution, the authors consider it necessary to unleash the potential of extracurricular activities. Kanaeva (2012) characterizes extracurricular activities as a combination of various types and forms of educational work with students conducted outside a classroom and study time. Extracurricular activities are one of the forms of organization of free time. The purposes of extracurricular activities of students in secondary vocational schools are as follows: comprehensive education of an individual, the development of independence and responsibility, the introduction of students to national traditions and values, as well as the professionalization of students (Simbiryakova, 2010). Extracurricular activities have a number of features: free and voluntary participation of students; the focus on the independence and entrepreneurial spirit of students; mediated pedagogical management of students; the variety of forms and activities; the lack of strict framework; the availability of participation for each student; the ability to satisfy various interests, etc. Due to their specificity, extracurricular activities ensure the willing participation of students, regardless of interests, abilities and knowledge, which provides enormous potential for comprehensive harmonious disclosure of the personality and improvement of professional abilities.
Thus, extracurricular activities in secondary vocational schools present a component of the pedagogical process aimed at training a skilled specialist.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the presented research was to reveal the potential of extracurricular activities in the process of the formation of professional interest of students of vocational technical institution.
In order to determine the possibilities of extracurricular activities, the authors conducted a survey among students of Kamchatka Cooperative Technical Institution and Grozny Technical Institution of Economics and Information Technology, which revealed individual preferences of students in the organization of extracurricular activities. The students of 10 professions from the 1st to the 3rd courses (487 people) took part in the survey. The study showed that the majority of 1st year students (83.5% - 142 people) express a desire to take part in extracurricular activities, but in senior courses the percentage of interested students decreases: 2nd year –54.5% (85 people), 3rd year - 42.9% (69 people), which is 60, 8% (296 people) of all students of the educational institution.
Analyzing the questionnaires, the authors found that the majority of freshmen want to take part in cultural and entertainment events and sports activities (student theater and Club of the Merry and Inventive - 22.9% (39 people), dances - 17.1% (29 people), vocals - 5 , 3% (9 people), volleyball - 14.7% (25 people), basketball - 17.6% (30 people), wrestling - 7.1% (12 people), as well as some of the respondents expressed the desire to participate in the activities of the student government -10% (17 people) and only 9 people 5.3% would like to spend their free time in order to gain professional skills. Second-year students would like to organize their free time to get additional skills by attending various courses and master classes (65, 4% - 102 people) and only 14, 7% (23 people) would like to attend cultural and entertainment events, and 19, 9% (31). It is interesting that second-year students for the most part (55, 8% - 87 out of 65%) choose courses and master classes, not focusing on the mastered qualification, but aspiring to try themselves in other fields, indicates uncertainty in the chosen profession.
Senior students are less interested in participating in extracurricular activities, explaining this by their workload and desire to work during their free time, but they still express their willingness to spend free time on paid work and activities that will contribute to their employment (work in an educational enterprise –15, 5 %, (25 people)); on the courses, expanding professional skills - and 50.3% (81 people), on any job that brings income –34, 2% (55 people). Thus, we see that, depending on the course, the interests of students change: gradually the desire to spend free time on entertainment is inferior to the need for work and professional development.
In order to assess the possibilities of extracurricular activities in the formation of professional interest of students, a detailed analysis of its features and specifics is required. Extracurricular activities in vocational secondary institution involve the organization, management and control of joint activities of all the subjects of educational process and independent work of students. In an average vocational institution, extracurricular activities perform the following functions: educational, pedagogic, creative, compensatory, recreational, controlling, integrative and vocational. These functions of extracurricular activities are implemented within the educational work, developing sportive, aesthetic, intellectual, civil, social, creative and professional qualities of students. Modern extracurricular activities present a wide variety of forms: excursions, clubs, sections, round tables, conferences, discussions, competitions, research, Clubs of the Funny and Inventive, role-playing games, quests, trainings, computer simulations, volunteer work, meetings with successful professionals and cultural figures, etc.
The forms of educational extracurricular work involve activities aimed at an individual, group or team. Individual extracurricular activities involve reading literature, performing creative tasks, creating projects. Group work includes circle and club activities, volunteer work, group research projects, etc. Mass work includes excursions, professional contests, quizzes, conferences, etc.
Regardless of the number of participants, extracurricular activities may have different directions: motivation, incentive (for example, conversations, lectures, discussions, and trainings), information (meetings, round tables, conversations, and lectures), orientation to various activities (performances, exhibitions, concerts, excursions, and teacher performances), the impulse to reflection (activity analysis), the imitation of professional activity (competitions, master classes).
Extracurricular activities use a wide variety of different methods and techniques:
- the methods of the formation of the consciousness of an individual (conversation, story, lecture, reconstruction);
- the methods of organizing activities and shaping the experience of social behavior (exercise, schooling, assignment, creating pedagogic situations, the requirement);
- the methods of stimulating activity and behavior (competition, verbal and written praise to students and their parents for encouragement, punishment).
The directions, forms and methods of extracurricular activities are interrelated, each direction can be implemented in different forms using different methods and techniques, which expands the possibilities of extracurricular activities and increases its effectiveness.
After analyzing the information received, the authors found that students associate a decline in interest in the participation in extracurricular activities of a vocational technical institution with the lack of activities corresponding to their inclinations, lack of free time, and the uselessness of this activity. The study confirms the idea that during the organization of extracurricular activities it is necessary to take into account the individual needs, interests and inclinations of students, which can ensure the active conscious introduction of students in educational activities.
Thus, professional interest is a dynamic, professionally significant phenomenon that can form spontaneously. Its development most effectively proceeds when it is provided with adequate accompaniment. The process of formation of professional interest proceeds simultaneously with obtaining a profession and represents the gradual development of its structural components. Extracurricular activities have a number of peculiarities (free and voluntary participation of students; the focus on independence and entrepreneurial spirit of students; mediated pedagogical management of students; the diversity of forms and activities; the lack of strict frameworks; the accessibility of participation for each student; the ability to meet different interests, etc.). Extracurricular activity acquires tremendous potential in the development of professional interest due to these components. Consequently, for the development of the professional interest of students, it is necessary to develop an effective, target-oriented, vocational-oriented system of extracurricular activities capable of providing a conscious, interested mastery of knowledge and further employment of graduates in the acquired profession. Therefore, in order to increase the number of students willing to realize themselves in the field of chosen profession, it is necessary to foresee the following aspects: the increase in excursion trips to production; the implementation of project business activities; the inclusion of potential employers in the extracurricular activities of students as mentors in project activities, jury members in competitions; the participation of graduates in the programs of labor support.
Thus, in order to ensure the effective functioning and recovery of economy, it is necessary to have specialists interested in the improvement of their skills and self-improvement in the professional sphere. The most effective approach in the achievement of above-mentioned purposes is the development of professional interest in the process of educational and extracurricular activities.
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29 March 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Minazova, V., Ruschishina, A., Rachkovskaya, N., Minazova, Z., & Magomedova, Z. (2019). Professional Interest Development Of Vocational Technical Institution Students During Extracurricular Activities. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1383-1388). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.160