Formation Of Pedagogical Optimism Of Bachelor By Means Of Cognitive Activity

Abstract

This paper reflects the results of an empirical study, based on which the hypothesis was confirmed that pedagogical optimism of bachelors means external reinforcement and encouraging cognitive activity. The subject of the research is the process of formation of pedagogical optimism of bachelors by means of cognitive activity. The problem development analysis in theory and psychological-pedagogical practice has been carried out; the meaningful content of the concept «pedagogical optimism as a professional-personal quality of an educational psychologist» has been clarified. The purpose of the research is to develop and verify the formation model of pedagogical optimism as a professional and personal quality by means of external reinforcements and incentives for cognitive activity and specially created pedagogical conditions for its effective implementation in the process of teaching high school students. A number of methods were used in the paper; among them the study and analysis of the progressive, innovative work of higher education teachers, who consider the optimist's theory of formation as the basis personality perception of the world. This is an integrative quality of the personality, including the cheerfulness of the personality, its cognitive activity, positive, motivational mood for educational activities, based on the belief in creative, intellectual forces and their own capabilities. The source of pedagogical optimism is the teacher’s sense of humor, contributing to the establishment of good, sincere relationships, providing psychological comfort, encouraging students to learn, to motivational cognitive activity.

Keywords: Pedagogical optimismsensehumourcommunicativehumanistic

Introduction

The relevance of the study is due to the reform of higher education, which largely reflects the social and economic development of society. The introduction of Federal State Educational Standards (FSES) and the modernization of Russian education set new requirements for the teacher’s personality as a key figure in educational activities. Since it is at school that the emotional, social, and mental development of the personality is carried out, a teacher with a new type of thinking must come to the renewed educational system and be able to accomplish the tasks determined by the state. The peculiarity of the teacher’s professional training should be its humanistic principle: sincere faith in the good principle of each student, showing respect for his personality, convincing him in his own abilities, instilling confidence in him, the teacher should have initiative, independence, and optimistic outlook on life. Owning a high level of teacher pedagogical optimism reveals the creative and intellectual potential of the individual. (Zhuikova, 2014).

The history of mankind and philosophical thought has proved that a qualitatively positive development of society is possible only if the basis of the individual’s activity is based on the principles of optimism as an emotionally positive basis of culture (Abonosimova, 2004).

The degree of the problem:

A significant impact on the problem formation study of optimism and pessimism was made by foreign philosophy, whose authors actively explore social optimism and pessimism – social philosophy of Sh. Buhler, M. Seligman, A. Schweitzer, E. Spranger, K. Mannheim, T. Parsons, E. Hartshorn, K. Kenstoun, M.H. Titma and so. Psychological and pedagogical formation foundations of an optimistic personality perception of the world were analyzed in the works of famous teachers-psychologists – A.P. Ushinsky, P.P. Blonsky, A.S. Makarenko, L.S. Vygotsky, S.L. Rubinstein, I.S. Kon, E.I. Rogova, K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskay, L.D. Stolyarenko, N.M. Solonchuk and many others. The pedagogical science is interested in optimism from the viewpoint of improving the quality of the cognitive activity of the individual, as well as in the formation of a positive, positive, motivational attitude towards the learning activities of students. In this aspect, the works of A.D. Ushinsky, A.S. Makarenko, V.A. Sukhomlinsky, P.P. Blonsky, O.V. Korotkih, F.R. Filippov, E.N. Shiyanova and others are widely known. Pedagogical optimism is a characteristic for humanistic pedagogy of A.S. Makarenko, who in spite of the command-administrative methods of educating and managing the pedagogical process established in education in the 30s, contrasted his author's pedagogy - essentially humanistic and optimistic in content, based on his faith in the creative forces and capabilities of a pupil. The source of optimism is the pedagogical teacher humor that facilitates good, sincere relationships provides psychological comfort, encourages students to learning and motivational activities. To improve the teaching level of optimism is important the selection and implementation of the learning process efficient technologies and means of external reinforcements and rewards of cognitive activity as a set of methods and tools to achieve the desired result (Hjell & Ziegler, 2009; Andreeva, 2013).

A problem study analysis for the formation of a pedagogical optimism of bachelor as a professional-personal quality by means of external reinforcements and encouraging cognitive activity is reflected in Russian philosophical, cultural, psychological and pedagogical sciences, in numerous dissertations and scientific monographs of E.V. Abonosimova, Yu.V. Andreeva, N.A. Baturin, A.S. Belkin, V.A. Krutetsky, O.A. Sychev and others.

However, this aspect we are examining, pedagogical optimism, as a professional-personal quality of a pedagogical psychologist by means of external reinforcements and encouraging cognitive activity, is revealed in insufficient volume. Analysis of current practice shows that the present situation regarding formation of pedagogical optimism among bachelors, does not meet the actual university graduates state order needs and the requirements developed by the new federal state educational standards (Arskieva, 2016). Results are in Table 01 .

Table 1 -
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Problem Statement

A significant influence on the study of the problem of optimism-pessimism was made by foreign philosophy, whose authors actively explore social optimism and pessimism — these are the social philosophers S. Buhler, M. Seligman, A. Schweitzer, E. Spranger, C. Mannheim, T. Parsons, E. Hartshorne, C. Kenstone, M.H. Titma and others. Psychological and pedagogical foundations of the formation of an optimistic personality perception of the world were analyzed in the works of famous teachers-psychologists - A.P. Ushinsky, P.P. Blonsky, A.S. Makarenko, L.S. Vygotsky, S.L. Rubinstein, I.S. Kona, E.I. Horny, K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskoy, L.D. Stolyarenko, N.M. Solonchuk and others. The pedagogical science is interested in optimism from the viewpoint of improving the quality of the cognitive activity of the individual, as well as in the formation of a positive, motivational attitude towards the learning activities of students. In this aspect, the works of A.D. Ushinsky, A.S. Makarenko, V.A. Sukhomlinsky, P.P. Blonsky, O.V. Short, F.R. Filippova, E.N. Shiyanova are well known. Pedagogical optimism is characterized enough in humanistic pedagogy of A.S. Makarenko, who in spite of the command-administrative methods of educating and managing the pedagogical process established in education in the 30s, contrasted his author's pedagogy - essentially humanistic and optimistic in content, and based on his faith in the creative forces and abilities of the pupils. The source of pedagogical optimism is the humor of the teacher, contributing to the establishment of good, sincere relationships, providing psychological comfort, encouraging students to learn, to motivational activities. To increase the level of pedagogical optimism, it is important to select and introduce into the educational process effective technologies and means of external reinforcement and promotion of cognitive activity as a set of methods and tools to achieve the desired result (Hjell & Zigler, 2009; Andreeva, 2013).

Analysis of the problem formation study of pedagogical optimism of bachelors as a professional-personal quality by means of external reinforcements and encouraging cognitive activity is reflected in the domestic philosophical, cultural, psychological and pedagogical sciences in numerous dissertations and scientific monographs of E.V. Abonosimova, Yu.V. Andreeva, N.A. Baturin, A.S. Belkin, V.A. Krutetsky, O.A. Sychev (Sychev, 2008)) and others. However, in the examining aspect, pedagogical optimism, as a professional-personal quality of an educational psychologist by means of external reinforcements and the encouragement of cognitive activity is revealed insufficient. Analysis of modern practice proves that the current situation regarding the formation of pedagogical optimism does not meet the urgent needs of the high school state order for graduates and the requirements developed by the new federal state educational standards.

Research Questions

The subject of the research is the process of formation of pedagogical optimism of bachelors by means of cognitive activity.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the research is to develop and verify the formation model of pedagogical optimism as a professional and personal quality by means of external reinforcements and incentives for cognitive activity and specially created pedagogical conditions for its effective implementation in the process of teaching high school students.

Research Methods

In order to solve the assigned tasks and examine the selected theoretical hypothetical positions, the following research methods were used: theoretical (analysis of philosophical, psychological, educational and educational literature; modelling the formation process of pedagogical optimism of bachelors by means of external reinforcement and cognitive activity incentives; study and analysis of the progressive, innovative work of higher education teachers, who consider the optimist's theory of formation as the basis personality perception of the world, applied (observation, questioning, tests, diagnostics, experimental work, methods of mathematical statistics (Student's t-criteria).

Findings

Students from the 1st and 2nd courses of two universities of the Psychology and Pedagogical Education course -40 students from the Experimental Group (EG) and 40 students from the Control Group (CG) took part in the experimental work. Experimental work was carried out in three stages.

At the diagnostic stage, during which there was a working program and methods of experimental work, the most effective pedagogical identified conditions for the introduction of the developed model were revealed; the factors, criteria and indicators formed by the students qualities that are responsible for pedagogical optimism necessary for the teaching profession of psychologist are determined; the programs of experimental work were refined and corrected.

Tasks of the diagnostic stage of experimental work are: to form student groups - Experimental and Control; to select and adapt, if necessary, a complex of diagnostic methods and methods for identifying of the EG and CG students of the initial level the pedagogical optimism formation ; to organize the included observation (direct participation of the author in the experiment) the process of professional training of future teacher-psychologists for pedagogical activity in order to understand how it focuses on the formation of professional and personal qualities responsible for pedagogical optimism.

Diagnostics of communicative qualities was carried out using the «Technique and technology of work of a social teacher» of M.V. Shakurova (Shakurova, 2007). Students were acquainted with the proposed judgments, later answered as "Yes" or "No", gaining the appropriate number of points. Having counted all the points, three groups of students were identified, which we attribute to: to a high level of communicative stage, scored 30-35 points: 44% of EG и 38% of CG. We attributed 35% of the EG and 40% of the CG to the middle level, all the rest we attributed to the low level of the established communicative attitude: 21% of the EG and 22% of the CG. Next in our list was the manifestation of humanism and humanistic qualities of students. Students were asked (anonymously) to answer questions. Among the signs that indicate a high humanism the positive responses are met in more than 28-30 questions. Among EG students there were 22% of them, among the CG - 25% correspondently. Positively answered to 20-25 questions, we attributed to the middle level of humanistic qualities development. They turned out to be 34% of the EG and 43% of the CG. The rest, who answered "Yes" only to 5-10 questions, we attributed to the low level of humanity formation - 44% of the EG and 32% of the CG.

Further, we turned to empathic signs, that is, the test of empathic potential of a person, which is called «Method for the rapid diagnosis of personality empathy» of I.M. Usupov (Usupov, 2000). If a student scored a total amount: 70 - 90 points - this meant a high level of empathy. We counted such students- 47% of the EG and 44% of the CG; 37 - 62 points - this corresponded to the middle level of empathy: 24% of the EG and 30% of the CG; from 10 to 36 points, this meant a low level of students' formed empathic qualities. These students have turned out, 29% of the EG and 26% of the CG. A sense of humor, as the most important component of pedagogical optimism, we diagnosed with the help of the test of Ye.A. Tarasov (Tarasov, 2004). As a result, 38% of the EG and 41% of the CG turned out to be students with a high sense of humor; with middle level of 47% EG and 54% CG; with a low sense of humor, it turned out - 15% of the EG and 5% of the CG.

Conclusion

Pedagogical optimism is an integrative quality of the personality, including the cheerfulness of the personality, its cognitive activity, positive, positive, motivational mood for learning activities (Romanenko, 2015).

Structural components and criteria for the formation of pedagogical optimism among bachelors represent the communicative, humanistic empathic components and sense of humor. Levels of formation of pedagogical optimism by means of external reinforcements and rewards: high (the ability to efficiently create a favorable atmosphere of mutual understanding and communication); middle (the presence of the person good psychological observation, the ability to participate and understand age and individual characteristics of schoolchildren); low (uncertainty in the creative forces and abilities of students). External reinforcement and encouragement in the formation of pedagogical optimism of the bachelor - is a way of expressing a positive assessment of the behavior and activities of the individual student or an entire student group; gratitude, presented in the form of letters of recommendation, creditable sheets, letters to parents of the student, gifts - tickets to student camps, trips abroad, participation in any forum; six basic techniques of pedagogical optimism.

The model formation process of pedagogical optimism by means of external reinforcements and incentives: goal-setting unit, socially-oriented, organizational-stimulating, substantive-technological, structural-criterial and final-performance units. The pedagogical conditions for the formation of pedagogical optimism ensured not only the active mastering of the basics of pedagogical optimism by students, but also the ability to think optimistically, to build positive communication with others, to show openness, sincerity; inclusion in the learning process means of external reinforcements and rewards; educational guidelines were developed for teachers «Psychological and pedagogical conditions for the formation of pedagogical optimism ».

The students of the EG, in comparison with the students of the CG, acquired the ability to create an atmosphere of favourable communication and mutual understanding, began to demonstrate positive communication, openness, sincerity, acquired some artistry, showed a more optimistic character. Students of the EG are more likely than students of the CG have expressed belief in creative forces and opportunities in the future and in their own strengths. Due to the numerous activities, students were learned how to design in your partner better, kind features; formed the best attitude to the person and values. Students became more humane, began to show interest in their classmates, began to respect the opinions of others, learned to show concern and participation to the people around them. Most importantly, students of the EG to a greater extent than students of the CG demonstrated in and communication activity the ability to take another person’s place, experience successes and failures with him; began to show personal aspiration to professional self-improvement and self-education, in the form of individual’s attitude to himself and in the chosen profession of the teacher (Aliphanova, & Arskieva, 2016).

All the above indicates that the hypothesis was confirmed and the goal has been achieved. At the same time, we do not claim the comprehensive nature of the stated problem and its resolution. On the contrary, the revealed contradictions, the formulated theoretical propositions and the obtained applied results indicate that the dissertation opens up new possibilities in solving future perspective problems: the optimism formation in young children and adolescents. .

References

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29 March 2019

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978-1-80296-057-0

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Future Academy

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58

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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society

Cite this article as:

Abasovna*, A. Z. (2019). Formation Of Pedagogical Optimism Of Bachelor By Means Of Cognitive Activity. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 135-141). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.16