The article studies the semantics of indirect moods in the Kalmyk and Russian languages. The subject of research is comparative analysis of categorical meanings of indirect moods and their contextually determined semantic features in the Kalmyk and Russian languages. The purpose of the work is to identify semantic patterns which create a complex structure of the system of indirect moods in Kalmyk and Russian, to describe the grammatical meaning of their forms using literary works by Russian and Kalmyk writers extracted from the National Corpus of Russian and Kalmyk languages. The category of mood in both languages is a system of opposing mood forms and their categorical meanings which are a complex unity of interrelated parts. The main semantic feature of moods is modal differentiation. In both languages, there are two similar moods: indicative and imperative ones. Each mood has its own categorical meaning: reality (indicative), inclination (imperative), assumption and possibility (subjunctive), desire and intention (optative), warning and fear (apprehensive). Indirect moods differ from each other in morphological features, reference to specific individuals. All of them can have various aspects of meanings and a dominant modal meaning. Data from the National Corpus of the Russian and Kalmyk languages were used as research materials.
In the morphological system, the Russian and Kalmyk verb has a grammatical category of mood - a system of opposing forms expressing the “attitude of action to reality” (Russian grammar 1980, p. 80) and their categorical meanings. It expresses modality. There are various modal meanings: reality / unreality, possibility / impossibility, desirability / undesirability of the action, confidence / uncertainty, doubtfulness, assumption (Kharchevnikova, 1995).
There are a lot of researches on the Mongolian verbal moods (Sanzheev, 1963; Tsydendambaev, 1979; Doraeva, 1983; Kharchevnikova, 1995, 2002; Kuzmenkov, 1984; Omakaeva, 2005; Prokhorov, 2009). Semantics of moods of the Russian verbs is of special interest (Plungyan, 2000; Gusev, 2013, Dobrushina, 2016)
The system of forms of indirect moods in the Russian and Kalmyk languages is organized by contrasting the following forms:
The forms of the imperative: the main forms are second person singular and plural forms:
Two person singular forms in the Russian language are derived from the stem of the present / simple future tense verbal forms in two ways:
1) affixing -и to the stem of the present tense: a) to the –j-stem, with an emphasis on flexion in the first person singular:
2) without suffixes: a) from the stem of the present tense ending in a pair-hard consonant, an imperative form ending in a pair-soft consonant is derived. Hard and soft consonants alternate:
In some cases, there are the following features of imperative mood formation: a) the infinitive suffix -ва-, disappearing in the present tense form, is restored in the imperative form:
There are verbs which cannot form the second person singular: a) verbs expressing untargeted actions and states:
In Kalmyk, the second person singular coincides with the stem of the verb, and it is formed by a zero affix: йов (иди),
The second person plural forms in Russian are formed by adding affixes to singular forms
In Kalmyk, the second-person plural form is formed with the help of the affix
To express inclination for the first and third persons, forms of the present and future tenses are used.
Forms of the first person plural of the present and future tenses in inducing speeches express an appeal or invitation of a speaker addressed to other people to act together. The imperative meaning in Russian is expressed with the help of affix
The joint action form is also expressed using a combination of
In the Kalmyk language, the same meaning of invocation, invitation to joint action is expressed the 1st person plural with affix
Inclination can be attributed to the third person and expressed by a combination of particles
The imperative can be combined with affix
In the Kalmyk language, inclination addressed to the 3rd person is expressed by affixes
The subjunctive moods (in Russian) are formed by adding
The composition of the optative mood (in Kalmyk) includes: a) the form of the optative of the first person singular with affixes
The apprehensives (in Kalmyk language) are formed by joining affixes
Thus, to express various meanings of indirect moods in both languages, synthetic (in Russian) and analytical forms are used. In the Kalmyk language, the forms of moods are formed with the help of special affixes, and in Russian for this purpose, the present and future tense forms are used in various combinations. The role of intonation, context, particles, introductory words, etc. is significant.
There are direct and indirect moods: imperative, subjective (in Russian), hortative, optative, jussive, apprehensive (in Kalmyk). “Using indirect moods, the speaker expresses different attitudes the reality. The diversity of these relations determines the diversity of paradigms of indirect moods in different languages”.
The subject of research is comparative analysis of categorical meanings of indirect moods and their contextually determined semantic features in the Kalmyk and Russian languages.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the work is to identify semantic patterns which create a complex structure of the system of indirect moods in Kalmyk and Russian, to describe the grammatical meaning of their forms using literary works by Russian and Kalmyk writers extracted from the National Corpus of Russian and Kalmyk languages (NCRL, NCKL).
The main research methods were:
1. Opposition used for studying the grammatical meaning of the indirect moods based on their intrinsic opposition properties within the system.
2. Semantic functional analysis used to identify the semantic potential of categorical forms of moods.
3. Descriptive method and direct observation used to study contact forms and means.
An imperative expresses will, order, request or advice (Bondarko, 1976; Khrakovsky, 1990; Forteyn, 2008). The imperative expresses various shades of inclination addressed to the interlocutor. The shades of meaning expressed by this mood are very diverse. Depending on the context and intonation, they can represent a whole range of meanings (categorical order, advice, persuasive request). V.Yu. Gusev describes “four types of imperative forms: their ability to express the meanings of order, desire, intent, obligation” (Gusev, 2005).
The analysis of the stimulating situation is based on the speaker’s dependence on the interlocutor, when the speaker realizes possibility or impossibility of the interlocutor performing the action to which the speaker induces him. This makes it possible to distinguish categorical, softened and neutral inclination. Each type is represented by variants, modal shades, which, in combination with the main categorical meaning, constitute the semantic features of the imperative.
The initial form of the imperative, the second person singular form, expresses inclination to action addressed to the interlocutor.
The dependence of the interlocutor on the speaker is typical of the categorical mood. Inclination is expressed as requirement, order, prohibition.
The modal meaning of order is basic among the variants of categorical mood. It is expressed within a context:
a) in both languages, categorical order to fulfill the will of the speaker in the second person singular and plural is expressed with an imperative. In Russian, the expressive nature of inclination is most clearly manifested in the imperfect imperative:
b) on the other hand, in the Russian language, the perfect imperative is more categorical than imperfect verbs:
In both languages, the modal meaning of order is related to the temporal reference of inclination to the near future and is expressed by circumstances
c) in Russian, there is a group of verbs with the lexical meaning of inclination to immediate action:
A modal attribute of categorical demand accompanied by formidable, angry command is realized in the following context:
a) a group of verbs крикнуть (хәәкрх), приказать (закх), рассердиться (уурлх), etc .:
b) with introductory words (гинәв), слышишь (соңсҗанч) making the utterance persistent: Говорю тебе – не пой молебствия / Проволочным твоим лучам. Дәкәд дүлә, келкә, сохр күн кевтә
c) verbs with similar meanings of sending away: выйди вон (hарч әрл), исчезни с глаз (үзгдл уга од), etc .: Изменники кричали: не стреляйте, выходите вон... государь здесь . Нә,
d) an introductory word я тебя (чама-аг) in combination with restrictive concessive particle только (зуг) expressing threat: Ты у меня пикни только. Чамаг, зогсҗатн зуг, кишго нохас! “Я вас, ну погодите, нечестивые собаки!”
In the Russian language, in a number of phraseological utterances with generalized personal uses of the imperative in combination with
Prohibition is expressed in both languages by
a) negative imperative forms: Не заходите, она спит... Не беспокойте её. Зуг күүкм эднә hарт бичә үлдә. Только не оставляй здесь мою дочь. Возьми её с собой.
b) in Russian colloquial speech, prohibition is expressed by the perfect imperative:
The form -чк (a complex suffix resulted from the merging of the suffix of the connecting participle
Repetition of the the imperative verb enhances the meaning of the categorical action which the interlocutor must perform:
As for softened inclination, the speaker depends on the will of the interlocutor or interlocutors who might perform or not perform the action. The dependence of the speaker on the interlocutor is emphasized by the presence of: a) verbs introducing softened command
b) speech verbs mitigating behavior: говорить (гих), сказать (келх), etc .: Что тебе в смерти барского дитяти? Отпусти его, за него тебе выкуп дадут, – сказал Савельич. Дарук күүкнь бас торh, булһ
c) verbs of request: помоги (нөкд бол), поддержи (дөң бол), защити (харсҗ ав), etc.:
A request is expressed with other grammatical means:
a) perfect verbs (in the Russian language) expressing a stable request: не забудь(те) (бичә марттн), не покинь(те) (бичә хайтн), не оставь(те) (бичә үлдәтн), etc.: И поила я вас, и кормила я вас, не покиньте меня, в мой последний час - И поила я вас, и кормила я вас, не покиньте меня, в мой последний час.
b) ну-constructions (Kalmyk не, нә, альков):
c) a neutral form: Идём, ребята, разбудим его - Come on, guys, wake him up. Валите-ка вы, лебеди белогрудые, по-холодочку. Үрвәд күрәд ир, би одад, хот белднәв. - Ты не спеша подойди, я пойду и приготовлю обед.
A request is persistent if there is no denial in the context:
The neutral type of inclination assumes a situation of mutual independence of the speaker and the interlocutor, the latter’s greatest freedom. These are simple inclination, advice, invitation, permission, ironic inclination, etc. Unlike the semantics of categorical and softened inclination, variants of neutral inclination imply direction of action to the interlocutor:
1) Simple inclination, i.e. suggestion to perform an action is expressed by
2) Advice and edification that indicate the advisability of committing an action which is useful for the interlocutor:
3) Permission as neutral inclination is presented in the context where this form of imperative mood is preceded by a request or a question of the interlocutor:
4) Invitation has no external lexical indicators. It is characterized only by belonging to certain situations that can be expressed by verbs expressing invitation
5) Wishes, calls: Одно желанье:
In Russian, the imperative combined with a particle
6. Ironic inclination belongs to one of the variants of neutral inclination: Russian polite forms sounding ironic - не изволь(те) беспокоиться, не откажи(те) в любезности.
The form of the second person plural imperative in both languages is the polite norm used when addressing to the second person singular. It is a common polite and official appeal: Вы
As part of the sentence, the imperative meaning is specified in each type of inclination and their variants. All shades of inclination are created by intonation, lexical meaning of the verb, speech situation and various particles:
1) In Russian, particles да, же, characteristic of colloquial speech, express perseverance, and affix -ка gives expresses familiarity: Илья Фомич, поезжай-ка ты сам. Да сними хоть кожух! – сказал, наконец Тарас. Василиса Егоровна, уведи же её поскорей;
2) In the Kalmyk language, the imperative form added to affirmative particle
Imperative particles -и, -хн form softened and neutral inclination (convincing request, persistent exhortation, invitation, etc.): Ик хар дор чиигтә арс делгич, мини көл дор өвдгцә һуйр асхич, – гинә (Kalmyk tale). Ээҗ минь, Данара минь, намаг бий талан авхнтн.
Verbs of joint action express invitation rather than categorical inclination:
In the Kalmyk language, the verb form of joint action is included in the optative mood as a form of the first person plural:
In Russian, the address to the third person through the interlocutor is expressed by a combination with
The same particles in combination with the first person verbs in future simple and future complex express desire and assumption addressed to the speaker himself.
In the Kalmyk language, the form of addressing to the third person through the interlocutor is part of the optative mood.
In both languages, inclination is most clearly manifested in its basic second person singular or plural imperative forms. Verbs of joint action (first person plural) and appeals to the third person are on the periphery of the imperative with a limited number of modal shades. In the Kalmyk language, these two forms are types of inclination expressing desire and intention:
The subjunctive in the Russian language
The subjunctive is a nominative grammatical meaning representing an action as desired, possible under certain conditions, or an action that the speaker doubts or suggests. It has a number of meanings:
1) desire, advice actualized in the predicate in both simple and complex sentences: Я волком
2) desirability of an action, followed by the speaker’s suggestion to do it:
3) assumption associated with the opposition: Другой
4) polite statements in the form of assumptions:
5) request, inclination, advice. The subjunctive has the meaning similar to that of the imperative:
However, there are differences between the imperative and the subjunctive in the nature of appeal to the interlocutor. The subjunctive verb expresses inclination in a mild non-categorical form, and different shades of modal meanings may arise: regret, desire, etc. The imperative expresses more persistent inclination to action:
The subjunctive can express a categorical order, if
6) dependence of one action on another one which is expressed in complex sentences expressing assumption. Sentences with
We are dealing with actions that are not actually carried out due to the lack of necessary conditions:
If it is said that the action depends on some facts (but not on actions), the idea can be expressed in a simple sentence:
7) assumption, fear, doubt in the negative form: Боюсь, брусничная вода мне
8) possible actions: А что, Пульхерия Ивановна, – говорит он, –
9) an action which takes place contrary to expectation: it is used in complex sentences with subordinate clauses. The action takes place every time under certain conditions which should not cause this action. In these sentences, conjunctions are used with
The subjunctive may have a figurative meaning and is used as an imperative when soft advice, request or desire is expressed:
The lack of connection with the real action prevents the subjunctive from being used as an indicative, but in some cases the subjunctive may express an actual action:
Other forms of the verb can be used as a subjunctive: a) the imperative expressing conditional or concessive meanings:
Along with the modal meaning, the subjunctive has aspectual meanings. The juxtaposition of aspects is typical of both simple and complex sentences:
Perfect and imperfect subjunctives can have the same modal color or differ from each other in modal meanings:
To express the meaning of a lacking subjunctive, the Kalmyk language uses an auxiliary verb
The optative in the Kalmyk language
The optative expresses the speaker’s intention to carry out the action himself. The basic meaning of the optative is determined by its categorical meaning – modality: desire and intention and a whole range of its shades: obligation, necessity, condition, etc.
1) The form of the first person singular:
2) One more form of the first person singular and plural is accompanied by personal predicative particles and expresses inclination:
a) willingness, intention of the speaker to perform the action:
b) oath, wish of the speaker: Амн үгән өгчәнәвидн: эн йовх насндан эңкр иньгүд болҗ, кен негнәсн хар уга, олн әмтнә төлә, әмән хармнл уга йовсвидн. Өрүн һарx шар нар үзлго одсв.
c) firm intention, speaker's determination to perform the action directed to the interlocutor:
d) willingness of the speaker to offer his services to the interlocutor:
e) speaker's request to allow him to do something:
If this form is in causative mood, the speaker intends to force the interlocutor to perform the action, but there is no order:
Forms of the first person with
The hortative in the Kalmyk language
The first person plural hortative expresses desire of a group of people to perform the action. It expresses an appeal of the speaker to one person or a group of persons to perform a joint action:
The speaker can express the meaning of a joint action in relation to himself:
The use of this form with affirmative particle
V. I. Podlesskaya says that Russian sentences with an imperative form of the verb
The jussive in the Kalmyk language
The third person jussive expresses wish or permission of the speaker to perform an action given by the interlocutor (second person) to the absent third person:
a) wish: Дәрк минь, өнчәр өсх юмн үрн-садндм
b) command: Данара ээҗләһән
c) permission: Харҗахар Нусха Мууг тәвхм болвзго, юм эс күцәвчн,
d) appeal: Нарн
Combined with affirmative particle
The apprehensive in the Kalmyk language
The apprehensive in the Kalmyk language expresses fear, warning against committing an undesirable action:
There is softened inclination in a caution against committing an undesirable action:
a) soft command with warning:
b) request: Лиҗ-Гаря, намаг дахулхан мартчквзат.
c) hope: Мергн аңһуч изюбриг хаһад алҗв (
d) fear of possible undesirable actions:
e) assumption: Тегәд би нег өдр көдләд
Thus, in the Kalmyk and Russian languages there is a developed system of indirect moods characterized by modal differentiation.
An imperative is the only form of the verb that performs a specific appellate function. Inclination to act is graded and expressed by various linguistic means which were analyzed in the article. Comparative material shows that the lexical support for the semantics of inclination is ideo-ethnic. There are phraseological structures expressing imperative meanings.
The subjunctive form is a characteristic of the Russian language and has a number of meanings representing the action as desired, possible under certain conditions: desire, advice, suggestion, polite forms, request, encouragement, categorical order or demand, suggestion, fear, doubt, etc.
In the Kalmyk language, the forms of the optative, hortative and jussive are combined into the system of the optative mood. The basic meaning of these forms is desire and intention. Each form has its own meanings: obligation, necessity, condition, invocation, command, wish, permission, assumption. In Russian, desire and intention can be expressed by imperative and subjunctive moods.
So, each indirect mood has its own categorical meanings: motives, conjectures and possibilities, desires and intentions, warnings and fears.
The research was funded by the grant of KalmSU “Typology and dynamics of language processes in the Turkic-Mongolian range”.
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29 March 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Lidzhieva*, L., Mushaev, V., & Lidzhieva, L. (2019). Semantics Of Indirect Moods In Russian And Kalmyk Languages: Comparative Analysis. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1289-1301). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.149