During the research a speech-genre approach to the problem of modeling the image of a person as a subject of speech activity is implemented. This information-phatic genre of Internet communication is characterized by informality and voluntary communication, equal communicative position of interlocutors and their interest in conversation, which ensures the maximum conditionality of the language embodiment of the speech genre with such a situational factor as the speaker's image. The written realization of colloquial speech, typical of communication in a messenger, determines the presence in the dialogues of non-verbal (graphic) signs. The analysis of linguistic and non-verbal peculiarities of communication in a messenger made it possible to present a generalized portrait of a person communicating through a messenger in the form of a model that includes a list of the main characteristics of the subject of speech. This model contains the following parameters: focus on a variety of linguistic and non-verbal means of communication; metalinguistic reflection; linguocreative activity; axiological activity. The study allowed drawing the conclusions on the ambivalence of the studied phenomenon, the combination of polar characteristics in it, the presence of play and the predisposition to assessing objects of reality that are significant for a person. Among them a person is the most important and interpreted from the perspective of his or her unique (intellectual) beginning. The perspective of speech-genre approach to linguistic study of the image of a person communicating under new communicative conditions provided by Internet technologies is pointed out.
Keywords: Internet-communicationspeech genreconversation in a messenger
The development of computer technology led to the emergence of new forms of communication and the corresponding speech genres that have become the subject of linguistic study. Modern genrology was supplemented with the description of such Internet genres as a blog (Volokhonsky, 2006; Goroshko, 2007; Rogacheva, 2007), E-mail (Zaliznyak, Mikaelyan, 2006; Vishnyakova, 2006), e-business letter (Vorobyov, 2010; Korneeva, 2014), forum (Kakorina, 2008; Patrusheva, 2013), chat (Kuzmina, 2003; Makarov, 2005; Kubrakova, 2009; Golubeva & Levonenko, 2005), the genres represented in social networks (Altukhova, 2012; Atyagin, 2012; Goroshko, 2012; Guskova & Levina, 2016; Matusevich, 2015; Romashova, 2014; Schurina, 2016), and many others.
The appearance of one of the genres of Internet communication is reasoned by the creation and mass distribution of instant messaging, which includes instant messaging service and client programs, or instant messengers designed to exchange information in real time. Such messengers as ICQ, Jimm, Mail.ru agent, Viber, WhatsApp, QIP, SIM, Windows Live Messenger, Yahoo! messenger, Miranda IM and others are widely spread in Russia. Such mobile applications as WhatsApp and Viber recently acquired particular popularity. They make communication as convenient as possible in terms of the speed of transmission and receipt of information.
The genre, called the conversation in a messenger, belongs to the category of informational-phatic and presents an individual conversation in the form of a written dialogue with small in volume remarks, carried out in real time (Goloshubina, 2015).
As for any speech genre, a conversation in a messenger has its own linguistic embodiment, which allows a linguist to get information about how a person appears as a subject of language conceptualization of reality. In other words, the study of language specificity of the speech genre helps to simulate the image of a person communicating under certain communicative conditions. This image can be represented as a model, the components of which are the dominant typed peculiarities of the phenomenon of the research.
The speech-genre approach to the modeling of the image of a person as a subject of speech activity is successfully embodied in modern linguistics (Nikitina, 2012). The conversation in a messenger as a genre of Internet communication can provide relevant information about a person immersed in new communicative realities, and supplement the treasury of knowledge about the subject language of a person.
The subject of the research was presented by the modes of language implementation typical for such speech genre as “conversation in a messenger”. The research material was presented by a corpus of electronic dialogues of instant messengers provided by informants on an anonymous basis. More than one thousand dialogues of was analyzed. The participants of dialogues differed in age, gender, profession, education and social status. The material was not ranked by the mentioned characteristics of communicators, which is explained by the desire to create a generalized portrait of a person communicating in a messenger. All the dialogues are reproduced verbatim, without editing (the symbol «//» denotes a new line).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the article to create a generalized image of a person communicating in a messenger based on the analysis of linguistic embodiment of the speech genre “conversation in a messenger”.
The stated problem and the purpose leads to the involvement of such a general scientific research method, such as description that includes methods of observation, comparison and generalization of factual material, as well as a method of linguistic modeling, which allows creating a construct based on the most significant features of the image of a person communicating in the messenger presented in descriptive and generalized form. The appropriateness of the conclusions about the frequency and typicality of linguistic and meta-language manifestations of communicating, on the basis of which the object under study is modeled, is ensured by the application of statistical method.
One of the main peculiarities of a conversation in a messenger is equal communicative position of interlocutors: the participants in the conversation, as a rule, are people connected by close relationships (relatives, friends, colleagues, classmates, neighbors, etc.). Official communication is not typical for communication in a messenger: contacts of business partners are mostly episodic and come down to various kinds of clarifications (for example, the place and time of the meeting, topics for upcoming discussions or events, etc.).
The dialogues between interlocutors vary in volume, temporal extent, frequency, and differ by thematic diversity with a predominance of conversations on everyday topics and topics related to interpersonal relationships. For example, a dialogue may begin with a standard phrase
Let us imagine the corresponding image, or a generalized portrait of a person communicating in a messenger, in the form of a list of characteristics, selected on the basis of the analysis of empirical material, which can be considered as a form of the speaker’s self-presentation in the aspect of its linguistic manifestations.
A person communicating in a messenger demonstrates the maximum freedom of choice of verbal and non-verbal means of information transfer.
The conversation in a messenger is characterized by creolism - one of the most striking features of natural writing, which is the combination of signs of different semiotic systems: verbal, paraverbal and iconic signs, letters, numbers and elements of other symbolic codes (Lebedeva, 2011). In an effort to make messenger-mediated written communication as close as possible to a lively oral conversation with a variety of intonations, mimic signals, gestures accompanying speech, the messenger actively uses emoticons, smiles, emoji, stickers.
Non-verbal followers and speech substitutes can compensate the difficulties of feedback communication, the lack of visual contact, and their choice is made in accordance with purposes, moods and emotions of communicants.: (1)
Enthusiastic by the process of communication, the interlocutors often do not track the quality of typing, resulting in a large number of typos. The result of a typo can be represented by the following examples:
a) by writing the next letter on the keyboard instead of the necessary ((5) - I wish you a bag of joy, a big joy house, around the people you lkve, smiles and plushy toys; (6) – wish all the goos) // d *));
(7) – Do you like comedy woman? // Or somr TV-shows like these // *e);
б) by writing capital letters in places where it is not justified ((8) – In my opinion, any organization fits for it, for example, a pension fund or bti) // OR a post office, ExActly! )); (9) – It is necessary to relax // Not only in 55th region!
(10) - Yes, I remember what I wrote. MAybe smth else));
c) by skipping a letter (syllable) or inserting an extra one
d) by changing the letters ((14) - How is the tournament? // - ooo is graeeeeet !!!!!; (15) - people get in touch with me a the fisrt acquaintance; (16) - And you would be faster and faster. - and for me fatser and fatser)))));
e) by metathesis ((17) - Where is she going? - In the monastery! - What? // I forgot. - In Cyprus. // I didn’t say - I said. // I remember. But I forgot the dekails) // F*ck // * the details);
Depending on the degree of influence on the understanding, the spelling may be corrected or not noticed by the interlocutors.
A conversation in a messenger, representing a written conversation, does not imply strict adherence to spelling and punctuation norms. The on-line mode highlights the speed of communication, and spelling can significantly reduce it. The desire to transmit to the addressee the essence of the message, without wasting the efforts on remembering the rules, leads to frequent violation of the norms of written speech, translation of the pronunciation nuances inherent in oral speech into written form. For example: (19) - Julia worked as an assiztant attorney; (20) – I did not go to bed yet // did not wont to; (21) - nobody known song - where did you get it? - it is not a fake - the quality is bad because the original is recorded via a tabe recorder through a magnetic microfone.
Violation of spelling norms may be intentional, or the result of a language game. Communicators, as a rule, play with spelling that doesn’t pose any particular difficulties: for example, writing “zhy”, “shy”, “chyu”, “shyu” instead of normative “zhu”, “shi”, “chu”, shu; “o” instead of “yo” after fricatives; continuous spelling of words or, on the contrary, spelling of a word with an internal spacing and other easily identifiable by the addressee orthographic manipulations of the interlocutor: (22) - pIriUED!) - Hello - hoWaru?) - Normal. And how are you? -Ok, safe-sound); (23) - Dancing with two dancers was crowned with success; (24) - Well gOOd luk?
The more complicated the spelling rule, the less reason to think that its violation is a game, rather it is elementary illiteracy or, at best, negligence associated with the haste of a writer and unwillingness to think about correctness to the disadvantage of the speed of sending information.
For electronic dialogue, the principle of “punctuation is the servant of intonation” is significant. Signs, as a rule, are put only where the communicator really needs them to explicate the intonation pattern: (25) - are you okay? The last days you are not sociable, did anything happen, can I do something for you?? (26) - as my friend says – it’s all badly done, nothing works; (27) – so as I understand it is difficult to gain your confidence - No, just, actually.
In other cases, punctuation marks are neglected; it can be interpreted in two ways: first, as saving the author’s efforts, set-time compensation; secondly, as ignorance of the punctuation rules of the Russian language. For example: (28) – it is unbelievable I started to practice MMA and get involved in the essence of the matter and much less fight now, in general, stopped this field to organize; (29) - It would be better to pay the receipt! - I plan to pay in July, when we go to have a rest, so that there are no more debts; (30) – in October my brother and I bathed in the pit). In general, the absence of punctuation marks can be attributed to violations of the norms of the language caused by the ease of communication: the interlocutors are not constrained by situational obligations and dispose their punctuation freedom in different ways.
The freedom of linguistic expression of communicators is often realized in a deliberate, intentional violation of grammatical norms:
The informal nature of communication in a messenger determines the lexical and syntactic diversity of the means of information transfer, among which colloquial words, jargon, obscene vocabulary, occasional words and borrowings, abbreviated words, acronyms, impersonal and incomplete sentences, parcellation, anacoluphs and clippings, dissected and segmented syntactic constructions and others are determined: (39) – Please bring a notebook on the MRL on Monday, we will check our opinions on the animate / inanimate nouns! Your spinogryz. (MRL - modern Russian language) - Bazaar zero, bring (no problem, bring); (40) - THX! - NZ4 (thanks, not at all); ((41) - Oh, come on, come on, hurry up! TURRN ON THE CALENDAR!; (42) - Did you buy the car? - No I didn’t, whereisfuckingmoney?!; (43) – blin the roads are swept up ppts, xz how I will get to the city tomorrow morning (blin - in the meaning of interjection: it expresses surprise, disappointment, annoyance; ppts - pipets, a euphemism for obsceneism; xz - an abbreviation for abusive expression); (44) - You are the sun and nyashechka ^^ shirker xD kidding)) have fun celebrating! (nyashechka (noun, denoting something pleasant, someone dear) from nya (ecstatic imitation of a cat; borrowing from Japanese animated films); (45) - at the weekend, I think it wil be more convenient, the time is not known exactly yet) - WELL, at the weeken means at the weeken (it will be more convenient; at the weekend); (46) - they said that Vitalick had recovered, he had eaten a mammon, all dressed in black and in a cap, he reminds the Porsche owner well in the sense of Joe (agrammatism, which gives the statement the dynamism inherent in colloquial speech); (47) - In a nutshell, there is no framework in nefts // Have to go to the framing workshop .... - I do not understand // You didn’t reach it? // Or did not like? - I reached // There is no good staff (typical for colloquial speech incompleteness of sentences, leading to repeated questions).
In general, the communication in a messenger has a distinctive expressiveness of non-standard and non-normative linguistic phenomena and the originality of speech expression.
For person communicating in a messenger, the metalinguistic reflection is typical, which manifests itself with various degrees of penetration into the essence of linguistic phenomena.
The dialogues in a messenger are saturated with direct signals of metalinguistic reflection. So, the speed of communication in a messenger does not prevent the communicants from paying attention to their own typos and correcting them, using the special sign - “*” or without using it: (48) - Well, just like in some synchrophanotrons) // // * s; (49) - was he a diver or conductor?)))) // * driver; (50) - And I thought that she was taking him, taking him home, I came, she was diving // driveng; (51) – you sad about the beard for a good reason ((((// said)).
Metalinguistic reflection is determined by the use of standard means of graphic selection in the text. Their application indicates the process of self-control and correction of speech: “The author notes with a special marker the fact of reflection, considering the relevance of the choice of nomination, giving the addressee the opportunity to participate in the evaluation of selection process, involving him in the process of generating the text” (Pchelintseva, p. 70). So, the signals of metalinguistic reflection in the dialogues studied are quotation marks, sparse and capitalization: (52) - By the way, I all my relatives on the father’s side are the same// Nobody does anything // everyone is used to being serviced // “and so will come down”// Something just like this ...; (53) - Enjoyable dreams // l o v e; (54) - Why do you immediately put the accent on one situation ... // it is also impossible ... // It wasn’t my fault in this coincidence // noncoincidence, // It always coincides) I didn’t say “NO, I DON'T WANT I WILL NOT” // Always again // // how can you say that; (55) - What is heard from Maxim? – Will take to him from kindergarden - And then? - To your place) – Today to my place ????? // Go nuts! // I already wanted to ask - Whaaat? - about tomorrow - It is impossible - the contrary !!! // NEED // YOU CAN // WANT // LOVE.
A special place in the series of metalanguage signals is occupied by the phenomenon of commenting on one's own and others' mistakes and typos:
(57) – Enlighted there // for centuries // I haven’t noticed "partikularly", but I wrote correctly with my brain on autopilot
Direct signals of metalinguistic reflection are explanations of new or unknown words, as well as facts of a language game, in particular word interpretation and word creation:
(59) - Do you have crossbows? - In my childhood I had. // made from the plank, from the bottle. // and now, I don’t have. // Why? - Come on! - I do not remember, they were broke, probably)// for what do you need it? R u gonna hunt? - Now the word crossbow means not what it meant -)) // although it would also be interesting to see those, especially in practice-)) - =) // Well, it reached the second floor. // what does it mean now? // A. // selfie; (60) - The people! Go to cinema quiz. It is interesting there. Not very difficult - What is cinema quiz? - Well, there are purely cinema questions; (61) –then, I played on the PC for 2 hours and it was fun – Oh God,boring //
The metalanguage reflection of communicating in a messenger is proved by the use of introductory constructions, modal words and particles characterizing the presentation style, as well as by the use of words with the semantics of qualification of language units and speech:
Various ways of experimenting with graphics and spelling, as well as the phenomena of language play can be viewed as indirect signals of metalinguistic reflection of a person communicating in a messenger:
A person communicating in a messenger shows linguocreative activity.
The informational and phatic communication in a messenger invites to language game, which is carried out by phonetic, graphic, non-verbal, grammatical means, expressed in spelling and punctuation text design.
The language game accompanying conversation in a messenger is a sign that not only information and the speed of its transmission, but also the pleasure derived from the process of creating a text is important for the communicator and possible response of the interlocutor to speech art.
One of the means of linguocreativity of dialogues in a messenger is precedent statements. Usually abbreviated, these linguistic units nevertheless remain recognizable by the addressee, which indicates a full understanding of communicators, a successful language game: (71)
The transformation of precedent units, including the game with direct and figurative meanings of a word (oscillation phenomenon), proves the linguocreative mood of communicators
For a person communicating in a messenger, the precedent units from the most different sources become the instrument of linguistic creative activity: from works of fiction, cinema and cartoons, songs, and so on: - So did not you say? // Speak! // Saaaaaay golden grove! ( S. Yesenin's poem “Golden Grove Has Speak Out ...”); (79) - Did you listen to a star ???? - Yes, I wrote you)) // What I have heard it before // “Art is still deeply indebted”))) (from the movie “Pokrovskie Vorota”); (80) – The sneakers rumbled on the floor ... © cockroach folk ballad (lines from the Soviet song: The tanks rumbled on the field); (81) – According to you, a half of Moscow is Gopniks! // brother and brother – “there are no brothers in my family” –Uncle Fedor you draw wrong conclusions (the phrase from the movie “Three of Prostokvashino”: Uncle Fedor, you eat a sandwich wrong); (82) - Hello, youth) // Why are you like this? - Hello, Lesya // But see how many likes -)) -)))))
A person communicating in a messenger actively uses Internet memes, which are qualified as a kind of precedent phenomena (Schurin, 2012).
For example, in the following dialogues transformed units created on the basis of the well-known and well-established memetic model in the Internet environment appear:
“***, what are you doing, ahaha, stop”, where instead of “***” the words reflecting the topic of conversation are substituted: (83) - News feed, what are you doing, ahaha, stop ... // Natalia Oreiro cut a fringe and aged for 10 years "- what is the name of your post? News feed reader?)) - And the 11-year-old schoolgirl never puts on the same thing // Hmm ... I’ll go to work, yes — here they are bourgeois where ... and I scolded Beckham for disposable socks) ); (84) - England, Portugal, what are you doing, ahah, stop ... // strange European games this time ... - Hmm .. // England has all the rules, they are in the playoffs - Yes, they are still pitifiers / / Slovakia did not beat; (85) - Kyuhelkreker // Team Name // Hangover, what are you doing, ahaha, stop // In vain you asked me to invent a name.
Memes help to comment on a situation, to express an assessment of someone or something: (86) - What kind of bear on Avatar?! Be a man, put Sasha Baron, you promised! (The phrase “Be a man” refers to a popular Russian memo, the meaning of which is to pressure the addressee on the conscience and forcing him to do something beneficial for the author); (87) - Hey! // Well, I wrote correctly // 2 years old child - two and two - Here! – You’re having fun, like my 8th grades, when the predicate is found
Be-be-be // It is not so easy! // It’s not so easy to take and find the predicate! (Meme goes back to the movie "The Lord of the Rings", where the hero Boromir performed by Sean Bean tells about the difficulties of conquering dark lands and says: "One does not simply drive into Mordor". "Begin to just enter and enter Mordor". You can’t just take it and ... it is used with various continuations denoting any action that requires effort); (88) – Did this Volodya take lessons from Klitschko?))) // “yes, in the morning everything was not as good as the evening showed” - Ahaha // Masha)) - well, and // a straight phrase on the clinic (Image of the popular heroes of the Internet memes, Vitali Klitschko is a symbol of tongue-tied speech, illogical speech) (89) - “I like to receive massage” // O_0 // wtf // maybe to have a massage? (To express the attitude to the interlocutor's speech error, the widespread English phrase meme wtf (from the English word: What the f*ck? - “What the hell?”) is used.
It is obvious that a conversation in a messenger with its general setting for freedom of language expression becomes the field of linguo-creative findings of communicating.
A person communicating in a messenger appears as a subject, tirelessly evaluating the world around us.
For a conversation in a messenger, as for any other kind of informal communication, the frequency of communicators assessing various phenomena of reality is typical. All objects potentially open to assessment are associated with a person, his actions, qualities, and states: (90)
Persons communicating in a messenger actively use negative-evaluative predicates of the intellectual sphere, with the help of which a variety of human manifestations can be assessed: from the intellectual to indirectly intellectual ones (this state of affairs corresponds to our conclusions about the expansive interpretation of Russian-speaking intellectual principle of a person: (Nikitina, 2003)):
The analyzed material reflects the general trend of the prevalence of negative evaluative judgments in Russian language, among which the self-assessments play a prominent role: (
Since the conversation in a messenger is a communication of mostly close people, communicators do not seek to give an indirect character (which is especially important in situations of negative evaluation of the addressee): spatial vocabulary, as well as various amplifiers of the estimated sense: graphic selections, iteration of graphic signs, stickers and so on:
In general, the dialogs in a messenger demonstrate a wide arsenal of means of expressing assessment: from stereo-type, commonly used forms to original speech findings, which prove both axiological and speech-making activity of communicators
In this regard, the analysis of the empirical material made it possible to identify the peculiarities typical of persons communicating in a messenger, including: the freedom to choose linguistic and non-verbal means of transmitting information; metalanguage reflection, reflecting attention to both formal and content side of conversation; coupled with the freedom of linguistic expression, the creativity of speech / thought and the originality of the graphic design of text; a pronounced assessment of the perception of the world, dominated by a person as an object, interpreted from the perspective of his unique (intellectual) beginning and deviations from the norm.
The image of a person communicating in a messenger is ambivalent: the subject of speech combines such opposed characteristics as: compliance with the requirements of the written text and freedom of speech expression inherent in oral informal communication; the desire to comply with linguistic norms, manifested, in particular, in metalinguistic reflection, and due to various factors (ignorance of the rules, dynamic communication, language play) and disregard for them; the laconicism of linguistic expression of thought and speech sophistication, manifested in the language game, addressing precedent phenomena.
As a result, the model of the image of a person communicating in a messenger contains the following parameters: the focus on the diversity of linguistic and non-verbal means of communication; metalinguistic reflection; linguocreative activity; axiological activity.
The creation of new communicative conditions provided by the Internet for speech interaction and, accordingly, the emergence of new speech genres make a speech-genre approach to studying the image of a person communicating through various Internet technologies promising.
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29 March 2019
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Nikitina, L. (2019). Modelling Of The Image Of A Person Communicating In A Messenger. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1062-1073). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.123