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Entrepreneurship Orientation And Market Performance: Mediating Role Of Learning Capability

Table 1:

Author Descriptions
Mintzberg (1973) In entrepreneurship, the strategy of “dramatically leaping forward across the uncertainty” is featured right along with searching for new, active opportunities.
Khandwalla (1976/1977) Entrepreneur (management) manner is characterized with courageous, risky and aggressive decision-making.
Miller and Friesen (1982) Entrepreneur model is valid for the firms that make continuous and courageous innovations taking important risks in product-market strategies.
Miller (1983) A firm described as the entrepreneur is an organization that uses product-market innovation, undertakes risky initiatives and appears with first “proactive” innovations, thus scoring over its competitors.
Morris and Paul (1987) Organization called as an entrepreneur is a firm that has proactive norms in decision making, performing innovative strategies with risky components.
Covin and Slevin (1998) Entrepreneur firms are the institutions in which senior manager’s process enterprising management styles. Entrepreneurship of these firms are proved with their strategical decisions and management philosophies. Conservative or unenterprising firms are the ones senior management manner never takes risks and stays passive or reactive.
Merz and Sauber (1995) The entrepreneurship orientation is the proactivity level (aggressiveness) of a firm in selected product-market area and the desire to create, generate new offers.
Lumpkin and Dess (1996) The entrepreneurship orientation means the improvements leading processes, implementations and decision-making activities. It is characterized with one or more of extents like “tendency to act autonomously, desire for innovation and to take risks and tendency for aggressiveness towards competitors and proactivity according to market opportunities.”
Zahra and Neubaum (1998) The entrepreneurship orientation is the total of risk-taking activities arising with a firm’s radical innovation, its proactive strategical action and support for the projects with uncertain results.
Voss, Voss, and Moorman (2005) The entrepreneurship orientation could be described as a tendency in a level of firm that shows behaviors (risk-taking, innovativeness, proactivity, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness) which evoke changes in the organization or the market.
Avlonitis and Salavou (2007) The entrepreneurship orientation could be described as an organizational phenomenon that reflects management skills with which firms make proactive and aggressive attempts to direct the competitive environment into their own advantage.
Cools and Van den Broeck (2007/2008) The entrepreneurship orientation refers to the strategy of senior management about innovativeness, proactivity and risk-taking.
Pearce, Fritz, and Davis (2010) The entrepreneurship orientation could be described as different but related behaviors group which has the characteristic of innovativeness, proactivity, competitive aggressiveness, risk-taking and autonomy.
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