The model content of Olympic education of university students is considered in this paper. It is shown that it includes the purpose, objectives, principles, methods, means, educational result and is realized based on anthropic educational technologies. The feature of anthropic educational technologies is activation of the value-semantic sphere of the personality of students, which contributes to interiorization of Olympism values and their application in professional and pedagogical activity. The study reveals that Olympic traditions are characterized by blending sport with culture and education. The developed model of Olympic education affects formation of sports culture of the individual, the level of theoretical preparation in the field of physical culture and sports, as well as the level of psychophysical state of the student, the level of one’s health and formation of generally accepted value orientations. The model of Olympic education creates an area of activity-based communication using educational communicative situations, which, in turn, form a common subject field of constructive thinking activity between individuals. In the area of activity-based communication, the students are found in constantly changing educational positions. During Olympic education, it is important to organize independent cognitive activity of students, which is possible on the basis of problem-based learning. In the course of mastering the content of Olympic education, the problem situations were created with the help of a problem question which contained: challenge in the form of contradiction, capacious content, an exciting form, and an acceptable level of complexity for students.
Keywords: Olympic educationOlympismmodelanthropic educational technologiesstudents
Nowadays, one of the priority areas in the educational system of the Russian Federation is Olympic education as an integral educational discipline designed to combine the physical, aesthetic and spiritual education of the younger generation into a single process (Balsevich, 2012); We consider Olympic education as a purposeful pedagogical activity carried out in the conditions of the Olympic movement and aimed at the promotion of the ideals and values of Olympism in children and the youth.
Currently, there is a persistent trend of deterioration in the health of students, which continues to deteriorate in the process of studying at the University. In various universities of Russia, more than 40 % of young people have deviations in the health status of permanent or temporary nature. In the system of higher education modern sports practice is aimed mainly at the development of the students’ motor sphere (the development of physical qualities). However, it is known that the means of sport and physical culture will be effective in terms of improving health and psychophysical condition only if the sports values are interiorized by the person (Lubysheva, & Lubyshev, 2017; Dmitriev & Zagrevskaya, 2017).
In this regard, it is necessary to educate students’ conscious positive attitude to sports activity through the development of their value-semantic sphere, i.e. to carry out the formation of sports culture of the personality of students in the process of Olympic education. This actualizes the use of integrative educational technologies that activate not only the motor but also the value-semantic sphere of the personality in the process of mastering the values of sport and Olympism.
The authors of the paper consider the following questions.
Is it possible to use anthropic educational technologies in Olympic education? Does the developed model of Olympic education on the basis of anthropic educational technologies influence the formation of sports culture of the personality?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose is to develop a model of Olympic education of university students on the basis of anthropic educational technologies and test its effectiveness in the pedagogical experiment.
The following methods were used. Analysis and synthesis of philosophical, psychological, pedagogical and other current scientific literature; also, analysis and synthesis of the elements of the educational process; abstraction and specification; modelling the process of Olympic education of students; pedagogical observation, questionnaire survey, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics.
The study revealed that the Olympic tradition is characterized by blending sport with culture and education, the formation of a lifestyle based on joy found in effort, on the educational value of a good example and respect for fundamental ethical principles (Ardashkin, Korobeynikova, Kirsanova, & Kudryashova, 2016). Olympism proclaims the imperative goal of the Olympic Movement – to promote a better world by educating young people through sport without any discrimination in the atmosphere of mutual understanding, friendship, solidarity and fair play (Lubysheva, 2014, p. 98).
One of the main goals of Olympic education is the formation of sports culture of the individual (Lubysheva, & Zagrevskaya, 2015, p. 4). The basis of the sports culture of the individual is a positive value attitude to sports in which the standards, values and norms of culture associated with sports are interiorized by the athlete, i.e. become the property of his inner world (Lubysheva, & Lubyshev, 2017).
It should be noted that in addition to the knowledge of the ideals and values of Olympism and the Olympic Movement, the formation of sports culture of the individual involves learning the basics of physical culture and a healthy lifestyle by young people; obtaining an optimal level of psychophysical form; using the experience in sport activities for achieving life and professional goals, as well as the formation of generally accepted value orientations (Papaioannou, 2017).
Modern axiology considers values as an element of the personality structure, a factor of determination and regulation of motivation for action, connects them with the possibility of realization of essential human forces aimed at moral improvement (Ardashkin, Korobeynikova, Kirsanova, & Kudryashova, 2016).
S. V. Dmitriev points out that “the value, meaning, and need significance" are not only features of the object but also characteristics of the subject and his activities. The concept of "value" is associated with the public consciousness; the concept of "value orientation" – with the individual consciousness (Dmitriev, & Zagrevskaya, 2017, pp. 179-180). In this regard, it becomes clear that the technology for the development of consciousness and identity should be anthropic. The term "anthropic" emphasizes the individual and personal essence of man and his activities. Anthropological technologies suggest "the realization of integral models of education in which the individuality of the trained person acts as the initial target point for the selection of methods and means of educational activity".
According to S. V. Dmitriev, anthropic educational technologies are based on the principles of the activity and socio-cultural approach in the pedagogical sphere of society (Dmitriev, & Zagrevskaya, 2017, pp. 179-180). Consciousness, personality, activities that make up "human essence" determine the content and the structure of vocational education. The theory of professional development of an individual differentiates education through activities (such as work, science, and sports) and education as an activity (i.e. individual reproduction of sociocultural experience) (Gil, Borovikov, & Toktomambet, 2016). The professional’s personality acts as a subject of the spiritual and activity position necessary for the achievement of the goals of education and socio-cultural development of a person. Thus, there is a natural tendency towards merging higher education with professional activity and the culture of student's personality (Polivaev, Lubysheva, Shabanov, & Stoycheva, 2017).
We will consider the principles as mandatory requirements to be followed in the organization of Olympic education of students on the basis of anthropic technologies in detail. Anthropic educational technologies are aimed at the development of reflexive culture of the individual as a set of abilities, methods and strategies that ensure the development of personal experience and individual style of activity through their rethinking.
It is known that the area of physical culture and sport is characterized as a place for self-development, self-improvement and self-realization of a person (Khasanova et al., 2016). In this regard, it becomes possible to create an area of activity-based communication using educational communicative situations in the system of relations "teacher-student", "teacher-group of students", "student-student", "student-group of students" in the sphere of physical culture, which is a necessary condition for the optimal consideration of the individual properties of students when developing the values of Olympism.
Activity-based communication (in contrast to communication as an exchange of information) creates a shared subject field of the constructive thinking activity between individuals. The identification of subjects, their self-determination and self-actualization are carried out here (Brylina et al., 2016).
The construction of the area of activity-based communication is carried out on the basis of the subject principle. The subject of pedagogical communication is the content of Olympic education; in the process of mastering it, much attention is paid to the formation of students' ability to "extract personal knowledge from the information" in accordance with the principle of reflexive self-regulation of sports activities. The realization of the principle of personal development in the area of activity-based communication in the process of Olympic education suggests the display of the object of the study, evaluation and transformation (own system of Olympic ideals and values) in a form of a developing system. Not only the person transforms either this or that object; due to this influence; the opposite effect of the object on his inner world becomes possible.
In the area of activity-based communication, students are in the situation of constantly changing educational positions (they analyze their actions, as well as the actions of others on the basis of self-knowledge and putting themselves in the place of another person) (Politsinskaya, Sushko, & Semerenko, 2016).
In addition, in the process of Olympic education, it is important to organize independent cognitive activity of students, which is possible on the basis of problem learning. A distinctive feature of problem-based learning is that students do not acquire knowledge in a ready form (as, for example, at a lecture), they learn in the process of solving various problem situations (Kirillov, Fadeeva, & Fadeev, 2016).
In the implementation of Olympic education, communicative learning was also used as a method of training. Communication technology is mainly aimed at finding active means, methods and forms of organization of students’ studying in the classroom, the embodiment of the so-called "learning in cooperation" in pairs and groups. Communicative learning is defined as a "functional-semantic approach" or "functional approach" to the acquisition of new knowledge and skills, the participants of joint collective activities are constantly included in the dialogue and current learning process (Erokhin, Kostyukova, & Galtsova, 2016).
For this purpose, the area of activity-based communication was created, which we considered above. Olympic lessons are viewed as one of the main means of formation of sports culture of students on the basis of ideas and values of Olympism. Theoretical, psychophysical and methodical preparedness is considered as a result of Olympic education.
To find out the effectiveness of the model of Olympic education of students, a pedagogical experiment was carried out. The study was conducted on the basis of the Faculty of physical culture of Tomsk State University. Two groups were formed: the control group consisted of 109 students (47 girls and 62 boys) and the experimental one – of 98 students (44 girls and 54 boys); their psychophysical and theoretical preparation was tested. The duration of the pedagogical experiment was 9 months; then the tests were repeated.
The level of theoretical knowledge in the field of physical culture, sports and the Olympic movement significantly increased in the experimental group: before the experiment, according to a 30-point scale, it was 14 points, after the experiment – 26 points (р ˂ 0.05);
Although in the implementation of the content of Olympic education of students, a purposeful physical training of the participants of the pedagogical experiment was not carried out, the physical form of the students before and after our pedagogical experiment was investigated because of the possible indirect influence of the content of Olympic education on it. Thus, the girls of the experimental group significantly improved the test indicator "forward inclination from sitting position", reflecting the level of physical quality "flexibility" (from 9.1±3.6 cm to 15.4±2.7 cm) (р ˂ 0.05). In the young men of the experimental group, the test indicator "pull-up on the crossbar" reflecting the level of manifestation of power qualities significantly improved (from 17.4±4.7 to 20.2±4.5 conventional units) (р ˂ 0.05).
The outcomes of the study revealed that the means of sport and physical culture, in terms of improving health and psychophysical condition, will be effective only when the physical culture and sports values will be interiorized by the individual. The developed model of Olympic education is aimed at formation of students' conscious attitude to sports activity through the development of their value-semantic sphere.
This work was carried out within the framework of joint development and implementation of sports and recreation programs under the agreement on cooperation of Tomsk State University and "Montessori" kindergarten №4 Tomsk № 2591 (2016).
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17 December 2018
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Zagrevskaya, A., Sosunovsky, V., & Vychuzhanina, E. (2018). Olympic Education Of University Students Based On Anthropic Educational Technologies. In I. B. Ardashkin, B. Vladimir Iosifovich, & N. V. Martyushev (Eds.), Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, vol 50. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1409-1415). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.172