Competitiveness Of Students Personality – Modern Imperative

Abstract

The article actualizes the problem of the student's competitiveness formation as a modern requirement in the conditions of market relations. The author analyzes the positions of economic scientists, psychologists, teachers on the essential parameter of the concepts "competition", "competitiveness of the individual", in addition the author's definition of the concept of "competitiveness of the student's personality" and the results of research on the competitiveness of the student's personality also displayed extensively.

Keywords: Competitioncompetitiveness of the individualcompetitiveness of the student's personalitycompetitive advantagesrational cognitive activity

Introduction

The competitiveness of the individual is demanded nowadays by the society; it is a searching field of different sciences. The study of the competitiveness of enterprises, organizations, individuals takes place in different sciences: economics (Lukashenko, Shavandina, 2002; Fatkhutdinov, 2000), sociology (Bogdanova, 1992; Shilova & Shpakovsky, 2005; Zhdanko, 2012), psychology (Andreev, 2003; Mitina, 2005; Shevchenko, 2007) and pedagogy (Chernilevskiy & Slastenin, 1997; Shamova, 2004).

Consequently, the main basic concepts of competition and competitiveness are explicitly presented in this article and also the accompanying word forms from the point of view of different sciences: economics, psychology, and pedagogics.

Etymologically, the concept of "competition" (from Latin concurro - I run, I come across or from the French concur - competition, contest) means "rivalry, the struggle for achieving the highest benefits, advantages" (Competition: legal etymological dictionary, 2017).

We consider the formation and development of the concept "competition" in the economy. Due to the fact that the occurrence of competition in the economy is regarded as a positive factor, contributing to the development of the enterprise, goods, services, which necessarily cause changes in the individual.

Problem Statement

Consequently, the main basic concepts of competition and competitiveness are explicitly presented in this article and also the accompanying word forms from the point of view of different sciences: economics, psychology, and pedagogics.

Research Questions

The research question is the formulation of the author's definition of the competitiveness of the student's personality and the identification of the components of the qualities of the individual in the structure of competitiveness.

Purpose of the Study

The article investigates the question of determining the level of formation of the competitiveness of students on eight scales: rational cognitive activity, commitment, hard work, creativity, criticality, risk, stress, leadership.

Research Methods

According to the definition given by I. I. Schmalhausen, the competition is one of the forms of the struggle for existence (Dictionary of practical psychologist, 2001).

The theory of competition was substantiated and generalized by A. Smith first in "an inquiry into the nature and cause of the wealth of Nations" (1776). He defined competition as a rivalry, raising or lowering prices, formulated its principles, formulated the basic conditions of effective competition, as well as the model of its improvement and development.

For the period of early stage of capitalism, and then “the cold war” this phenomenon was interpreted as an antagonistic struggle between private producers for more advantageous conditions of production and marketing of products for the highest profits. The competition in the economy means the antagonistic competition between private producers for more advantageous conditions of production and marketing of products for higher profits. At the present stage of the development American economists include two processes in the concept of competition, they are: the maintenance of living standards’ rising and preserving of the leading positions in the world economy. In addition, for the western economic theory competition (Hayek, 1989; Schumpeter, 2007) it means the ability to produce goods and services that are implemented in the market while maintaining and living standards` rising, which are equal or higher in comparison to the competitors` situation. That is the ability to anticipate, to upgrade and to use all the opportunities for development. Competition acts as the regulator of the pace and volume of production, while also encouraging the manufacturer to introduce scientific and technological achievements, to increase productivity, improve technology, organization of work, etc. Competition is the decisive stimulus of innovative processes (manufacturing application of innovation, new ideas, inventions). It contributes to the displacement of production of inefficient enterprises, rational use of resources, prevents the dictates of the producers (monopolists) in relation to the consumer. Competition implies the presence of competition, dynamic process, accelerating the movement. So, Schumpeter (2007) defined competition as a rivalry between the old and the new, and Hayek (1989) described it as the process, which helps people to receive and share the knowledge. Competition leads to better use of skills and knowledge, and most of the benefits, achieved by the humanity, happened because of competition. It encourages rationality as a method of minds` education and improvement of great inventors and entrepreneurs. Competition enhances efficiency, changing habits, and it calls for greater care.

Yudanov (2001), a native economist and the author of the book "Competition: Theory and practice" (2001), is very close to understanding of competition. There is a functional interpretation of this phenomenon as a process of outdating replacement on innovating. Defining the competitiveness as the attractiveness of the product to the consumer, we are able to consider the competitiveness as a characteristic of interpersonal interaction. From the point of view of the representatives of economic science. Yudanov (2001) notes that competitiveness is the ability to compete, to resist to the opponents in any way.

The author of the fundamental research "Management of competitiveness at organizations" (2004) Fatkhutdinov (2001) divides into two meanings - the competitiveness of the product and the organization. He believes that the competitiveness of a product is a "degree of real or potential satisfaction of specific needs in comparison to similar products at the market", and the organization's competitiveness is its "ability to produce a competitive product or service". It is provided with competitive advantages, that is "exclusive values possessed by the system (organization) and let it keep competitive advantage". Fatkhutdinov (2001) conditionally allocates hereditary and acquired competitive advantages. The first relate to the ability (giftedness, talent, genius, ability for this type of activity), temper and physical characteristics, and the second relate to education, special knowledge, skills, intelligence and culture, dedication and motivation (the ability to formulate personal goals and objectives of the team), character (attitude towards work, others, themselves, things), emotional (stress, envy), sociability, communication skills, discipline, and age.

One of the leading experts at the theory of management of competitive advantages M. Porter, the author of "international competition" (2002), classifying competitive advantages according to various grounds, considers as the priority areas those, which refer to living participant of socio-economic relations. Among such advantages, he underlines, in particular, the level of culture, high qualification and professional qualities of the person. The notion of competitiveness is intended to characterize the inherent properties of the subject of competition, and it performs in the theory of competition, which evaluates the function. Thus, competitiveness is based on the market relations and characterizes them.

It is important to note that in the economic interpretation of competition and competitiveness there are some foundations for understanding it as an essential positive factor, as a phenomenon that has General scientific value, which determines the possibility of its application and observation from the pedagogical and psychological point of view.

We believe, that the allocation of competitive advantages and "exclusive values" of personality is very important (according to Fatkhutdinov).

In our opinion, the classification of competitive advantages is determined with the "hard" benefits and "flexible ones". The "hard" competitive advantages, according to the works of Fatkhutdinov, we consider the innate qualities and personal characteristics (abilities, temper, physical characteristics). The "flexible" competitive advantages (to Fathutdinov) consist of education, expertise, all-intellectual skills, professional skills and personal qualities (stress, commitment.).

Unlike economics, psychology deals with the competition and competitiveness only in relation to the individual and its interaction with the environment. Competition in the psychological value – "one of the forms of organization of interpersonal interaction, characterized by the achievement of individual or group goals and interests in the conditions of confrontation with seeking for the same goals and interests of other individuals and groups" (Dictionary of practical psychologist, 2001). This interaction is characterized by strong personal involvement, activation of the actor, partial depersonalization ideas about the competitor (opponent). Competition as a psychological phenomenon is genetically associated with cooperation, as the competitive interaction requires the establishment of certain rules and regulatory sanctions, and it transforms into an open conflict without them (Dictionary of practical psychologist, 2001).

At this stage of reasoning, we can at the first to provide a comprehensive competitiveness as the ability of a person, the structure of which determines its psychological and psychodynamic features, giving the opportunity for the person to be successful and effective on maximum realization of their potential in the changing conditions of life, and at the second it will correlate competitiveness with the ability to "maximize their own capabilities to self-improving from professional, social, and moral point of view". (Mitina, 2005).

Andreev (2003) developed the theory (science) of personal competitive formation and called it competitology. When it is about the competitiveness of the personality, Andreev (2003) means not only performance`s results of a high quality but also an individual's ability to win the competition. Andreyev (2003) highlighted ten of main competitive qualities: "the competitiveness of the individual characterizes the synthesis of such qualities as clarity of goals and values, hard work, creative relationship to the case, the ability to take risks, independence, ability to be a leader, striving to constant self-development, stress persistence, professional improving, high quality of the final product of the work".

At the same time there is a practical interest in the study of the competitiveness among the individuals of certain sex and age (within the framework of our study is the age from 17 to 22 years (University students, both of genders), professional qualification (future teachers) and other groups of various staff- categories, as well as enterprises and institutions in general.

The review of the competitiveness of the individual in all the scale positions, presented above, is quite a difficult task; that is why when stating the author's definition of competitiveness of student`s identity we will be guided by the following provisions: firstly, the competitiveness implies some certain advantages in the educational and professional activity, it also selects rational methods and means of achieving the goal and the opportunity to take certain leadership positions at the University; secondly, on defining criteria of competitiveness of the students` identity, we believe empirically that the potential employers pay attention to other criteria, thirdly, the criteria of competitiveness of the individual will be regarded from the point of view of their formation and development among the students on the processing of educational space`s design of the University.

Findings

When we mention the competitiveness of the student`s individuality, we mean a set of integrated sustainable qualities, such as rational cognitive activity, dedication, hard work, creativity, criticality, risk, stress, leadership, causing the possibility of successful implementation activities.

To determine the level of competitiveness of the individuality, we used a questionnaire "the Competitiveness of student's individuality" (Zhdanko, 2012).

The goal of the questionnaire was to determine the level of formation of competitiveness of the students` individuality by 8 scales:

1. Rational cognitive activity.

2. Purposefulness.

3. Hard working.

4. Creativity.

5. Criticality.

6. Riskiness.

7. Stress- persistence.

8. Leadership.

At the initial stage of the research, we found that for the majority of the students in the control (CG) and experimental group (EG), the level of competitiveness of the individuality is the medium (EG – 52 students, 52%; CG – 38 students, 54%). A high level is shown in the EG - 10 students (10%), CG – 9 students (13%). As for the students, showing a low level, their percentage dates are the following: EG – 38% (38 people), CG – 33% (23 people).

On the observation of the questionnaires and interviews, we have established the level of indicators` development of personal competitiveness. Data obtained from the observation and interviews are presented in table 1 .

Criterion χ2 Pearson showed no differences in the pattern of distribution of respondents by levels of the qualities` expressiveness such as: rational cognitive activity, dedication, hard work, creativity, criticality, risk, stress, leadership between EG and CG.

Thus, if we consider the nature of the distribution among the students within each group, it is possible to see differences within groups and between groups.

Table 1 -
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Table 2 -
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Table 3 -
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In red (italic) there are selected characteristics, which are significantly different from one another (p<0.001 and p<0.01), blue (bold) – weak (p<0.05), differences of characteristics are defined at the level of trends.

Rational cognitive activity remains apart, the least part of all the students is at the highest level and most of them are in the middle, and it resembles the normal distribution. And the stress persistence is also very different, here most of the students are at the lowest level, and the differences are more clearly manifested in the EG.

We found the lowest values on the scale of purposefulness, riskiness, stress persistence, leadership, and in general we can see a very low level of competitiveness of personality.

Conclusion

A very high level of competitiveness is shown by the students of EG - 9%, CG - 11,4%; almost all of them are up-students, their cognitive activity is conscious and rational, they actively acquire knowledge and experience for their future professional activities, moreover take an active part in students` self-government.

Students having an average level of competitiveness of the personality (EG - 41%, CG - 42,5%), study well, their cognitive activity in the most part is conscious, but not always rational, they acquire knowledge and experience for their future professional activities not always strongly; often they perform SRS formally; they perform actively some tasks in advance, because it is possible to get the bonus for this work, they are purposeful in significant situations, situational, creative, not always stress persistent, and their professional-value orientations are not completed; they perform tasks, which are interesting, but not always fully important to achieve professional goals.

Students with a low level of competitiveness of the individual (EG - 50%, CG - 45,7%) have their cognitive activity in the learning process not always well elaborated, not completely realized and often inefficient; the high education`s system obliges them to acquire knowledge and experience for the future professional activities.

Thus, the competitiveness of student's personality in the conditions of market relations is a modern imperative necessary for the implementation of professional activities. The analysis of scientific literature and the results of the study allow us to conclude that students need to build the competitiveness of the individual.

References

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18 December 2019

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Future Academy

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Social sciences, modern society,innovation, social science and technology, organizational behaviour, organizational theory

Cite this article as:

Zhdanko*, T. (2019). Competitiveness Of Students Personality – Modern Imperative. In I. B. Ardashkin, B. Vladimir Iosifovich, & N. V. Martyushev (Eds.), Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, vol 50. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1254-1261). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.154