The all-Russian physical culture and sports complex “Ready for Labor and Defense” is a project aimed at preserving traditions related to nation’s health. The scientifically grounded normative base of new GTO complex had determined trends in the activity of physical education teachers, needs to introduce new raining methods for young people to meet GTO complex standards. Viewing main parameters of physical development and motor fitness, modern students lag behind their peers of the 1980’s and 1990’s. The lowest performance is demonstrated by students when fulfilling strength and speed tests. One of the reasons for such low performance is self-training decline. The article presents methodological developments for students aged 18 to 24 corresponding to the VI stage of GTO complex. These methods are aimed at improving the performance during tests, i.e. two legs standing long jump for young men and women, modified pull-up for young men, falling leaf (number of times per 1 minute) for young women. The article offers several types of classes and sets of exercises, as well as guidance for self-training of students. Experimental data showing the improvement of performance within specified types of practical tests for both young men and women are presented. The article shows positive dynamics in fulfilling the standards of GTO complex with the account of gold, silver and bronze medals in strength and speed performance tests. Efficiency of presented methods aimed at improvement of physical fitness of students has been confirmed by the results of the study.
Keywords: University studentsphysical fitnessnorms of GTO complexteaching methods
The complex “Ready for Labor and Defense” was created in 1930s and had lost its social functions during the crisis of 1990s. It was revived in 2014 and since then it has been preserving the national Russian traditions related to the health of our nation. “This project will ensure innovative development of physical culture and sports industry, will allow to concentrate the state efforts on solving issues of patriotic education of youth, as well as maintain healthy lifestyle and disseminate best practices ensuring an ongoing physical education of population” (Mironova, Dementiev, Grigoriev & Pristav, 2016, p. 100). The All-Russia Physical Culture and Sports Complex (GTO) as a basic mechanism for capitalizing human resources and saving human potential provides for the fulfillment of state standards for different age groups of the population of Russia. The scientifically grounded normative base of new GTO complex had determined the trends in the activity of physical education teachers, the need to introduce training methods of children and young people to meet GTO complex standards (Spirin, 2015), as well as the focus on increasing the interest and awareness of the importance of physical exercises to achieve high performance results (Pashin & Vasilyeva, 2016).
In order to prepare young people to meeting standards of GTO complex, physical education specialists offer various organizational and methodological approaches to improving their physical fitness (Vitko & Kondrakov, 2016; Proskuryakova, 2016; Stolyar, Vitko, Pikhaev, & Kondrakova, 2016; Shchegolev, Lipovka & Korshunov, 2016, Rayzikh & Petrov, 2017).
The study of the level of physical fitness at North-Eastern Federal University against five-point scale showed that most students meet the proposed standards; however, the level of compliance with the standards can be described as an average one (55%). Young women are more likely to see a decrease in the “average” score to 2 and 1 points rather than an increase to 4 and 5 points. A small number of students have “lower than average” score (among young men); however, a number of students with 4 and 5 points is significantly higher compared to young women (Prokopenko & Polkova, 2017, Research results and their discussion, para. 5).
During the long-term observations over the results of individual physical qualities it has been stated that the performance of young men and women in standing long jump has degraded. The same was observed among young men in pull-ups.
Physical activity studies conducted at North-Eastern Federal University showed that most of the students are currently “not aware of the importance of physical activity in their spare time and, at the same time, its impact on health and well-being in general. Only having regular trainings, during both academic and free time, it is possible to maintain a high level of physical fitness and get ready for meeting standards of GTO (Prokopenko, 2016).
This state of affairs determined the purpose of further studies.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is aimed at development and reasoning of the effectiveness of methods for increasing the strength and speed performance among university students to meet standards of new GTO complex.
40 full-time students of the first and the second year of North-Eastern Federal University took part in the pedagogical experiment (February - May, 2017). Out of this number 19 students were young men and 21 students were young women, corresponding to the VI stage of GTO complex (from 18 to 24 years old). They have gone through a series of tests in the beginning and in the end of the experiment. Young men and women were tested with the standing long jump to assess their speed-strength preparedness. Young men were tested with the pull-ups and women were tested with the sit-ups (chins per min.) to assess their strength preparedness. This strength test for young women was taken due to the fact that it is used in higher education standards without reference to time.
Both schedule and sets of exercises were developed for the time period of one semester for 12 weeks (Table
The sets of exercises were included into physical education classes: 2 times a week. Moreover, students had to attend individual trainings (in sports facilities or at home): 1-3 times a week. To correctly fulfill the exercises, a technique was introduced to students. Besides, possible mistakes and methodological instructions were given to students.
Guidelines aimed at fulfilling exercise sets.
Long jumps should be performed 5 times a week followed by a warm-up activity: running, running in place, rope jumping for 3-5 minutes. A rest between sets when rising on toes and jumping on toes should take 20 to 30 seconds. A rest should vary from 1 to 2 minutes when performing jumps with the change of legs and rabbit jumps. A rest between exercises should comprise 2 to 3 min. The number of standing long jumps for young women can be reduced by 10%. Circuit exercises are appreciated.
Pull-ups should be fulfilled 3 times a week. A rest between sets is 3 to 4 min. In case the level of student preparedness is low, the exercise is carried out with the help of a partner.
A set of exercises when training the abdominal muscles for young women is performed 3 to 4 times a week with mandatory performance at the maximum rate at the end of each week. A rest between sets is 2 to 3 min. One can alternate exercises during vertical pull-ups and pull-ups with turns to the right and to the left. At the end of the exercises it is necessary to sit-up (hyperextension) - at least 20 repetitions in 2 sets.
To track personal goals and results, each student was given a self-study outline and state requirements for the implementation of the GTO standards, VI stage with the account of gold, silver, bronze medals.
Dynamics of physical fitness of young men and young women as a result of experiment is presented in Table
The average performance of standing long jumps has increased from 211.31 cm to 216.78 cm among men (an increase of 2.58%); the average performance of pull-ups has risen from 7 times to 8.47 times (an improvement of 21%) The average performance of standing long jumps has increased from 154 cm to 162 cm among women (an increase of 5.19%); the average performance of falling leaf exercise in 1 minute has risen from 38.66 times to 43.71 times (an improvement of 13.06%).
Thus, all students have improved their performance, which resulted in their compliance with the standards of GTO complex (Table
Basing on the results of experiment the number of students meeting GTO standards has increased. It should also be mentioned that the quality of students’ performance was improved: bronze to silver and silver to gold.
The conducted pedagogical experiment showed an improvement in the performance of the declared types of practical tests for both young men and young women. Positive dynamics in fulfilling the norms of GTO complex concerning strength and speed-strength tests by students was revealed. It has been experimentally confirmed that the developed methods for increasing the strength and speed-strength preparedness of students, as well as additional physical training are effective measures for preparing and implementing the standards of GTO complex. These developments will increase the methodological support of educational and extra-curricular forms of physical education and sports at the university.
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17 December 2018
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Social sciences, modern society,innovation, social science and technology, organizational behaviour, organizational theory
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Prokopenko, L. (2018). Development Of Methods Aimed At Students’ Strength And Speed Performance Improvement. In I. B. Ardashkin, B. Vladimir Iosifovich, & N. V. Martyushev (Eds.), Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, vol 50. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 975-980). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.119