Do Drivers’ Responses To Police Predict Charge Ticket Busway Lane

Abstract

The case of speeding ticket for the run a busway lane, police often have the discretion to change their sentence. We investigate legally about apologies and verbal responses. For traffic transgressors, verbal responses are often used with statements that lead to his apology for acceptance by the police. The relation of the violator's response to the fine reviewed from a legal and psychological perspective. A sample of 212 Indonesian respondents joined in this study. The sample involved Jayabaya university undergraduates and postgraduates. The results showed limited personnel authorized to regulate traffic, unequal increase in motor vehicles affect the movement of traffic, can lead to an increase in the number of violations. In all contexts where an apology has analysed, there is limited evidence of adverse consequences on the offender or the victim. Apologies might not always help, but do not point to be painful. The rough thing about the behaviour of traffic violations is people commit these behaviours for personal gain or benefit. While the negative impact usually felt by others such as being hit even if already on the right track and surprised because suddenly there are vehicles that are not on track or speeding ticket for the run a busway lane. Arrangements and especially after serious offenses, an apology with richer content may be more acceptable. It can also assume that anger reduction plays a role in explaining recent findings. The importance of these findings lies in the potential for an apology to be an instrument of conflict resolution.

Keywords: Regulate trafficspeeding ticketpeople commitbusway lane

Introduction

Acceleration of a traffic tickets is one of the most well-known interactions between citizens and the police in Indonesia (Inspectorate General of the Ministry of Indonesia Transportation, 2015). Every year in Indonesia, nearly 21, 15% of the people 16 years or older should have some connection among police; from these connections, nearly 4,152 vehicles ticketed for busway lane. The violation still dominated by a total of 4,008 by two-wheeled vehicles. While for private vehicles as much as 77 vehicles, 4 of freight vehicles, and 63 of public transportation (Integrated Road Safety Management System-IRSMS, 2017). Police officers would adopt the formula to measure the level of fine and also appropriate discretion. Many factors would likely affect a police officer's decision, whether they see the violation themselves or become aware of it by other means (Regoeczi & Kent, 2014). Violators of the Busway lane will be subject to violation of the signs by article 287 of Law No. 22 of 2009. It is essential to analyze two-wheeled vehicles as a different group of another road users. The two-wheeled vehicle is a favorite transport mode among Southeast Asian travelers mainly because of the affordability, flexibility, and maneuverability on congested roads typical in the region (Susilo, Joewono, & Vandebona, 2015). Observers' judgments of transgressors are becoming more popular in the study of social psychological research, this matter inspired by what they assume about their offenses (Okimoto, Wenzel, & Hedrick, 2013; Leunissen, De Cremer, Folmer, & van Dijke, 2013; Carlisle et al., 2012; Kovácsová, Rosková, & Lajunen, 2014). Researchers have examined the impacts regarding multiple records, including concessions (apologies), excuses, justifications, and denials (Day and Ross, 2011; Einwiller and Steilen, 2015; Kirchhoff, Wagner, and Strack, 2012). A consequence, apologies, and excuses yield people may be more resistant to excuses or denials and complimentary evaluations of offenders than do justifications and disclaimers (e.g., Day & Ross, 2011; Walfisch, Van Dijk, & Kark, 2013). Apologies (concessions) are reduced aggressive behavior after provocation, and the least defensive, and therefore the victim may not be able to logically think through defensiveness by excuses, justifications, and denials (Barlett, 2013). Politeness is a discursive concept. According to Brown and Levinson's (1987) politeness theory was a fundamental aspect of human socio-communicative verbal interaction. Transgressors have strategies such as an apology, however, reduces the likelihood of the victims' punishing the transgressors and appreciate the real images of sacrifices or accusers (Locher & Watts, 2005). Transgressors may suggest thoughtful answers, such as justifications and defenses because it is reduced sanctioning applied to transgressors when their transgression implies almost tricky, and people are despicable in status, responses demonstrate respect and representatives return the transgressor's concept (Miller, 2013; Rupp et al., 2013). Apologies for verbal approaches have got the most extensive research study. In various investigations, verbal apology occurs even if there was no serious or real offense as a precaution against inadvertent misconduct to estimate the transgressor or reason the victim's response (e.g., Day and Ross, 2011; Tomasello and Vaish, 2013; Fischbacher & Utikal, 2013; Schniter, Sheremeta, and Sznycer, 2013; Strelan & van Prooijen, 2013).

Problem Statement

Speeding ticket for a run a busway lane is an exciting context to examine the effects of verbal responses to transgressions. In Indonesia, police maintain the wisdom to change the penalty. It would also be interesting to note if speeding ticket might be particularly acceptable to start mitigating answers, namely, apologies and excuses, because from the control asymmetry police are pragmatic and relatively autonomous actors that (must) find ways to navigate this the asymmetry among drivers and police, that possible sharpness of the fine, and speeders' experience that officers would decrease the penalty.

Research Questions

Based on the situation above, thus providing the excuse to connect offenders' natural verbal responses predicted speeding ticket for the run a busway lane to the magnitude of penalties as the research question.

Purpose of the Study

Our primary purpose in the study continued to evaluate the extent to which drivers' verbal replies prophesied speeding ticket for the run a busway lane, and we expected that drivers might be the first outlook of ticket costs.

Research Methods

Participants

A sample of 212 Indonesian respondents joined in this study. The sample involved Jayabaya university undergraduates and postgraduate who were selected with an e-mail requesting that drivers volunteer for a survey.

Procedure and Materials

Drivers were required to list the numerous recent moment that they were arrested by police for speeding ticket on run a busway lane in the last a year. Respondents were guided to questionnaire e-mail to finish the survey. They asked to recall the most recent time the police stopped them. I explain these questions in the form which they emerged in the survey. All various aspects of the speeding below taken from Day and Ross (2011) research. Apologies, excuses, justifications, denials, silence, and concessions evaluated from Day and Ross (2011). “Apologies consist three apology elements: remorse, personal responsibility, and forbearance. Excuses consist three excuse elements: statements of own shortcomings, reasons for own shortcomings, and attributing speeding to shortcomings or misdeeds of others. Justifications consist three types of justifications: circumstances that permitted a rule broken, attempts to minimize the severity of the situation, appeals to an unfair detection procedure. Denials consist of two categories: claims that the offender did not commit the act and refusals to admit the offense. Silence means explicit acknowledgments that respondents said nothing to the officer or responded with only sounds or unintelligible utterances. Concessions are apologies that include statements of remorse and admissions of personal responsibility.”

Findings

Gender and age with speeding ticket for the run a busway lane showed that abuses committed between men and women are more men make offenses than non-infringing women, could be due to more men carrying two-wheeled motor vehicles.

Table 1 -
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Table 2 -
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From the results of the research above, there are differences in speeding ticket for the run a busway lane made from the age profile.

Reliability and Validity Analysis

As before in the pre-test conducted reliability test and validity test, on the research with a more significant number of respondents, i.e. 212 respondents are also tested reliability and validity test. In this study analyzed the factors that influence drivers' verbal responses in speeding ticket for the run a busway lane. Reliability test results found in Table 03 Test Reliability, Cronbach Alpha value obtained by 0.701. This value is greater than 0.6 is a minimum value that reflects reliability. It concludes that these factors qualify for reliability and research can proceed (Colton and Covert, 2007).

Table 3 -
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Factor Analysis

To know the factors affecting drivers in speeding ticket for the run a busway lane, then do factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis is used to group the correlated variables into factors. The formed factors named according to the description of the variables included in the factor. The process analysis based matrix of correlations among the variables. In this study, the statistical test used to test the suitability of factor analysis is Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy, Bartlet test of sphericity approx. Chi-square with a significant value below 0.05 (Lomax and Hahs-Vaughn, 2012). The result of conformity test with factor analysis from 212 respondents' data obtained are as follows:

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy. From table 04 , obtained data that the value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy is 0.776. This KMO value is greater than 0.5 that is a minimal KMO value which states the exact factor analysis is used.

Bartlet test of sphericity approx. chi-square. In this study Bartlet test of sphericity approx. Chi-square is obtained at 259.641 is a large value with a significance level of 0.000 below 0.05, which is a requirement that the appropriate factor analysis. Hence it can be concluded that H0 is rejected as the matrix of correlation is not the same as the identity matrix. This provides information that variables are correlated or interrelated. Seeing the significant value of Bartlet test near zero then it can be stated that the correlation matrix is suitable for factor analysis.

Table 4 -
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After obtained the test results that factor analysis can be used to analyze the factors that affect speeding ticket for the run a busway lane, then done factor extraction. In the extraction, the factor is done reduction or subtraction of a set of variables into smaller parts by not eliminating the characteristics of origin. Factor extraction is done because, in factor analysis, not all the factor needed. There are some factors that the ability to explain the total diversity is low. The statistical test performed for this factor extraction is by eigen value and principal component analysis.

Eigen value used for determining the number of factors, which according to Lomax and Hahs-Vaughn (2012), the number of factors formed seen from the eigen value of more than 1 (> 1). In this research, there are seven factors with eigen value more than point 1. The data in Table 05 shows the eigen value on each factor.

Table 5 -
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From the data above can be drawn the conclusion that formed two factors from the clustering variables. The next process is to look at the questions that fall into the same factor in the matrix factor. A variable is said to interpret or represent one factor if it has a loading factor greater than 0.5 (Lomax and Hahs-Vaughn, 2012).

Table 6 -
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In the matrix of factors table above there are seven factors that formed. Grouping by looking at the highest value on that factor. Furthermore, each factor given a naming that reflects the contents of each variable. The following in Table 07 , is presented grouping into two factors.

Table 7 -
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Discussion

As politeness theory would divine excuses and apologies that assumes harm doers may also restore the injured social identity of victims. Apologies, in the frame of comments of remorse (e.g., ‘‘I am sorry''), not only targeting driver behaviors but also focusing on what to intend to do in traffic (Day and Ross, 2011). Apologies lead their recipients and other observers to reduce their perceptions of blameworthiness (Okimoto et al., 2013). People learn to apologize when they held for a transgression. Victims of transgressions are, in turn, socialized into graciously accepting.

The potential magnitude of fines for speeding ticket for running a busway lane according to formulas that indicate the hardness of the transgression. To correct something of an act of wrongdoing or offense, the offender can be given an opportunity to apologize and may change or correct his error rate. The critical fact that police have the discretion to adjust the fine (Day & Ross, 2011). The driver should how to control anger and consequently aggression and aggressive driving concurrently with advancing polite, reliable, careful and forgiving behavior. Police appeared inclined to decrease the hardness of the penalty for drivers who showed remorse. Our findings suggest that responses other than remorse (Day & Ross, 2011) where it would be preferable to monitor traffic behavior by observing a representative sample of motorists as they drive through a typical traffic environment (Hauber, 1980).

Busway also still has problems in realizing its goal of reducing congestion in Jakarta. The policy undertaken with the primary objective to overcome traffic congestion in Jakarta has created new problems. That is the high number of traffic violations and the level of accidents especially speeding ticket for the run a busway lane. To minimize fines, if it is in the wrong position, transgressors may offer polite responses, if necessary apologize, and provide letters of completeness of the road as requested by the Police. After the investigation, the police turned out to have the authority that affects the number of fines to violators, by putting a sign or a particular code on the ticket. Imitations like other behaviors can influence obedience, individuals tend to do what they see being done by others.

The driver replies further respectfully when the speed is essential to overcome or bypass hefty penalties. Such developed politeness also reflects certain remorse because drivers are thinking about the possible meanings of their speed. The relationship between the expression of regret and the developed probability of getting a signal indicates that the police officer considers the apology to be at least somewhat genuine.

Conclusion

Limited personnel authorized to regulate traffic, unequal increase in motor vehicles affect the movement of traffic, can lead to an increase in the number of violations. In all contexts where an apology has analysed, there is limited evidence of adverse consequences on the offender or the victim. Apologies might not always help, but do not point to be painful. The rough thing about the behaviour of traffic violations is people commit these behaviours for personal gain or benefit. While the negative impact usually felt by others such as being hit even if already on the right track, get the abuse from the person who violated, and surprised because suddenly there are vehicles that are not on track or speeding ticket for the run a busway lane. Arrangements and especially after serious offenses, an apology with richer content may be more acceptable. It can also assume that anger reduction plays a role in explaining recent findings. The importance of these findings lies in the potential for an apology to be an instrument of conflict resolution.

Acknowledgments

Thanks for Indonesian National Police and Ministry of Transportation Republic of Indonesia

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.03.79

Online ISSN

2357-1330