The problems of the organization of effective vocational training of students at the technical university are considered in the article. Practical oriented training model becomes the most efficient one. The structure content of professional activity at training of technical specialists including all-branch component (formation of all-cultural and all-professional competences) and professional component is marked out (formation of professional and specialized competences: scientific and research ones, organizational and administrative, design and technological, service and operational ones). The offered model of the practical oriented training is carried out in the context of praxeological approach, with a focus on activity approach and competence approach. In comparison with the traditional preparation system educational process doesn't break up to studying of new theoretical material and its practical application. All practical tasks define research and study of theoretical material. Practical oriented model of training presents the integrated branch educational environment of training for specialists and formation of competences with persuasive pragmatical effect function of professional activity. The ability to recognize and use consciously all cumulative potential of various means of professional communications for the solution of different types of professional tasks is the key to achieve the required level of professional competence for future experts. The offered model of the practical oriented training of technical specialists is universal and can be used as the basis for development and design of content of vocational training of experts of the most various areas.
Keywords: Practical oriented trainingprofessional communicationprofessional competences
Vocational training at universities is focused generally on general-theoretical base of professional knowledge and has no highly specialized branch features. It compromises the required quality of technical experts and does not quite correspond to the labor functions of modern industries. Graduates of high education institutions have to possess a set of knowledge of various areas and the ability to find non trivial solutions of current tasks (Krasnyanskiy, Karpushkin, Molotkova, Obukhov, Galygina, & Ostroukh, 2014). Graduates should be able to work with new technologies and with new materials and raw materials introduced at enterprises. Special training of applied qualification for various branches of regional economy is necessary. Search of essentially new methods and training models for technical specialists who will provide integrity of general-theoretical knowledge and systematize skills of their practical application is necessary. High-quality training of specialists for various industries consists in creation of special conditions formation of professional competences: selection of entrants, training of specialists and formation of highly effective collectives with the high level of motivation. The most effective here is the practice oriented training model.
A new process of technical experts training is required, taking into account the labor functions and a set of necessary professional competences carried out by them. The process of professional communication and communication by professional activity requires a special attention. Improvement of vocational training process for technical experts requires scientific judgment and justification of the approaches of training promoting improvement of education quality. It’s necessary to strengthen formation process of ability and culture of professional communication by means of which the efficiency of professional activity in a workplace is reached.
Training of competent technical experts, according to modern and perspective requirements of society and enterprises will be carried out by more effective if process of training is based on key conditions:
the modern approaches to the higher technical professional education focused on the practical oriented training of specialists are systematized;
contents and structure of professional activity are determined by a set of professional competences of future technical experts;
practical oriented model of training is presented by the integrated branch educational environment of training of specialists.
Purpose of the Study
The research objective consists in development and substantiation of the model of the practical oriented preparation at the technical university, able to consider requirements of the industry. Training of specialists of the technical directions has to be carried out in the practical oriented environment and in forms, the closest to real professional activity, by means of "immersion" to future professional sphere. The practical oriented training model should be built on the basis of activity approach and competency approach in training, and also in the context of the praxioligical approach presenting the integrated branch educational environment of training of specialists. In the developed model educational process isn't divided into studying of new theoretical material and its practical application. Here practical tasks are crucial ones for studying theoretical material when performing any educational action or problem solving.
To make the practical oriented training model at the technical university the analysis of normative documents, the analysis of scientific and methodical literature, the analysis of pedagogical and psychological researches originally was carried out. Transition of professional education to world practice on the basis of competency approach with a focus on a personality's self-organization at achievement of the goal and self-training during all life requires new qualities: the general fundamental knowledge of general-theoretical disciplines and readiness to apply them at the solution of various professional tasks; readiness to work in community; ability for self-education and scientific research, creative activity (Smirnova, 2006). Psychological and pedagogical researches have shown that quality indicator of professional education are (Khabarova & Molotkova, 2011): formation of a certain thinking of a future expert, resistant informative motivation, identification of a problem situation, finding the ways of problem solving and the proof of correctness of the found solutions (persuasiveness of statement and conviction in finding of the correct decision). Knowledge which students gain in the course of vocational training turn into the means allowing to increase the educational level and to self-improve during all life. In many respects progress of professional activity depends on ability for professional communication in the Russian and foreign languages, at the interpersonal level, and by professional activity (Borodulina & Makeeva, 2018). Thus, some scientific and theoretical aspects of linguistics can be successfully implemented in to practice of training, improving a technique of effective formation of professional culture and professional competences of students and consequently, and quality of professional education in general (Borodulina & Makeeva, 2016).
Questions of efficiency of professional activity always occupied one of the leading places when training competent experts (Ponomarenko & Malyuga, 2015). The important role of communicative competence for constructive professional interaction in a workplace is presented in work of many researchers (Malyuga, 2010). The perspective directions in development of the higher education and its transition to active methods of training, inclusion of elements of problem training for all forms of work are allocated in pedagogical researches. The following models of training at the university are offered: imitating training, problem training, modular training, interactive training, distance learning (Artyukhina, Povshednaya, Gusev, & Artyukhin, 2017). As for imitating models attention is paid to methodical tools, an interaction of the student and teacher is in the center in interactive model, in modular training special ways of the organization of a training material are presented; in distance training technologies and various means place an important role. Thus, in any model of training there is always a process of communication of a student either with a teacher, or with means of professional activity (software, a development environment, specific tools, etc.) (Ponomarenko, 2016). In many respects the efficiency of professional activity and future development of an expert, his/her career development and professional improvement depends on communicative strategy (Sanina, Artyukhina, Dendeberya, & Nasikan, 2016). In most cases communicative strategy is understood as the action plan which according to the purpose chooses from the available quantity of professional tools of problem solving all levels the use of which promises success of the set goal (Dvoryatkina, Melnikov, & Smirnov, 2017). Such interpretation of communicative strategy connects all elements: motives and purposes, actions, means and result which make components’ structure of professional competences (Sanina, Artyukhina, Frolov, & Zhiganova, 2018). The basic didactic principle of vocational education is integration of the theory and practice (Dvoryatkina, Smirnov, & Lopukhin, 2017). It is important to provide integrity of theoretical knowledge with the formed practical skills and abilities of its application. In these terms the most efficient for us is the practical oriented model.
Fundamentally, the practical oriented training model at higher institutions uses the idea of Vygotsky (Gerasimova, Dvoryatkina, Korotkikh, Masina, Puchkov, Usachev, & Shcherbatykh, 2017). The status of educational result turns into experience of practical activities if a student acts as the full subject of this activity, and realizes all stages (independent problem definition, planning, self-organization, self-checking and self-correction). Process, and result and resource equipment have to be (comprehended) reflected by the subject of activity. In practical oriented training all components of the system (forms, methods and means) model the subject and social content of future professional activity of an expert, and it is even better if it is carried out in working conditions with involvement of leading experts of an enterprise into educational process. Ideally training has to be carried out in the environment and in forms, the closest to real professional activity (Nikolaev and Shabanova, 2016). Training has to happen as immersion to future professional sphere. Such training will promote effective mastering of practical skills and the related theoretical material, at direct communication of students with the community of an enterprise, professional software, materials, normative documents, etc.
Practical oriented training of modern technical experts should be carried out in the context of praxiological approach. Praxiological approach represents the integrated branch educational environment of training for specialists. Praxiology of educational activity in training of specialists assumes content structure determination of professional activity (professional competences) of technical experts (figure
The key role in the content structure of professional activity of future technical experts which is marked out with us when forming professional competences is assigned to a communicative component. The communicative component is connected with information exchange between subjects and objects of educational process (software use of professional activity, automated systems and specialized information resources) and interpersonal interaction of students and teachers (Ivaschenko, Karabushchenko, & Sungurova, 2016). In many respects the efficiency in any kind of activity is defined by ability of a person to professional communication and communication of a person. Communication is the ability to come into contacts, ability to the constructive and mutually enriching communication with other people. Communication skill is one of the defining skills of successful social interaction concerning professional and personal relations. Implementation of persuasive pragmatical effect function at professional communication is one of the most important tasks which should study students in the course of vocational training. The Persuasive pragmatical effect (pragmatical effect of communicative influence) is ability by means of such communication to change the addressee's relation to some object or the phenomenon, reality, modification of general emotional spirit and goals achievement. In many respects the efficiency in any kind of activity depends on ability of a person to persuasion: finding correct decisions and supporters, reasoning, approval, disapproval, condemnation and support of the performed operations or functions. As the example, ironical effect strengthens pragmatical impact on audience, increases the general persuasiveness of the concrete arguments stated further and provides the maximum reception of the author's point of view.
Leading experts of enterprises take part in practical oriented education in the course of students’ training. Therefore educational process is based in the context of persuasio communication forms. It is based on interrelation of information influence, argumentation and competence of its participants. In training experts’ competent it is necessary to form professional competences and oratorical abilities. Influence function is the main in the international relations, as well as in covering international events in world mass media and materials of political and public organizations. Therefore, influence function plays not a minor, but mostly a major role rather than knowledge function. The one can speak persuasively only when he/she is competent of this or that area. A number of methods of speech impact on consciousness of the perceiving party by a certain selection of lexical means is described In many scientific publications (structuring, design, visual content according to the set pragmatical purpose of a speaker or a writer). In particular a key factor in forming any professional competence is the ability to professional communication. It is necessary to give a certain estimated features to the message. Nowadays it’s impossible to be without deep skills of a persuasive form of communication, even at rather high level of actually professional knowledge and competences. The communicative efficiency of speech interaction with partners, with colleagues, etc. when forming professional competences of students in the course of training is the most important trend of didactics development in higher institution. Not only professional knowledge, skills, but also understanding of professional strategy and tactics system, structural models and methods of professional problem solution are necessary for students for effective professional communication (study a wide range of issues, both theory, and practice, necessary professional tools for problem solution which are desirable or undesirable in a concrete situation, to achieve a definite goal). These abilities are important for experts in any professional area where the solution of professional problems often depends on competently communication construction between partners. Abilities and skills become competence when they are implemented effectively and result in success in professional situations.
When training technical students it is necessary to study the main functions and types of their future professional activity. It is necessary to include in a training material the analysis of successful and unsuccessful examples of professional behavior, traditions of the professional environment of an enterprise. Students with interest perceive the functional analysis of such fragments. In educational process a good impact is made by educational videos with examples from real life and activity of an enterprise. Videos help to compensate the lack of professional environment at classes. The importance of videos as substantial and methodical components of the studied discipline increases if they give useful material on professional functions, activity of experts of any enterprise. It contributes to the development of analytical and communication skills of students, makes them less vulnerable in case of adverse speech effect from the outside on their own consciousness, prepares to build a correct behavior strategy in the subsequent work.
In terms of specific needs of enterprises vocational training of students should be carried out in the conditions of integration of science, education and production (at basic departments) with the use of essentially new approaches (praxeological, competency-based, pragmatical). The ability to recognize and use consciously in professional activity all cumulative potential of various means of communications for the solution of different types of professional problems is required to achieve the appropriate level of professional competence of future experts.
The offered model of the practical oriented training in the context of praxeological approach of competences' formation with implementation of persuasive pragmatical effect function of professional activity is universal. It can be used as a basis for development and design of content for vocational training of experts of the most various profiles. We have described just basic model's features, following to which will provide formation of steady professional competences, increase students' interest in the studied disciplines, establishment of intersubject communications between the courses provided by the educational program. It should be noted that it is possible to use the described methods of vocational training at design of both general and professional disciplines of the curriculum, and some scientific-theoretical aspects of linguistics can successfully be implemented into practice of vocational education of future technical experts, improving development technique of students' professional competences and problem solution of effective vocational training and promotion of high quality of education.
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30 December 2018
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Communication studies, educational equipment,educational technology, computer-aided learning (CAL), science, technology
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Artyukhina, M., Dorokhovа, T., Vyguzova, Y., & Nachernaya, S. (2018). Practical Oriented Training As Formation Conditions Of Professional Communication. In V. Chernyavskaya, & H. Kuße (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 51. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 766-772). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.83