The authors discuss formation of the professional and ethical activity of the future teacher. This issue is regarded within the international project "Influence of the socio-cultural and ecological environment on the ethics and outlook of the modern teacher, being a subject of personality formation, lifestyle and innovative thinking of students in Russia and Mongolia". Authors have developed a structurally-substantial model of the influence of the socio-cultural environment on the formation of the professional-ethical activity of the future teacher through the organization of his lifestyle at the university, which is one of the most important stages in forming of the student’s personality. Within the framework of the above-mentioned model an interdisciplinary seminar on applied axiology "Values of modern education», a scientific and educational ecological on-line seminar, an elective "School of the 21st Century" have been developed for masters of the pedagogical departments of both countries. As a result of studying the procedural aspect of the professional and ethical activity of the masters, authors identified several indicators of the development of ethics and outlook of the future teacher: motivational-axiological, motivational-ecological and cognitive.
Keywords: Environmentaleducational environmentInternational projectprofessional and ethical activity of the future teacherstructural-conceptual modelsociocultural
In the conducted research, the influence of the socio-cultural and ecological environment on the formation of the professional and ethical activity of the future teachers in Russia and Mongolia is actualized as a set of educational, informational, social, cultural, and specifically organized professional conditions. As a result of this interaction, the identity of the future educator is being formed.
In the national regions of Russia and Mongolia, the belief system of the educator evolved for a long historical period - from the founding of the formal school in the 19th century to the educational system at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. It was evolving along with the preservation and reproduction of spiritual traditions, national foundations of education, ethnopedagogical principles, and popular pedagogy (Nikolaeva, Filin, & Davaasusurengyyn, 2017).
The analysis of pedagogical reality in both countries makes it possible to identify a number of unexplored issues in the theory and practice of the process of training teachers and in formation of their sociocultural competence.
Educational technology of the worldview self-actualization of the identity is important. In this technology, the formation of a value-based outlook culture of a teacher is carried out in the process of implementing the technology of forming an emotionally value-based attitude to professional activity in the educational conditions which are as close as possible to practical activities (Baranova, 2016).
One way or another social transformations are powerfully affected by cultural developments, some of which may be clearly thought about in terms of the impacts of deliberate and incidental educational activity (Giorgetti, Campbell, & Arslan, 2017; Aladyshkin, Kulik, Michurin, & Anosova, 2017).
Thus, it can be noted that the content of training programs for future teachers does not fully reflect the dynamics of socio-economic changes in the country; consistency, gradualness and continuity are not always met in the levels of the training system for pedagogical personnel, its programs and forms; it is not taken into account that in the process of teacher training, it is important to not only replenish their knowledge, but also to form professionally important personal qualities and key competencies, particularly sociocultural; the timely social orientation of the teacher and his professional development in a rapidly changing digital society are not provided; the training system does not fully direct the teacher to realize himself as the executor of the social mandate of modern society, science, and the formation of professionally significant personal qualities (Bylieva, Lobatyuk, & Rubtsova, 2018; Gashkova, Berezovskaya, & Shipunova, 2017). The contradictions between the quality requirements of the social mandate of the educational and upbringing process, the result of the professional training of future teachers, the opportunities of a system of professional education in its implementation, the significance of the formation of the sociocultural competence of future teachers and the insufficient theoretical development of theoretical and methodical bases and practical recommendations on the formation of professional and ethical activity of the future teacher.
The above-mentioned shortcomings and contradictions have determined the problem of research, the essence of which lies in answering the question: what are the theoretical bases and practical ways of forming the professional ethical activity of the future teacher.
In our opinion, the formation of the ethical side of the future specialist’s professional culture is complicated by a number of difficulties. First, the curricula in universities. The humanitarian aspect, responsible for the formation of spirituality, is not sufficiently represented by subjects developing moral culture. Secondly, low level of vocational guidance, low awareness of students about the future profession, including the qualities that an expert should possess, which leads to the fact that students often do not realize the importance of ethical knowledge for their future work, and they have not yet had the practical activities.
When developing a structurally-substantial model of the influence of the sociocultural environment on the formation of the professional-ethical activity of the future teacher, a systematic approach is used. Such approach assumes a comprehensive examination of the object under study.
First of all we were interested whether the current seminar on applied axiology "Modern values of education" would be effective in terms of forming the socio-cultural competence of the future teacher as one of the leading goals of his professional training. What historical and modern trends of the national education system affect the ethics of the future teacher? What problems, related to future professional activities, concern Russian and Mongolian masters in connection with the transition to digital educational technologies? How does the experience associated with the participation of masters in environmental projects and actions affect the process of the «environmentalization of education»?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research is to develop and test the structural and conceptual model of the influence of the socio-cultural environment on the formation of the professional and ethical activity of the future teacher through the arranging of his life activity in the learning process at the institute. The experimental base of the research is represented by the masters of the pedagogical departments of the course "Pedagogical Education" of the North-Eastern Federal University (Russia, Yakutia) and the Mongolian State University of Education (Mongolia).
In the proposed structural and conceptual model of the influence of the socio-cultural environment on the development of ethics and worldview, emphasis is placed on the formation of the professional and ethical activity of the future teacher through the organization of his life activities in the learning process at the institute. The structure of the model includes three modules: projective (goals and objectives), substantive (main lines of activity) and performance-evaluation (indicators, indicators).
Module 1. Projective. The goal is to justify the influence of the socio-cultural and ecological environment on the development of the ethic and the world outlook of the teacher, contributing to the formation of the personality of the future teacher in Russia (on the example of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and Mongolia.) To achieve the goal, the task is to determine the influence of the socio-cultural and environmental environment on the development of ethics and ideology, contributing to the formation of professional and ethical activities of the future teacher
Module 2. Conceptual. The teacher’s personality is multicolored and therefore requires an integrated approach. This approach suggests a cohesive development, as the professional and ethical culture integrates the knowledge and skills of various environments. Therefore, this module includes a development of concepts and basic forms of the influence of socio-cultural and environmental environments on the development of ethics and the worldview of the teacher.
One of the most important tasks is to determine the educational potential of the sociocultural environment. Other tasks include the following: an integrity of external factors in educating an integral personality, and a continuity in transferring universal and ethical values.
Korshunova (2014) marks the necessity of research of a sociocultural context of development of a pedagogical education . The educational system reflects the historical path of the people, their cultural characteristics, as well as the national values.
Analyzing the process of education, we can conclude that it is “one of the most complex and at the same time most responsible human activities” (Rosić, 2009, p. 19). Educational environment and all of its processes are connected to each other but at the same time their nature is unique and distinctive each in itself. “Therefore, it is impossible to observe educational institutions outside the cultural context, beyond correlations between culture, education and the individual, which is why Komar (2009) emphasizes that “education cannot be without a time frame” (Ivon & Kuščević, 2013, p. 31).
For these purposes, an interdisciplinary seminar on applied axiology "Values of modern education" was developed in the format of an international project. Students-future teachers of the North-Eastern Federal University and Mongolian universities study the socio-cultural and historical foundations of the formation of the value system of education in both countries. The result of the seminar will be a joint collection of articles on the influence of the socio-cultural environment on the development of the ethics and ideology of the future teacher's personality.
Next thing we should bring attention to is the problem of the ecologization of education. Within the framework of our international project, there is a scientific and educational seminar on the ecologization of education.
The following terms: "the ecologization of the world outlook", "the ecologization of production", "the ecologization of the sciences", "the ecologization of consciousness", "the ecologization of thinking", "the ecologization of education», have become widespread in scientific and educational literature. «Ecologization» is understood as processes related to the optimization and harmonization of relations between society and nature, and the changes that arise in spiritual and material life in the context of an ecological crisis, a radical transformation of social life.
The ecologization of the education system according to Mamedov (2016), is a process of implementation of ecological ideas to other disciplines, as well as the preparation of ecologically competent specialists of various profiles.
It is particularly in our days that the ecologization of the entire system of education and upbringing is required. The final goal of this transformation is the implementation of modern ecological ideas and values into all spheres of society, its ecologization. For only this way, through the ecologization of the whole social life, it is possible to save mankind from an ecological catastrophe.
In developing the scientific and educational seminar on the ecologization of education, we relied on the research of Nazarenko (1994), reflected in his doctoral dissertation. The author proposes to carry out a consistent ecologization of high school academic disciplines. This process affects both educational and extracurricular activities of students. It is built on the principles of integrity, unity and continuity of all stages of university learning, as well as on the establishment of intersubject communications and the integration of academic disciplines (Nazarenko, 1994). Information on environmental problems is introduced in the main training courses considering the specifics of each subject. The target setting is the substantiation of the influence of the ecological environment on the development of ethics and outlook. This contributes to the formation of the personality of the future teacher in Russia (case of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and Mongolia. Therefore, the format of the on-line seminar was chosen as the most optimal form.
Personality is formed in a certain sociocultural context, therefore, the questionnaire included questions, related to the environmental aspects of the formation of the future teacher’s outlook. Thus, the main factors influencing the development of environmental culture in both countries are the family, the media and the university. Therefore, it is important to emphasize the importance of providing information through the media to improve the environmental education of the population. The difference in the answers to the question "What do you think is an indicator of the well-being of the ecology of the populated area?" is interesting and explained in its own fashion. Thus, the students of NEFU demonstrated the following figures: only 3% of respondents believe that the indicators of the ecological well-being of the populated area are the purity of air and water. On the contrary, 28.9% of the Mongolian students think that this indicator is quite significant. This is explained by objective geographical features of countries (Osipova, Nikolaeva, & Alekseeva, 2017). The presented data became the basis of the thematic content of the seminar.
Module 3. In the process of developing the educational component, the Models came to the conclusion that an approach is needed that ensures the transformation of cognitive activity into a professional one. At the same time, motives, goals, actions, means, objects and results of activity change.
As we know, “work role preparation includes not only disciplinary knowledge and technical skills but also intelligence about how to work in a team, communicate with others, learn tacit ways of working through observations and socializing into workplace cultures” (Trede, 2012, p.159).
Concerning the designing of the technology of training future teachers, it is necessary to resolve the contradiction between the traditional preparation of the student and the creative, proactive position of the future specialist for working in the digital educational environment. “For many years, we tried to give answers to the question of advantages and disadvantages between traditional and modern teaching where the prevailing educational technology” (Danilović, 2004, p. 110).
Thus, a new module "School of the 21st Century" is being tested in the format of an elective in the master's programs in the direction of "Pedagogical Education". The thematic content of the elective fully coincides with the projects proposed by the Center for Strategic Research and the Higher School of Economics to improve education in Russia. The subject of the elective was offered to the Mongolian side and was approved.
Future teachers of the North-Eastern Federal University and Mongolian universities will be acquainted with the following strategic areas: Early Development Support, Digital Age School, Modern Material Education Infrastructure, Equal Educational Opportunities and Success for Everyone, New Technological Education in School and ACT, Development and Support of talents, Launch of the system of continuous education, Universities as centers of innovation in regions and branches, Fundamental exploratory research in higher education, global universities, Academy of Sciences; Increasing global competitiveness through the export of vocational education; Modern content of the school education: literacy, education and universal skills for all; Personnel for the development of education.
At the meeting, which will be held as an official meeting on equal terms, future teachers will discuss the issues of the education system in Russia and Mongolia and their professional and ethical role in achieving a new quality of education that will ensure the success of each student.
Module 4. Productively-estimative. Results of the formedness of the future teachers’ professional and ethical activity are evaluated using the indicators of the development of the ethics and outlook of the modern teacher. Those indicators are: motivational and axiological (indicator: comprehension of the own level of the world-view and ethical culture influencing the moral shape of the future teacher); motivational and ecological (indicator: the degree of formation of ecological consciousness as the basis for the formation of an actively positive attitude to the environment by future teachers); cognitive (indicator: the degree of formation of the professional and ethical activity of future teachers).
Effectively-appraisal activity is carried out thanks to reflexive processes comprehension of their future profession. At the same time, reflection contributes to the development by the students of a conscious attitude to professional and ethical activity and the purposefulness of the process under consideration.
The formation of professional and ethical activity of future teachers is formed in the unity and interaction of all its components, their separation is possible only conditionally. In activity, it always manifests itself in a holistic manner, and this is its fundamentally important feature.
In the proposed structural-conceptual model of the influence of the socio-cultural environment on the development of ethics and world outlook, the components of the environment that contribute to the formation of the individual, the way of life and innovative professional thinking, are defined as: sociocultural, ecological and educational.
Formation of the professional and ethical activity of the future teacher takes place in the process of his active participation in interdisciplinary seminars on applied axiology "Values of modern education" in the format of an international project; through the scientific and educational environmental seminar, as well as through the participation in the course "School of the 21st Century.
The methodological foundations of the system of conditions and activities for the formation of the ethics and the outlook of the modern teacher are formed on the basis of the integrative use of the following pedagogical approaches:
practice-oriented (competence) approach as a method for modeling the results of education in a higher educational institution on the basis of the formation of a value-based culture of the teachers, which provides their professional activity with a high level of consciousness and self-awareness;
culturological approach, based on the principle and method of studying and organizing the forming of a teacher's value-based outlook culture, based on the transfer of the tradition of the laws of professional culture from generation to generation;
personality-oriented approach, placing the personality in the center of learning - its motives, goals, psychological set. This approach is implemented on the basis of the development of individual educational trajectories to form a value-based outlook culture of the educator's personality;
axiological approach, conveying the values of society in the educational process, developing teacher’s value orientations and value attitude towards the implementation of civil and social functions of professional activity by mastering and accumulating knowledge and experience
“Improving the quality of teacher education at the same time means improving the humanity as a whole. The goals of the teacher education need to be framed to cultivate not only knowing one’s subject […] , but also emotional and ethical competencies” (Gulevska & Atanasoska, 2015, p.85).
The professional and ethical development of the future teacher is a process of the integral development of the student as a subject of professional activity, which is determined not only by the socioeconomic development of Russia and Mongolia, but also by the transition to the digital age associated with new types of labor. The pedagogical technology which develops the professional and ethical activity of the future teacher, used in the universities of both countries is a complex, multifaceted process that is carried out through the combination of the disciplines taught in the university, and the university’s main goal is the upbringing of a modern competent specialist.
A significant role in the formation of the ethical aspect of professional activity is played by the educational environment of the university, everything that surrounds the student. You can not include everything in the curriculum. It should include a large set of special courses and special seminars on philosophical, culturological, ethical, aesthetic problems of the history and modernity of national education systems. It should be noted that the attributes of the formation of professional development are: consistency, humanitarian orientation, the integration of knowledge, skills, the universality of didactic systems, individualization (Saksonova, 2005). Professional ethical activity is a high level of professionalism achieved through philosophical reflection and self-reflection of the profession, it is a way of creative self-realization of a specialist aimed at mastering, transferring and creating professional values and new technologies.
Co-supervisor of the work is Davaasuren Damdinsuren, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor, Director of the Department of Science and Innovation of Mongolian State University of Culture and Arts. This article was prepared within the framework of RFBR grant project №17-26-03003-OGN \ 18
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Nefedov, S., Beliaeva, L., & Chernyavskaya*, V. (2019). Language Worker In The Framework Of Information 4.0. In V. Chernyavskaya, & H. Kuße (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 51. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 608-614). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.66