Professional Culture, Pedagogical Skills Of Kindergarten Teacher: Indicators And Procedures Of Diagnosis
The present article questions indicators to diagnose level of professional culture and pedagogical skills of the kindergarten teacher: self-realization, empathy, reflexivity, cognition, communicative kernel, nature conformity, attractiveness, effectiveness. Indicators, technological procedures of their diagnosis and processing allow to diagnose objectively the level of development of professional culture and skills of kindergarten teachers, to trace dynamics and regularity of development and self-development of pedagogical skills of tutors, to influence the quality of preschool education in a positive way. The harmony violation principle between the ‘cognizable’ and ‘non-cognizable’ spheres of activity can lead not only to the educational process degradation but can also destroy pupils’ personality. This indicator contradicts with the traditions which settled in pedagogics as by default, it is accepted that if a teacher forms mathematical knacks in children, it means that the teacher himself has loves of mathematics (this constitutes the teacher’s estimation towards the subject) and, naturally, translates his love to pupils. The various tenures analysis shows that teacher is a human too and he/she can treat different areas of the pedagogical activity differently: he can well know a certain area of knowledge but absolutely dislike it while trying to instill love of this area of knowledge into pupils.
Keywords: Indicatorskindergarten teachersprofessional culturepedagogical skillstechnological procedures
Awareness of professional culture of a teacher (by children, parents, colleagues) starts with kindergarten. Therefore, speaking about drivers of its development and creative technologies, it is necessary to consider experience of realization of this culture in communication with children of preschool age.
The problem of teacher’s professional and pedagogical culture formation was developed in research works of many scientists (Azarov, 1971; Bakhtin, 1979; Bondarevskaya, 2000; Gabdulkhakov & Popov, 2013; Grekhnev, 1990; Soil & Lymar, 2007; Isaev & Makarova, 2002; Kodzhaspirova, 2004; Makarova & Sharshov, 2011; Slastenin, Isaev, Mishchenko, & Shiyanov, 2004; Shchurkova, 1993; Yakusheva, 2009, Almazova, Khalyapina, & Popova, 2017; Razinkina et al., 2018).
Modern researchers (Kodzhaspirova, 2004; Makarova & Sharshov, 2011; Slastenin, Isaev, Mishchenko, & Shiyanov, 2004) define essence teacher’s professional culture; mark out criteria of formation of professional skills and professional culture of a teacher; study an innovative guiding lines in the formation of teacher’s professional culture; consider questions of ensuring theoretical, psychological, methodical support of tutors, creating conditions to make progress in professional competence, pedagogical skills and in developing creative potential of every teacher.
The essence of the pedagogical skills constitutes teacher’s personal qualities who, carrying out this work, provides success (Shchurkova, 1993; Yakusheva, 2009). Pedagogical skills – the high and constantly improved art of training and education available to any teacher working according to his/her vocational aptitude (Bondarevskaya, 2000; Gabdulkhakov & Popov, 2013; Grekhnev, 1990; Soil & Lymar, 2007).
However, problems of the kindergarten teacher’s professional culture and pedagogical skills are still poorly studied.
The teacher’s professional and pedagogical culture is considered to be the integrated quality of the personality presented by unity of the valuable, cognitive, innovative and technological, personal and creative components providing productive pedagogical activity and creative self-realization of a preschool educational institution teacher. The pedagogical skill is the ultimate stage in pedagogical activity (Kodzhaspirova, 2004). Characterizing pedagogical skills, researchers note that the master-teacher is a deep expert on psychology of the personality and what should teach it; this is the person who is in command of ways how to train, develop and educate.
Thus, the professional pedagogical culture is inseparable from pedagogical skills. From there stems a research problem: to define indicators of the preschool teacher’s pedagogical skills and technology of their use in practice.
To define indicators of professional pedagogical skills of the kindergarten teachers, it was necessary to define:
representative group of kindergartens and teachers concordant to participate in an experiment;
to organize visiting teachers’ model studies by experts;
to develop technological procedures of observation and measurement of indicators for pedagogical skills.
Purpose of the Study
To develop a set of technological procedures to diagnose the level of pedagogical skills of the kindergarten teacher defining the directions of development and self-development of teachers of preschool institutions in the field of professional pedagogical culture.
In a research such methods as questioning, the analysis and comparison, a method of induction and deduction, generalization methods, results of training were used. The methodology of the research is formed on the concept of dialogue of Bakhtin in which communication levels (a personal position, trust, consent, understanding of sense, etc.) are allocated (Bakhtin, 1979).
The new research was conducted by us in kindergartens No. 25, 387, 149, 67, 143, 21, 69, 74, 231, 232, 87 of Kazan during 2012-2018. The total of examinees of teachers made 357 people.
As a result of the approbation (2012-2018) of various technological diagnosis procedures into levels of professional culture and pedagogical skills, indicators of the kindergarten teachers’ quality of work assessment were defined.
According to a new personality-oriented developing education paradigm this indicator is focused on diagnosis of the extent of self-realization of child’s identity, his/her aptness to originality. From the point of view of pedagogical psychology, speech intensions of pupils can be a formal sign of fixing of this indicator: whether they speak in communication with the teacher I think, I consider etc. that is, whether the teacher admits the presence of a second "I" during the class, whether he allows this “I” to become the first "I", not the second (after the teacher’s "I").
Advanced level of such communication can be expressed by pupils whose role activity is not a mere reproducing, but real researchers (for example, in the sphere of experimenting with water, sand or puzzles). Therefore, the creative teacher has to own the design, problem and other methods allowing to organize such activity in the educational developing environment.
The highest level of creative self-realization of pupils is observed when they not only safely carry out research (experimental) activity, but also put forward the reasonable and interesting ideas and projects capable of enriching children's ideas of the world around.
According to these characteristics, to best process the classes given by tutors, the technological procedure embracing three levels of the child self-realization expressiveness was developed:
prefers to execute tutor’s instructions, orders;
seeks to insert "oneself" in the process of task fulfillment;
likes to accomplish any tasks always "in their own way", makes original offers on fulfillment up to creation of the project.
Affirmative answer on the first question denotes 33%, on the second – 66%, on the third – 99-100%.
On the average, the range of the personal self-realization indicator in 2015 alone appeared to be at the level of 34% (see tab.
This indicator appeals to the teacher’s identity, but not from the point of view of his/her personal self-realization but from the point of view of ability to come into personal (psychological) contact, dialogue with a child (whether a teacher is capable of understanding values, to see the world with his eyes and to experience those feelings which are experienced by his/her pupils). At the same time, though, it is important how a teacher addresses the pupils whether he/she calls them by names (and as he/she utters these names – with respect, friendly, with irony, with a humorous undertone, with admiration etc.) or addresses by surnames or maybe uses the depersonalized communication forms (hey you or listen, boy, girl).
From all of these depend how children anticipate the teacher: a person of identity, or a supervisor of identity, identity of the decent, intelligent person or schemer, adventurer, fool, envious person, unfortunate person, villain or someone else. It is important for us how a tutor expresses him/herself from the point of view of his/her human qualities.
According to these characteristics, to best process the classes given by tutors, the technological procedure embracing three-fold child’s empathy was developed:
whether tutor’s appearance and voice are subject to confidential contact;
whether tutor’s addressing to children uses personal forms of communication (whether he calls them by names);
whether a tutor opens up to pupils as a person.
On the average, the range of this indicator in 2015 appeared to be at the level of 57% (see tab.
This indicator describes the emotional field of study, the field of joy, surprise, admiration and happiness. It is one of the most problem indicators as the traditional stereotype of the Russian teacher is a stereotype of the poor, humiliated and unfortunate person. Besides, the thought that in Russia to be happy indecency was fixed in subconsciousness of the majority and in general it is impossible. It is also traditionally connected with the national ethno-cultural type of the unfortunate person created in the Russian culture by Griboyedov's ("Woe from Wit") works, Nekrasov’s "Who is happy in Russia", Lermontov’s "Hero of our time", Pushkin’s “Eugene Onegin”, etc. Therefore, teacher’s ability to create comfortable conditions for communication during the studies, to add a surprising emotional background to this communication and furthermore pleasures, bliss, admiration, happiness is a stable indicator of his/her professional skills.
The full-fledged reflection (in psychological sense) arises when both, the tutor and the child (with the help and with assistance of the tutor) reflex in the "I" (a human “I”). The contact of these internal human "I"’s (but not an "I" of the tutor and an "I" of the pupil) also creates a special reflexive field of an arrangement, emotional lift, joy, happiness.
According to these characteristics, to best process the classes given by tutors, a technological procedure embracing three levels of the expressive reflexive indicator was developed:
whether the tutor is able to create comfortable conditions for communication;
whether the content of communication is a surprising, emotional lift;
whether participants (the tutor and children) perceive the communication as a pleasure, joy, happiness.
On the average, the range of this indicator in 2015 appeared to be at the level of 64% (see tab.
This indicator means the accounting of person’s values, the child and the tutor. Psychological experiments show that most part of the behavioral aspects of people are controlled by the subconscious. Traditional pedagogical teaching appeals mainly to the cognizable only (basing on the didactic principle of conscious learning). The existing manuals, recommendations are generally focused on the consciousness, too. How then make use of the inexhaustible opportunities of the subconscious, this extra-mental field of activity?
Our experiments show that extra-mental (very productive) educational activity is possible when using active forms of study (didactic, subject and role, imitating or business games, discussions on certain problem situations, etc.).
Here, special methods of relaxation – removal of tension and transformation of educational process into a fascinating game - are used. At the same time, effectiveness of such forms, methods of training, does really stun. However, it is necessary to remember that relying on the subconscious alone borders on the suggestive forms of influence and can lead to exhaustion of mental resources of a person.
Therefore, it is necessary to observe the proper (harmonious) correlation of one and another: the trainee will cease to perceive educational process as a study, as work, if regular educational skills are not formed by means of traditional (focused on the conscious perceiving) tasks: listen carefully, retell, etc. The harmony violation principle between the ‘cognizable’ and ‘non-cognizable’ spheres of activity can lead not only to the educational process degradation, but can also destroy pupils’ personality. This indicator contradicts with the traditions which settled in pedagogics as by default, it is accepted that if a teacher forms mathematical knacks in children, it means that the teacher himself has loves of mathematics (this constitutes the teacher’s estimation towards the subject) and, naturally, translates his love to pupils. The various tenures analysis shows that teacher is a human too and he/she can treat different areas of the pedagogical activity differently: he can well know a certain area of knowledge but absolutely dislike it while trying to instill love of this area of knowledge into pupils.
At first sight the thought seems obvious that only that teacher who loves his duty can impart love to knowledge. But practice shows that this argument is not always justified: there are cases when knowing and loving mathematics not only a teacher, but a scientist (teacher) gives birth to disgust for knowledge in pupils. On the contrary, not burdened by knowledge and furthermore, love to science, a teacher is capable of attracting to it a keen interest of pupils. Why? In such cases teacher’s ability to organize cognitive forms of activity come out prominent, classes with an intrigue, ability to induce pupils into a situation of "the anticipating the unexpected” effect when one more result – the mutual educational victory gets to child’s “memory trap" and becomes his own property. Here non-standard forms of the organization of studies are urgent (Grekhnev,1990).
According to these characteristics, to best process the classes given by tutors, a technological procedure embracing three levels of expressiveness of a cognitive indicator was developed:
whether the teacher speaks about the valuable preferences in the subject sphere (grammar, literature, mathematics etc.);
whether communication with the teacher is directed to formation of positive values at children (in an unostentatious fascinating form);
whether children show the commitment to positive values in the subject sphere.
On the average, the range of this indicator in 2015 appeared to be at the level of 54% (see tab.
Indicator of a communicative kernel
This indicator characterizes predisposition to personal self-development. If consider educational activity according to the standard scheme "motive-the analysis-synthesis-the interiorization", then the last phase (the translation of internal actions in external, or speaking and speech control) constitutes great problem. The matter is that traditional student teaching does not consider the mechanism of speech control, though it is long established that nearly 80% of mistakes of children can be qualified not as traditional (actual or speech) and as errors of speech control (the mistake which arose for fear to make a mistake). The paradox is that the teacher ‘guards’ speech control and does not understand that thereby he/she promotes involuntarily turning off mechanisms not only speech production, but also productive cogitative and intellectual activity. To decrease (or neutralize) actions of speech control, a mechanism of a communicative kernel was used – the organization of a hot discussion when a child forgets about control and speaks own words.
Here the thesis that a child has the right for a mistake too, is urgent: only the one who does nothing does no mistakes. Therefore, the meaning of a communicative kernel (as central communicative situation of study) is in neutralizing the action of speech control as much as possible.
Experiments show that at the correct realization of a communicative kernel (when a pupil is not corrected, nobody prevents him from speaking or interrupts) the powerful impulse is given to development of intelligence, thinking, the speech, formation of morality and other personal qualities.
According to these characteristics, to best process the classes given by tutors, a technological procedure embracing three levels of expressiveness of a communicative kernel was developed (Esthetics of verbal creativity, 1979):
whether the pupil participates in a dispute, a discussion;
whether the child in the statements uses speech stamps of the tutor;
whether the child shows independence whether he speaks by the own words.
On the average, the range of this indicator in 2015 appeared to be at the level of 43% (see tab.
Nature-oriented state indicator
This indicator, being connected to registering individual speed in development of the personality, has always drawn interest of psychologists and teachers. It involves the elaboration of different plans of personalized education, multi-level education. However, the main problem remains unsolved. Standard programs (whatever developing they may be) after all are targeted toward the average pupil: there are children not keeping up with this program, others lag behind its rates, the third could pace quicker with it, but the program constrains. Therefore, a lot of things depend on the teacher: how he/she works – frontally (for all) or individually, differentially.
According to these characteristics, to best process the classes given by tutors, a technological procedure embracing three levels of expressiveness of nature conformity was developed:
whether there are at study individual forms of work;
whether are differentiated on task study depending on the level of educational opportunities of children;
whether the children who are lagging behind in development work at study (along with very developed children).
On the average, the range of this indicator in 2015 appeared to be at the level of 75% (see tab.
This indicator reflects appeal of contents and a form of study.
It can be presented by such indicators as:
whether the room from the point of view of registration and favorable conditions is attractive to communication;
whether the study form is interesting;
whether the identity of the tutor (the speech, a communication manner etc.) is attractive.
On the average, the range of this indicator in 2015 appeared to be at the level of 68% (see tab.
By this a practical orientation of content toward study is implied.
Distribution of indicators by three levels can be presented so:
whether study is connected with everyday life of children;
whether there is an orientation on training of children for school;
whether is present at study social, profile or any other orientation, necessary for future life of children.
On the average, the range of this indicator in 2015 appeared to be at the level of 22% (see tab.
According to these indicators, first the table, then the map reflecting extent of manifestation of indicators – the level of professional culture and pedagogical skills of a tutor is filled in (see tab.
The card constitutes a circle divided by radiuses. Each radius – the indicator which extent of manifestation is determined by length. Total length of radius – 100%. Respectively, the tutor showing according to the expert, a self-realization indicator range at 50%, receives a half of radius on the diagnostic card. Then the fixed ends of all radiuses connect the general line. It results in the drawing, which area reflects the developing field of study or the level of tutor’s professional skills.
Selection of seven studies (seven drawings) is usually representative for each tutor. Each tutor has an individual drawing allowing to take a detached, critical view of oneself and plan the directions to self-improve.
The work of the senior tutor (as the tutor-consultant, the tutor-methodologist or the psychologist) at indicators of pedagogical skills allows to increase not only quality of the study, but also quality of all work of preschool institution. As a result, in four years (from 2015 to 2018) indicators gained positive dynamics.
The map of 2015 is submitted in figure
All indicators significantly increased: personal self-realization (from 34 to 67%), empathic (from 57 to 75%), reflexive (from 64 to 85%), cognitive (from 54 to 75%), a communicative kernel (from 43 to 68%), nature-oriented (from 75 to 92%), attractive (from 68 to 87%), productive (from 22 to 58%). The card configuration underwent changes significantly too.
The purpose of interaction between a senior tutor (as a methodologist) with the tutor is that the latter knows why the expert comes to him/her, and fills in the map as well (pertaining to his/her study), takes part in discussion of this study, projects an individual route of professional development.
Experiments of 2012 - 2018 show that the drawing made by an expert and those by a tutor differ significantly. The tutor giving classes often does not see what an expert can see. Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy in this regard said that it seems to a teacher as if the best method is the one that is pleasant to him (Blaisdell, 2000). Actually, the best is the method which is pleasant not to a teacher, but to a pupil. The senior tutor dealing with problems of professional culture and pedagogical skills with the colleagues – kindergarten teachers - can see such method.
The indicators allocated during the research (self-realization, empathy, reflexivity, cognition, communicative kernel, nature conformity, attractivity, effectiveness) are the main, but subject to replenishing. Today the allocated indicators, technological procedures of their diagnosis and processing allow to diagnose the level of professional culture and skills development of kindergarten teachers rather objectively, to trace dynamics and regularity of development and self-development of the tutor pedagogical skills to influence positively the quality of preschool education.
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18 December 2019
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Likhacheva*, S. A., & Gabdulсhakov, V. F. (2019). Professional Culture, Pedagogical Skills Of Kindergarten Teacher: Indicators And Procedures Of Diagnosis. In V. Chernyavskaya, & H. Kuße (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 51. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 483-492). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.52