The Premises Of Heterogeneity For Professional Training In Present And Future


We argue the social-economic necessity and educationist possibilities for students’ capability to learn multi-professionally along their life-span development. We offer the structure and the contents of a special discipline about the multifariousness of professions, its origins and actual tendencies of development. The discipline will help in adapting the individual to inevitable changes in the labor market and will help to choose the optimal curve of perspective life in the world of professions and activities. The discipline should rely on modern science of vocations, which co-presents the achievements of economics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology of professions, as well as the theory of modern vocational pedagogics. The key idea consists in stimulating the individual to enhance one's cultural level, to widen the horizons of self-realization in professional career. The necessity to earn money and income, and the joy of implementing one's ideas and interests become more confused, thus loosing clear-cut boundaries between them. However, that doesn't mean that a serious study of complex and refined professions should be replaced by a broad version of amateurish attitude; but that is about the enrichment of professionalism and the professional culture by multiplicity of self-realization contexts for individuals to reach the multifariousness as well as the desire to move in that direction.

Keywords: General culturemultiplicity of professions studyprofessional mobilityprofessional educationprofessional culturesocial dynamics


The world of professions is becoming more dynamic and multifarious, as new professions and activities appear, while the old ones are moved to the outskirts of economic and social life, or just disappear. The essential element of the changes is that the borders between professions, which were thought to be distinctive, are vanishing – that is almost unanimously noticed by a number of researchers, including Baxter & Brumfitt (2008), King, Nancarrow, Borthwick, & Grace (2015), Abramov (2016), Bochove, Tonkens, Verplanke & Roggeveen (2018). The very term of profession, as is agued by Dorozhkin, Kopnov, & Romantsev (2015), Zyryanova, Fedorov, Zaitseva, Tolkachevа, & Glushchenko (2016), loses its traditional meaning and status of the socially supported, stable and institutionalized division of labor, where the essential feature is the definiteness of forms and kinds of activities and the socially acknowledged results (including the salary). Thus, the premises to solve the problem of preparing the individual for self-realization in actual and future professional sphere are even vaguer. Consequently, the necessity to modernize the existing practices of professional education is urgent, as was mentioned by Romanov & Yarskaia-Smirnova (2009), Almeida, Behrman, & Robalino (2012) etc.

The prevalent majority of publications designate the methodology of the modernization in the prognostics of the world of professions development, such as Rainie & Anderson (2017), or "The Atlas of new professions" (2018). However, we should acknowledge that the forecasting in development of the world of professions is mostly fantastic and rarely falls into the real and factual versions that meet the needs of the labor market, as well as the employers. Preparations for a profession that is doomed to remain the product of theoretical fantasy has even less perspective than preparations for vanishing professions. Therefore, the prognostic methodology offers a poor-productive basis for updating the professional education not in the future only, but also actually, when some other methodology is on demand for modernizing the professional education.

Problem Statement

We offer a conceptually relevant and practically viable strategy for teachers, administrators, students, technicians and coaches, which is also justifiable from a financial investments point of view, that will guarantee the adaptation of graduates up to the high volatility of labor market requirements and, thus, forming the capability for multifarious professional activity during life-span development.

Research Questions

Solving the above-mentioned problem presupposes answering the following questions:

Is there a conceptual and pragmatic foundation to construct a new strategy of education not in the hypothetical and fantastic future, but in the actual activities of modern educational institutions? Is the present professional education viable pedagogically in preparing individual for future professional adaptations? What alike this present should be? What actuality in pedagogics can answer the challenges of the future?

What theoretical research is necessary for helping the new strategy of professional education?

What else can condition the forming of students’ ability to take painlessly the changing directions of their professional activity in life-span development?

Purpose of the Study

The research goal is to prove conceptually the social-economic necessity and organizational possibility of forming the students’ capability to adapt to volatile labor market requirements through their life-span development.

Research Methods

To reach the purpose we plan generalize existing conceptual foundations of actual professional education as reflected in publications and in practice of educational institutions. In the paper, we cite just mostly typical publications and cases.

The intra-disciplinary critique of various publications in various scientific spheres is also actual for developing of the incorporated version of professional education.

It also makes sense to extrapolate the theory of culture in creative mood to pragmatical schemes for adapting individuals in the changing world of professions and activities.


The strategy to orient the professional education to more than one and only profession is realistic and financially viable. The mono-professional training puts the individual at risk of being undemand in the labor market, to stay without job opportunities and the very survival. That is true about the existing professions and the prospective ones. If the profession goes undemand, the individual should look for another source of survival, and should switch to learning another profession, according to Bazzhina & Lobatyuk (2014). However, that will take time, which is scarce for learning another new profession every time the previous one is obsolete. It is more human to prepare the individual to probable, and, in fact, inevitable professional mobility and change of activities. This a task in the course of primary professional curricula. The individual has to prepare not to profession only, but to the professional mobility, to numerous changes of professions and activities, including the radical ones.

The capability does not grow by unconvincing attempts to predict the changes within the world of professions, but by bi- and multi-professional education only. The latter meets actual, not fantastic professions, and it is useful not by the number of options mostly. The multi-professional education gives the individual a chance to come through the experiences of different professions during the years of learning. It is important to touch the differences of professional discursive practices and attitudes. The idea is supported by Thomas , Ny Mia Tran , & Dawson (2010), Herring (2017), Hughes (2018), Opengart & Germain (2018). To form a high ability for professional mobility we need not just multi-professional education, not just learning the adjacent activities, which is argued in a number of publications, including Stephens & Ormandy (2018). To form a high ability for professional mobility, it is useful to learn differing professions, as is argued by Morgan (2017). Kislov (2017) supports the idea of radical poly- and multi-professionalism, especially in case of the basic, primary for the individual professional education. That will give the basis for forming the trans-professionalism of the individual, as described by Zeer & Symaniuk (2017), and even meta-professionalism ( Shipunova & Safonova , 2014) as the platform for quick and painless re-orientation towards a new and demanded on the labor market activity (Petersen & Willig , 2004; Borgna, 2017; Ballarino & Panichella , 2018). It is remarkable that the approach is fruitful even in professional training of disabled people, who are also forced to look for new job opportunities in the labor market (Christiansen, Taasen, Hagstrøm, Hansen, & Norenberg, 2017).

The professional education should orient to modern science about the world of professions, not to the existing traditions and up-to-date or unreliably expected demands of the employers. Highly conscious and effective individual professional mobility in the labor market is achievable by learning the scientific and practically relevant knowledge about the world of professions, its heterogeneity, state, and the perspectives. The relevant academic discipline is possible within every existing professional curricula and is especially useful in case of the first professional education. We still have to comprehend the principles of the complex intra-disciplinary science that should be the methodology of the discipline. We have also to define the minimal set of themes that orient to getting the knowledge that is able to guarantee the secure and conscientious individual priority choice in the world of professions, including the alternatives.

The discipline to fulfill that responsible and important mission should rely on the modern science about the world of professions, which combines the achievements of psychological professiology as the branch of labor psychology, promoted by Boerchi & Magnano (2015), Dediu, Stavroula, & Aditya (2018), and the historic professiology, promoted by Vladimirov & Leeuwen (2012), Collier (2012), Brante (2013), and also the sociology of professions (Abramov, 2012; Huda Mahmoud Hassan Hegazy & Hind Aqyl Almaizar, 2017; King, Borthwick, Nancarrow, & Grace, 2018), and anthropology of professions as positioned by Graeber (2014), Gamble & MacKinnon (2014), and last not least the special branch of pedagogics that concerns the problems of professional learning, – vocational pedagogic, as positioned by Beinicke & Bipp (2018), Grytnes, Grill, Pousette, Törner, & Nelsen (2018).

These sciences are separate now, however the premises for their integration are more and more visible today. We mean not the traditional and ordinary professional orientation, as positioned by Ashari, Azman, & Rasul (2018), aimed at helping the individual in search of definite profession. Such professional orientation realizes the premise to stabilize the individual position for the longer period, in ideal, for the rest of the life. The idea is disorienting for the individuals in the modern world. Nowadays we have to help the individual student not to choose the profession only, or to choose the professional education; additionally, we should form the psychological aptness to meet the radical changes in life, including the changes in professional activities, which seemed attractive and reliable to one. The psychological aptness should rely on the relevant knowledge about the tendencies in the world of professions. That knowledge is a priority for individual in situation of professional education, to avoid the doom of narrow corridor for one's self-realization, as argued by Il’in (2015), Morgan (2017), Reed (2018), and to form an option for conscientious choice in case of alternative scenarios for professional positioning in the labor market. The individual conscientious choice of one's professional curve comes by one's knowledge about the multifariousness of the modern world of professions and activities. The knowledge should incorporate the explanations for the origins of the world of professions, and how it came about this way and what are its directions of probable development. The knowledge can arrive through the relevant academic discipline, while formally learning in the educational institution.

The integrative ground for the professiological knowledge should be the historically genetic induction of the modern world of professions from the archaic pile of socially structured, natural, and technological contexts, including myths and morality, and others. The work is being done within so-called «die Alltagsgeschichte», which is still without the due priority of the world of professions. Here looms the risk of mistaking for the “starting point”, which had already been correctly defined by several researchers. For example, the theory of professional naming and coding of social information that is typical in archaic societies (Petrov, 1991) offers an understanding of profession origins as a specific socially significant, stable, and mystified phenomenon, which is reliable, but not self-sufficient.

The archaic situation is remarkable by that process of entering the profession and staying in it exclusively by elaborating “the” individuality, which answers to the challenges addressed to a professional, who represents the profession. Archaic is the situation of build-up, order, distinctiveness, borders, and esoterica. Non-trivial and judicially relevant work on typologization and classification of professions, which is necessary today, as well as for the nearest future, to base on representations of build-up and order, is now facing an unprecedented situation, in the least extent similar to the archaic one. The growth of social dynamics, when social structures are taking over all theoretical models by synergetic, when the state delegates its traditional power within labor market to numerous judicial subjects, the consumer, and the market are dictating unpredictable jobs and activities, which could be learned only spontaneously. Relatively short-term organizations change their goals and types of activity by looking for prepared employees, who are also ready to learn new activities, and the rotating mobility of staff is wide … that is the wild whirlpool of modern society.

The competence (capabilities) paradigm in education reflects the new social realities, when the mass priority consists not in mono-professional distinctiveness, but in periodical and permanent re-educating in life-span development of individual. Professions are losing their canons, their perfection. An adult individual is no longer positioned by some stable profession, but is evaluated by changing, fluid, and vague “competences”. Preparations for profession switch from well-grounded unique specialization to some general patterns, which are universally oriented, and open towards the unpredictable future.

The destiny of vocational pedagogic consists in following the dictate of social dynamics. The dictated message is not about personal qualities of future professionals (the idee fixe of psychological professiology), and not about the community, or group traditions (the idee fixe of historical professiology). Taking the vocational pedagogic as one of the significant branches of still pending professiology, we have to acknowledge the latter as coming from the general social theory, named usually as “social philosophy” that is conditioned by such key element as “heterology” (Kerimov, 2013) – the scientific study of social heterogeneity dynamics.

Thus, we see the perspectives of professiology as a new integral scientific attitude, coming from the acknowledgement of growing social dynamics, social heterogeneity that invokes people as consumers and employees simultaneously, to fulfill new social functions that need special training. Regularities of that special training, its organizing are still in the competence of vocational pedagogic, which should re-evaluate its archaic past and extract new lessons out of it, while prognosing the multilinear perspectives of society, praparing the people for the impending changes. The subject of professiology consists in profession as changing phenomenon of culture, technology, and society.

Offering a synopsis for future course on professiology, we can name out the following parts and sections that are intuitively clear about their contents.

Firstly, the section «Professional strategy of society», with the themes:

  • «Professional stratification of archaic family» (learning the multifariousness of activities in archaic society, their groupings and the institutionalizing of professions as the sacred ones, the directions and ways of transmitting the professions to juniors; the role of professions in individual socialization),

  • «Professions of ancient civilizations» (the growth of professional multifariousness, economization of professional groups, the legitimacy of professional powers),

  • «Trades structure of the Middle Ages» (urban professions in the Middle Ages, trade as a social institution, individual in the trade hierarchy),

  • «Industrial Revolutions in their influence on professional stratification of societies» (technological factors of specialized activities growth, desacralizing of professions, specialist as one-dimensional man, forms of professional solidarity),

  • «The world of professions as a result of scientific technological revolution» (the growth of intellectual and creative components of labor, professional vs narrow specialist, the growth of expert knowledge and its perpetrators),

  • «Professional allegiance as a way of life for modern individual» (correlation of social strata and professions),

  • «The social-professional mobility phenomenon» (deinstitutionalizing of professions: precariat, freelance, etc.).

Secondly, the section «Strategies for learning the professions», with the themes:

  • «Individual steps into the world of professions»,

  • «Theories of earning the profession»,

  • «Critical points in professional career»,

  • «Learning new profession as a social and psychological problem»,

  • «Infrastructure of professional choice in the modern world»,

  • «Multi-professionalism as a norm for the modern societies».

Thirdly, the section «Juridical support of professional activity in the modern society», with the themes:

  • «International Law defending the workers interests»,

  • «The origins of Labor Law in Russia and other countries»,

  • «Labor contract as a form of regulating the job relations»,

  • «Collective forms to defend the employees’ rights»,

  • «Juridical guarantees for self-employment in the modern societies».

The most important idea of the proposed discipline is to wake up the individual motivation for cultural learning. That is an exclusive option for opening up radically new horizons of self-realization in professional career, and in all its contexts and elements. The professional culture of the future should not run in unique mono-professionalism but should be open towards the multiplicity of human activities and communities. The border between hard labor for bread winning and the joyful successful creativity, including hobbies, is vague now. High culture is the only guarantee for professional success in labor market terms, where the advanced scientific knowledge, the history of culture competence, and poly-linguistic skills are always on demand, opening ways to well-being and professional inclusion. The high cultural level is the soul of the fundamental education, which does not exclude the fine details in professional learning, does not supplement that with broad amateurship approach. The professionalism and the professional culture should prosper with multiplicity of spheres for human self-realization, and the latter replaces the former, as Andrew (2013) argues. In complex with the personality open culture, and deep professional specialization, we are able to envisage the future ideal of man, agreeing with Kreber (2015), especially in the contexts of adaptation to high social dynamics, keeping up the mobility and possibility of conscientious choice of activity as a calling (Bernardi & Triventi, 2018). In this aspect we agree with those, who follow Stadler & Smith (2017), and argue the forming of entrepreneurship within the professional education, bringing out another significant condition of successful individual adaptation to the world of high social dynamics.


Therefore, the directions for development and the counters of relevant professional education are quite visible in the mirror of modern and with the coming growth of social-cultural dynamics, social-economic dynamics and professional mobility. They need theoretical specifications while in the practical application, which should come about, unless we are not to meet the arriving future with the yesterday’s goals, thus not accepting the actual realities, fencing them out.


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Dorozhkin, E., Kislov, A., Olkhovikov, K., & Shcherbina, E. (2018). The Premises Of Heterogeneity For Professional Training In Present And Future. In V. Chernyavskaya, & H. Kuße (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 51. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 456-464). Future Academy.