The concepts of the primary and the secondary are universal in linguistics. They can be compared with such concepts as objectivity and subjectivity In linguistics, when determining the primary and the secondary, these phenomena are divided on the basis of productivity, the secondary derives from the primary and can be found at all language levels: syntax, morphology, vocabulary. The process of transition from primary into secondary is that a certain unit with the help of certain means is converted into a new unit. One of the most important qualities of the secondary text is the obligatory presence of a certain prototype – the primary text, or prototext. There are two models of text formation of the secondary text that concern regularities of processes of production and comprehension of text. The main types of modifications used in the adaptation of the primary text to the secondary work were identified. Such modifications include 1) replacement of factual information 2) detailing of factual information 3) introduction of new information 4) omission of excessive detail of cultural and historical situation 5) introduction of additional elements of cultural and historical context.
Keywords: Adaptationmodificationprimary textsecondary texttransformation
The concepts of the primary and the secondary are universal in linguistics. They can be compared with such concepts as objectivity and subjectivity. If you determine the properties of objects by their objectivity and subjectivity, then the primary can be attributed to the objective properties that can not be mentioned separately from the objects. The secondary, in this case, will include subjective properties that can be considered derived from the primary and that arise only in the sensory perception of man. The primary is always the basis, exists separately and is an objective reality, while the secondary is a product of primary processing. The meaning of the word "primary" can be defined as initial, forming the first degree in something. The meaning of the word "secondary" can be defined as a secondary, side phenomenon that occurs not for the first time and is the result of primary actions. Based on these definitions, it can be concluded that for the linguistics it is important that the initial represents the first degree of complexity, and the secondary is complementary, representing the second degree and stage of the development, which is a consequence of the primary.
In linguistics, when determining the primary and secondary, these phenomena are divided on the basis of productivity, the secondary derives from the primary and can be found at all language levels: syntax, morphology, vocabulary. The process of transition from primary into secondary is that a certain unit with the help of certain means is converted into a new unit. Thus, within the framework of linguistics, the properties of the primary and the secondary are opposed not only by the value of the initial and derivative, but also by the degree of simplicity and complexity.
If we consider the categories of primary and secondary at the level of vocabulary, we can see that they are associated with one of the main functions of the language – nominative. So, it can be noted that these concepts are used in the form of the primary and secondary nomination. We speak about the primary nomination, when one of the units creates the image of a phenomenon in human thinking. The secondary nomination is defined as the use of existing units of the language for the creation of new phenomena designations, that is, the nomination of an object or phenomenon in an unusual manifestation.
At the same time, scientists note that the creation of secondary categories has a certain strategy, if we consider it from the position of the communicative situation. This is due to the need for clarity and the search for a better form of impact on the recipient. This criterion can be attributed to the property of productivity, which is the basis for the division of texts into primary and secondary.
The outcome of the above, the category of the primary and the secondary to the text can be defined in such a way that the primary text (T1) is created as a source material and its content is an objective reality. The secondary text (T2), which is based on the original text, is a subjective perception of the primary text, its adaptation or interpretation with certain goals and criteria.
Secondary texts today occupy a stronger position in a number of speech works that function in the communicative space of the society (Akopova & Chernyavskaya, 2014). The ability to present the content of reading, hearing, retelling it for another purpose, to make a summary, an abstract, to convey the information concisely or in short, and sometimes in a parody form is the basis of the communicative competence of the linguistic personality and its speech behavior (Makhmutova, Andreeva, & Dmitrenko, 2018). Secondary texts are works of speech, which are the result of secondary textual activity of different types. As a carrier of inaccurate, approximate knowledge, secondary texts are a way of interpreting information and adapting it to new conditions of communication.
One of the most important qualities of the secondary text is the obligatory presence of a certain prototype – the primary text, or prototext, with which the secondary text is in close connection and on the basis of which it is built (Chernyavskaya, 2016). The correlation of the secondary text and the prototype text makes it possible to observe the process of the text generation, to reveal the mechanisms of the active language consciousness of the person, to construct models of the secondary text formation. The following statement is accepted as a working hypothesis in this article. As a speech work, the secondary text must meet all the properties of textuality and reproduce the main stages of the process of text production, characteristic of the enlarged linguistic units; at the same time, as a special kind of text, the secondary text may have specific features associated with its main quality – the focus on the subject of speech and on another word, someone else's speech (Almazova & Smolskaia, 2018).
To analyze the concepts of the primary and the secondary as categories of linguistics;
To study the concepts of text modification and transformation;
To consider the main types of modifications of the secondary text;
To watch the main linguistic and semantic transformations in the production of the secondary text.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to identify the ratio of the primary and the secondary in the prototext and the secondary text based on the analysis of language material of texts of different genres and types
The main research methods used are: descriptive method consisting of analysis, synthesis and classification of the information obtained; comparative method used to compare the primary and secondary texts; inductive method, which results in theoretical conclusions based on the preliminary analysis of various language material.
The analyzed material included secondary formations of different kinds (genres and types) of the text, which reflect the general and special features of the considered text phenomenon. There are two models of text formation of the secondary that concern regularities of processes of production and comprehension of text, secondary text activities represent the unity and act as two stages.
The first model of the secondary text formation is connected with the peculiarities of perception and conceptualization of the text content – the basis and construction of its projection in the human consciousness (Chernyavskaya, 2016). The process of perception of the text content (T1) and its representation in the secondary text formation (T2) has much in common with the laws of the primary text formation as a mechanism of "turning events into text". According to Lotman (1992), text production means "retelling" of events in the system of a language, that is its subordination to a specific, pre-given structural organization. Relevant to the practice of communication is the reproduction of the subject situation as relevant as possible. However, due to the anthropocentric nature of language, human consciousness and the process of communication, as well as under the influence of many extralinguistic factors, the reflection of the situation is never complete and accurate, it always reflects one of many aspects of the situation, including the position of the observer and their subjective vision of the world. The relativity of the content of the generated text in relation to the propotypic situation, which is determined by the position of the subject, in psychology and cognitive linguistics is characterized by the concept of text projection (Chernyavskaya, 2017). Projectivity is considered as a fundamental property of text formation, which reflects the features of the process of transformation of mental representations of the multidimensional space of life in the linear plane of text space. The relative accuracy of the text of the projections inherent in the nature of test formation how to build a model for a reproducible reality.
In the process of "translation" of the object of communication – an event (subject situation) – into the form of a message, we operate with text units (supra-phrasal units, paragraphs, components or fragments of text), which, on the one hand, represent the structure of the situation (its scenario), and on the other hand reproduce the communicative installation of the author. Both tasks are important for the transformation of the event continuum into a structurally organized unity and cause asymmetry of the properties of the subject situation, its mental image and verbal projection.
The purpose of secondary textual activity is also to construct a projection of the reflected content. However, in this case, the referent is not a model of the real situation, but another mental formation – the reflected subject situation as a mental projection of the content of the primary text.
Despite the similarity of the models, T1 and T2 have fundamentally different nature. The primary text is considered as the first attempt to organize the new, has the existential nature and is the result not of knowledge, but of activities (related to the transfer of information). The secondary text has a semiotic nature, the first plan here is cognitive activity, work with the text, and the main function is to consolidate the social structure. If the creation of the primary text is motivated by an internal personal interest, then the construction of the secondary work is connected with external circumstances, so the possibilities of creative self-expression of the author are limited here.
As shown by numerous studies of scientists, the process of awareness (understanding) of the text and the construction of its mental projection is accompanied by compression of the content. The ability to collapse and expand the content is a fundamental property of the text, considered in the dynamic aspect-in the aspect of its generation and understanding. As a result of the action of text compression, special formations are born - non-inverted forms of the primary speech work. These new forms appear to be a kind of periphrases of the source text, the result of its recoding, regardless of whether the secondary text was created by the author himself or another linguistic personality. Compression of the text at this stage of cognitive processing corresponds to the idea of "internal" predicate, "internal word", where the allocated units are quasi-signs, designation of a conditional situation, a kind of code 13, which must be decrypted by the reader with the help of the author of the text.
The examples of a folded form of text are various kinds of abstracts, summaries, notes made on the basis of T1, not intended for public reading and therefore having a low degree of cohesion (connectivity).
If we turn again to the definitions of the concepts of the primary and the secondary, we can say that the primary text always correlates with the concepts of primary and initial value, and the secondary text – with the performance and the second stage of processing of any information. With regard to such definitions as incidental and secondary, they could be applied to secondary texts, since any text was generated for a purpose, and the relationship between the two texts could not be viewed from the perspective of the dominance of one text over another. At the same time, as noted above, the problem of determining the secondary texts, their functions and characteristics, as well as the construction of different models, refers to the problems of linguistics, and can also be considered within the literary theory of the text.
The confrontation between the concepts of primary and secondary text is related to the spread of the influence of the secondary text, which began in the twentieth century. Initially, this term was used to identify documents created in the processing of a primary text with the use of systematization and analysis. Secondary texts in the first place, then, include the texts in a compressed form contained information about the primary documents. The term "secondary text" was introduced by Verbitskaya (2000), based on her research, it can be revealed that the secondary texts are characterized by a certain stylistic inconsistency. Such texts can be attributed to a number of secondary and different from the original works of art, which retain the author's style and individual manner. Verbitskaya (2000, p. 53) defines the concept of secondary text as" a work of secondary style, which conveys the important features of the original text, which give the secondary text originality".
All secondary texts are imitations and are not stylistically independent works. They are intended to interpret the distinctive features of the original text, which may include linguistic, structural, stylistic, genre features of the original text, but the secondary text will contain an assessment or interpretation of the source text. It is important to note that the concept of a secondary text does not imply value judgments but is understood as a secondary work based on the original text, which is impossible without an understanding of the source material.
Many scholars divide the primary and secondary texts on the basis of object and autonomy or non-autonomy: the primary text is always distinctive and self-sufficient, while the secondary text is created on the basis of the original text and cannot function without it. On the basis of this classification, primary and secondary texts are divided according to the principle of what object they describe: objects and phenomena of reality for the primary text or information presented in the source text for the secondary work. This division is related to the differentiation of the primary text as containing information about facts and objects, and the secondary as containing the result of the processing of the original text. It is important to note that the independence of the original text is opposed to the reproducing nature of the secondary text.
Polubichenko (2017, p. 65) significantly expands the boundaries of the concept of secondary text and proposes to designate the secondary text as "any text that is created on the basis of a certain text of the original or closely related to it". This approach to the study of secondary texts allows us to classify translation texts as secondary texts.
Based on further studies of the concept of the secondary text, various interpretations and classifications began to appear, which were based on the nature of the relationship between the text of the original and the secondary work. They were based on the nature of the changes and transformations to which the original text was subjected in the process of processing into a secondary text, therefore, there were levels at which text secondary character is revealed.
Maidanova (1994, p. 81), having analyzed the existing definitions, according to which the space for processing is the text of the original, as the main element in the creation of a secondary work calls the change of the author. The change of authorship means "not the replacement of one author by another, but the change of one idea by another, despite the fact that the personality can remain unchanged".
In this case, the key point is the purpose of creating a secondary text, that is, the task facing the author of the secondary work. Based on the above, the following categories of secondary texts can be distinguished depending on the author's intentions:
- reproduction of the original text, which may be a retelling, abstract or adaptation; in this case, the main purpose of the author to convey the content of the original text;
the establishment of the range of original texts; this species may occur in journalism, it merges texts with the aim of obtaining new information;
- dialogue with the original text; this type can include text-imitation, text-response, text-study;
- completion of the original text;
- continuation of the finished text of the original; this type of text is created on the basis of an existing finished primary text.
Although Maidanova (1994) does not include the translation text in the category of secondary texts, it may well be included in such a classification, as it falls under the definition of the author. Maidanova (1994) writes that "the text of the translation is created on the basis of the original text, and the intentions of the translator will be different from the intentions of the author of the original text (even if the author and the translator are the same person). If you try to include a translation to one of the categories of secondary texts, primarily the choice of category will be based on the purposes which put before itself by the translator" (p. 83). If we are talking about the translation in its classical sense, which implies the maximum preservation of the content, meaning and style, such a translation can be attributed to the first category – reproducing secondary texts.
However, if we consider the borderline and ambiguous cases, which include the author's translation, translation-research, translation experiment, analytical translation, some of them can be identified in the third group or even to the last, if we talk about self-translation. A kind of system is built in which the secondary text occupies a special place depending on the degree of transformation, which depends on the complexity or simplification of the text, as well as increasing or decreasing the volume of the text.
As practice shows, there are rare cases when the text of the translation is fully consistent with the content of the original text. In most cases, the text of a translation changes in varying degrees according to one or more parameters of creating secondary texts. These include stylistic, structural, morphological and syntactic parameters (Almazova, Eremin, & Rubtsova, 2016).
Thus, the primary text is an original and independent work, which is created by the author with a certain attitude or purpose, which determines the choice of the genre and style of the text, the structure, as well as the choice of certain means of language for the transmission of information messages and the achievement of communication goals. In this case, depending on the genre or type of the original text, its author will determine which language means he will put in his text.
The subject on which the text of the secondary work is based is not the objects of reality or ideas that appear in the mind of the author, but the text of the original, its content and form, the peculiarities of the writing style, its functions, the original intention of the author or all of the above (Fedotova, 2015). The secondary text is created on the basis of substantial, structural and stylistic transformations of the original text in accordance with the goals and objectives set by the author of the secondary work. The secondary text depends on the original text chronologically and genetically, but it depends on the interpretation, which makes it possible to create an infinite number of secondary works of the same type on the basis of one text of the original.
The nature of the reference function in the text is explained by the personality of the addressee, and therefore the modification of the reference space and the presence in the secondary text of parts, the content of which is not similar to the content of the original text, can be considered a sign of the primary text. In order to organize the material, it is necessary to divide the changes in the content of the secondary work into the following types: 1) replacement of the actual information (in the secondary text there may be changes and corrections of the original text), 2) detail of the actual information (in the secondary text the events developing in the original text are described in more detail), 3) introduction of new information (in the secondary text there is a completely new content), 4) omission of excessive detail of the cultural and historical situation (in the secondary text unnecessary details disappear, associated with the era of the original text), 5) the introduction of additional elements of the cultural-historical context (in the secondary text, there are additional cultural and historical details to convey the author's intention to the viewer).
Consider each of the types in detail:
Replacement of factual information. This variety includes such types of changes in the text, in which the replacement of a certain part or unit of the text, or there is an adjustment or correction of certain parts of the original text. Such modifications may be made by the author in the text of the secondary work and are sometimes associated with a time frame or the absence or presence of certain information.
Very often, a strong change in content can only be found in the most recent version of the secondary text, while earlier versions of the secondary text may in terms of content be very similar to the original text, although this does not negate the fact that they are secondary. For example, the author of a secondary work may replace factual information, referring to the fact that after a certain period of time people begin to differently represent and determine the events of the past, and may appear new details of past events, which is reflected in the secondary text.
- Details of the actual information. In addition to replacing certain units of text, the author of a secondary work often adds something to subsequent versions of the secondary text, and thus the secondary text acquires new details and details, as well as reflections of the characters and the author. In this case, the implementation of the reference function is due to the detail of facts, images and thoughts. These modifications and additions vary from the original text to the secondary text, which can be found by comparing any two fragments of the original text and the secondary work.
- Introduction of new factual information. The properties of the primary text in connection with the implementation of the reference function in the examples described in the previous two paragraphs are manifested not only in the fact that the author of the secondary work modifies the content of the original text, but also in the fact that he often introduces completely new information and details in the text of the So parts of the original text can be changed in different ways depending on the type of secondary text and its author, and in addition to the reference function to enclose a diverse set of functions of the language.
It is worth mentioning that changes of this kind are not always based on temporary changes. If we compare the secondary texts in Russian with the original texts in English, we can see that the reference space in the case of the Russian-language versions is wider than the space of the English-language original texts.
- Omission of excessive drill in cultural-historical environment. Feature of the implementation of the transformation of the source text in the secondary work is when changing the destination and code, as well as necessary explanations of some of the cultural and historical realities of the author when creating a secondary text removes unnecessary, unclear and excessive information, which, in his opinion, would not be necessary to the readers or viewers and, subsequently, can confuse them, it is wrong to convey the meaning, so the author is right to omit a detailed description of the details of cultural-historical context. As a result of such changes in the text of the secondary work, new changed details of the cultural and historical context appear, which were not in the text of the original, or Vice versa, there is a omission of some cultural and historical realities that were in the text of the original.
- Introduction of additional elements of cultural and historical context. Very often the author, on the contrary, complements the secondary text with new details and facts, which may be due to different purposes. In some cases, such additional information is significant for the author or viewer, since without adding additional information, it would be difficult to understand the plot of the secondary work. In other cases, this type of change may be due to the desire of the author of the secondary work to impress the reader or affect the course of his thoughts.
Thus, the five main types of modifications that can be found in the comparative analysis of the primary text and the secondary work were considered. These types can be considered typical for all secondary texts, as these types can be classified as standard methods of working with secondary works (Kostikova, Prishvina, Ilyushin, Fedotova, & Belogurov, 2018). Of course, it is possible to find other varieties that will be characteristic of a certain text of the secondary work.
However, it should be noted that the author of the secondary work is forced to make changes that will help better convey to the viewer or reader the meaning of the secondary work, so the author can not do without replacing the actual information and omissions that often complicate the concept of the main idea of the work (Almazova, Khalyapina, & Popova, 2017).
As shown by the analysis, the original text and the secondary work are connected by individual and contradictory connections. The secondary text is not an exact copy of the primary text, it can be considered as the second stage of modification of the original text or one of the variants of modification of the primary text. Although adaptation is by nature always secondary, its secondary nature is still relative. By its originality, adaptation is often close to the original text.
The primary text is an original and independent work, which is created by the author with a specific purpose or purpose, which determines the choice of the genre and style of the text, the structure, as well as the choice of certain means of language for the transmission of information messages and the achievement of communication goals. The secondary text is created on the basis of substantial, structural and stylistic transformations of the primary text in accordance with the goals and objectives set by the author of the secondary work. The secondary text depends on the primary text chronologically and genetically, but it depends on the interpretation, which makes it possible to create an infinite number of secondary works of the same type on the basis of one text of the original.
The main types of modifications used in the adaptation of the primary text to the secondary work were identified. Such modifications include 1) replacement of factual information 2) detailing of factual information 3) introduction of new information 4) omission of excessive detail of cultural and historical situation 5) introduction of additional elements of cultural and historical context.
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30 December 2018
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Almazova, N. I., & Smolskaia, N. B. (2018). Basic Models And Modifications In Secondary Text Production. In V. Chernyavskaya, & H. Kuße (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 51. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1787-1796). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.190