The article is dedicated to the issue of training future specialists in interdisciplinary areas. The structure of the article has been organized in accordance with the analytical task posed by the authors for this study. In the introduction, the scientific problem is revealed, the methodology of the research is provided, and the reference base is generalized. The theoretical part of the article contains analytical materials. The principles of modern highly qualified personnel training directly depend on the global trends on labor market and the practice of realizing the intellectual potential received by a specialist at university. In the article, three key aspects of relevant pedagogical practice are considered through the example of RUDN master's training. The first aspect is RUDN’s mission in the context of challenges that Russia faces today. The second aspect is the combination of competences and skills, which in the 21st century must be possessed by graduates aiming to realize themselves both creatively and career-wise. Finally, the third aspect is the adaptation of educational programs to modern conditions, which is expressed not only as branding or rating indicators of a particular institution, but primarily in the effectiveness of "integration" in the education system that meets the requirements of the current situation on the global labor market. To reinforce the findings of the study, the authors, in addition to analyzing the experience of RUDN in the field of training qualified personnel, also turn to the experience of other Russian federal universities, which is summarized in the final part.
Keywords: Educationefficiencymaster’s studiesprofessional tasksRUDN University
In 2003 the Russian Federation signed the Bologna Declaration. The Bologna Process is convergence and unification of the higher education systems of the European countries aimed at creation of a unified space for higher education. As of 2018, 47 countries joined the declaration. Unification of higher education provides students with a number of advantages. First of all, it is the possibility of free mobility between higher educational institutions during the period of study (internships and international exchanges for both teachers and students, participation in international projects, scientific and practical conferences, etc.), as well “as potential employment in any Bologna Process participant country without the need to confirm a diploma or obtain additional education” (Komsomolskaya Pravda, 2016).
1.1. Institutional aspect of the matter
From the institutional point of view, by 2010 Russia reformed the national education system in accordance with the main provisions of the Bologna Declaration. The main practical result of the reform carried out is arguably the introduction of undergraduate and graduate programs, along with specialist and postgraduate study, as is customary in European universities. As a result, it became possible to issue unified European supplements for bachelor's and master's degree diplomas to all graduates.
1.2. Pressing challenges and current trends
Nevertheless, despite the interim positive practical results of the Bologna Process, difficulties of both objective and subjective nature appear constantly. An objective condition for the successful implementation of the Bologna Process in modern conditions is the successful integration of national education systems into the dynamically developing market environment. Preliminarily, "this concerns the labor market, which forms the demand for highly qualified specialists. Moreover, this concept can be considered both on the national and pan-European scale" (Shadrikov & Kuznetsova, 2013, p. 231). In this regard, the authors conducted a content analysis of the leading universities in Russia in regard to their relevance to the national labor market. Among subjective problems, the authors name international political agenda, which often has a very negative impact on cooperation in any subject areas, including education. In the proposed study, the authors took into account three main trends in the field of specialist training of the future, characteristic of the modern education system in Russia:
Internationalization of higher education and increased mobility of teachers and students, the possibility of a wider exchange of experience, foreign internships.
Strengthening the practical orientation of education, introduction of practical disciplines in educational programs, involving practitioner teachers. Among the educational organizations that are most rapidly restructuring to meet the new requirements of legislation and employers, we should distinguish the Institute of International Economic Relations. In addition to the program, students can attend master classes by specially invited experts. The speakers are well-known representatives of science, culture, banking and other areas of business. The curriculum is based on the current demands of modern employers. Master classes and seminars are held with the participation of well-known businessmen, managers, heads of large enterprises, and politicians.
Use in the educational process of multimedia technologies, visualization systems, widespread introduction of distance and e-learning technologies and, as a result, increasing the popularity of distance education. The target audience of this form of education, which is new for Russia, includes adults, self-earning people who are engaged in professional activities and want to gain applied knowledge for career growth. Distance education is indispensable for remote cities, where there is often no other way to get the desired education. It is worth noting that distance education programs are much cheaper than similar educational courses conducted in the traditional system.
Within the framework of the study, the authors studied the main and auxiliary scientific problems. Based on the results of their solving, the final part of the material summarizes the main theoretical conclusions.
In order to conduct a competent analysis of master's program on the example of RUDN, it is necessary to first define the concept of the master's program and its contribution to the modern three-level system of higher education in Russia.
2.1. Master's program
Master's program is the second stage of the three-level system of higher education, which produces professionals with more in-depth specialization than bachelor's program. The duration of the program is 2 years. For admission, one must pass a special qualification exam, which is determined by the university, and pass through the enrollment competition. Master’s programs accept both bachelors and specialists, and it does not have to be the same educational organization. A bachelor's degree can be obtained by graduating from one educational organization (for example, non-governmental one), and a master's degree can be obtained in another (for example, a state one). However, bachelors who do not pass through the enrollment competition can obtain a master's degree only on a paid basis. A master’s degree grants the right to further education in postgraduate program. Students of the master’s program, as well as with the bachelor's program, are granted a deferment from military service.
The main scientific problem that the authors pose in this study is to identify the patterns that affect the quality of implementation of the fundamental processes in modern education.
As an example, it is proposed to consider the practice of master's program in RUDN, comparing it with similar practice in a number of Russian universities of federal significance.
In the course of work on the study, the authors take into account that the problems and prospects of the system of specialist training in individual universities are directly dependent on the current situation in the country's higher education system. For this reason, the authors put the following auxiliary scientific problem in the preparation of this study: to give a description of the current state of affairs in the domestic educational system, suggesting, as far as possible, the best ways to overcome existing difficulties.
2.2. Factors of relevance of modern universities of Russia
This issue is classified by the authors of the article as the main one, especially when considering such key points as the realization of a trained specialist on the labor market. This issue is the subject of analysis by the specialists of the Institute of Applied Economic Research (IAER) of the RANEPA Zemtsov, Barinova, & Eremkin (2015). In their study published in the Higher School of Economics, the authors focused on identifying the main factors influencing the choice of a higher education institution in Russia. From our point of view, this aspect is crucial when considering the process of forming a future specialist, since it underlies all subsequent long-term work on the preparation of a qualified specialist (Zemtsov et al., 2015). When analyzing the professional culture of a future specialist, one should proceed from a global understanding of the problem. Therefore, the authors take into account such an important aspect as the functions of modern universities - in other words, their goals and objectives in the context of the training of future personnel. In addition, it is necessary to understand to what extent Russian universities meet international criteria for assessing the quality of their work. After all, even if the very idea of the educational process is unified, its quality cannot be the same taking into account state, national and traditional specific features. In the framework of this study, we turn to the experience of colleagues from the University of Tyumen, who conducted a comparative analysis of the missions of domestic and foreign universities (Emelyanova & Volosnikova, 2018).
Within the framework of the research, the authors raise a number of questions related to the specific features of the educational process.
3.1. What competitive advantages does the master's program provide?
The article considers the basic set of tools used by the teaching staff of the university for the preparation of qualified specialists through the example of RUDN. At the same time, it analyzes the specific features of the second level of higher education in Russia, and estimates its potential and advantages, which the graduate receives during subsequent employment after graduating from the university.
3.2. How much does the concept of continuing education introduced in our country contribute to the achievement of the goal of effective preparation of a future specialist?
Deep systemic reforming of higher education, which has been taking place in our country in recent years, implies, among other things, the introduction of the so-called continuing education. We are talking about a consistent set of measures to improve the current qualification of personnel and professional retraining of specialists when needed. The authors have already considered this problem in the studies prepared in the framework of the international scientific and practical conference INTED/IATED (Martynenko & Parkhitko, 2016; Martynenko & Parkhitko, 2018), a number of theoretical and theoretical conclusions were tested in practice.
3.3. The role of innovation in the development of RUDN
A learning technology, distance learning (e-learning) in particular, was considered in this context. A lot of research has been prepared on this topic both in Russia and abroad. Trends in the development of the distance education market in Russia have been studied at Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Angelova & Podolskaya, 2016), the education market in Russia was analyzed with a medium-term forecast at the DaVinci Institute (Colorado, US) by T. Frey, one of the leading American researchers in education and economics, and the leading specialist of the scientific holding Netologia Group M. Spiridonov (Frey & Spiridonov, 2017).
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to systematize the available scientific and theoretical data on the training of a future specialist, taking into account the specific features of Russian higher education institutions, including through the example of the master's program at RUDN and the identification on their basis of an optimal mechanism that makes it possible to realize the high potential of the education system in the Russian Federation to the highest extent.
To achieve the goals and tasks of the study, the authors used a wide range of methods. These include analytical method, systematization method, comparison method, applied analysis method, forecast method, and statistical method. Each of them allowed to study a specific segment of the studied problems by fragmenting it and allowing, therefore, to analyze it more thoroughly.
Mission of the Master’s studies in RUDN University
First of all, let us turn to the practical purpose of the master’s program at RUDN University. Being the second stage of the higher education system in Russia, the master's program provides an excellent opportunity to obtain two diplomas in six years and become more competitive on the labor market. Here is a vivid example.
RUDN has the widest range of programs and directions within the Bachelor's and Specialist programs. Suppose that a student who has completed a 4-year undergraduate program has received a bachelor's degree in law ("general" specialization). But at the same time, during the study period, the student showed interest in customs. Before Russia joined the Bologna Process in 2003, it would have taken about eight to nine years to obtain two diplomas and master the entire necessary educational base: five to six years to obtain the first diploma and two to three years to master the second specialty and get a second diploma. In addition, the second higher education is obtained on a paid basis. However, the master’s program, where a student enters after a bachelor's or a specialist degree that provide the same career prospects, is available both on a paid and free basis. As a result, after the total six-year term of study (bachelor's degree plus a master's degree), RUDN has formed a highly qualified specialist who has mastered a narrow specialty by merging two seemingly unrelated subjects.
The same is true of the study of foreign languages. At RUDN, the school of foreign languages has been traditionally strong. For example, having mastered English within the bachelor’s program, in master’s program the student can master the language that best suits their future specialization, or the one in which the student has a personal interest. As a rule, at RUDN students prefer to master one or two European languages and one Asian language (most often - Chinese or Japanese).
One of the competitive advantages of RUDN is the developed system of joint master's programs, which offer students the widest profile of directions and subjects. As noted by Krasnova (2014, p. 21) in her comprehensive study of the management system of a modern university, "Joint educational program of a higher educational institution is defined as long-term / short-term educational programs of all education levels organized and implemented by a higher professional education institution in conjunction with one or more higher education institutions (or another educational institution)". The main criteria of RUDN’s joint master's educational program with the partner institution are the following:
the joint program was developed by the structural subdivision of RUDN (department, institute) together with one or several partner universities (or other educational institution);
students of each party take part in the joint educational program in partner universities (or other educational institutions);
the stay of students in partner universities has a duration that shall meet the established rules in the Joint Program Agreement;
periods of study and academic attestation passed by students in partner institutions of the joint program are mutually recognized;
partner universities shall develop a curriculum jointly and can organize joint admission and attestation commissions;
after completing of the joint educational program, students shall receive education certificates accepted in partner universities.
This practice has already proved to be very effective, since it allows creating highly qualified specialists who not only possess all the necessary skills and competencies, but also have a diploma of not one but two universities (RUDN + foreign partner university). In the conditions of the modern labor market, such a factor is undoubtedly a serious competitive advantage. RUDN has achieved significant results in promoting joint programs. Currently, the university has more than 100 joint educational programs, 35 of which are master’s and bachelor's programs with European partner universities and universities in China, and "the university implements 2 other joint programs in the Kyrgyz Republic and the Republic of Kazakhstan. In addition, more than 60 programs are being implemented within the CIS Network University. All of them were created in the last 7 years" (Krasnova, 2014, p. 24). The university-wide joint educational programs management made such results possible.
For practical illustrative purposes, the authors propose to consider the principles of joint master's program at RUDN through one specific example - the joint master's program "Public Administration - Political Sciences" of RUDN University and the University of Potsdam (Germany). The program was introduced in RUDN University in 2010. Let’s take a look at its working variant (RUDN Master Programs, 2018).
The duration of the program is 2 years. The languages are Russian, German, and English. The following qualifications are awarded:
RUDN University - Master of Arts in Political Science, specialization "Public Administration", supplement to the diploma of higher professional education compatible with the European diploma supplement in English;
University of Potsdam - Master's degree in Management Sciences, specialization "Public Administration" (Deutsch-Russischer Master für Verwaltungswissenschaft), supplement to the diploma of higher professional education compatible with the European diploma supplement in English.
Conditions for admission to the program:
The joint master's program accepts students of the University of Potsdam who have completed the bachelor's program in the Political Sciences, Management Sciences, and RUDN students with a diploma in Political Sciences, State and Municipal Management, International Relations, or a specialist diploma. The admission of candidates holding diplomas in other areas can be carried out additionally if needed in each specific case and upon provision of the necessary documents.
Students who are accepted for the program must know Russian and German on the level confirmed by certification documents (TestDAF, ZOP (Zentrale Oberstufen-Prüfung), RUDN interpreter diploma or certificate, or another equivalent document).
Admission examinations to the program are an interview of a candidate with the participation of professors from the University of Potsdam, and an examination in the specialty for master’s program applicants held in late June.
Brief information about the program:
The joint master's program is provides in a full-time form. The program lasts two academic years (104 weeks). The first year of study is held at the University of Potsdam. The second year of the program is held at RUDN and involves the educational master's program (450 hours of lectures), as well as the research part.
In addition to research work related to the preparation of the final qualification work (master's thesis), the research part of the educational program includes two months of professional internship.
Obtaining qualifications involves final state attestation, which includes the defense of the master's thesis, as well as passing the state qualification exam.
RUDN teachers are invited to Germany to read special courses on Russian political process, while RUDN welcomes its colleagues, professors from Potsdam every year.
The final state attestation is carried out by a joint commission consisting of professors of RUDN and the University of Potsdam.
Professional internship lasts 8 weeks and takes place in public authorities, municipal government, public organizations, as well as in commercial structures. In the process of professional internship, master’s program students have the opportunity to use and acquire new professional skills, improve language skills, and gain experience in cross-cultural communication. Based on the results of the internship, the host institution gives the student a recommendation and approves their internship report.
Graduates of the joint educational program can work in state and municipal government of Russia and Germany, commercial organizations, analytical centers, as well as research and educational institutions.
Scholarships and financial support:
There is an opportunity to receive a scholarship from the German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, DAAD). Accommodation in hostels and partial employment can be provided as well.
Thus, by obtaining RUDN master’s degree, yesterday's student develops narrow-profile and analytical competencies, and prepares the foundation for a scientific or managerial career. With such qualifications it is easier to get a prestigious job and make a career takeoff from a higher starting position. Other things being equal, recruitment specialists will rather choose in favor of a candidate with a master's degree. In addition, the Master's Diploma is an obligatory requirement for those who plan to participate in postgraduate and residency programs, continue research and become part of the scientific community, and as RUDN’s practice shows, most graduates prefer to continue research work within their alma mater.
Mission and functions of modern Universities in the context of future specialists’ training
Today, the world agenda is characterized by extremely high dynamism of the processes affecting virtually all sociopolitical spheres. As noted by researchers from the Tyumen State University Emelyanova and Volosnikova (2018, p. 85), "in modern education, innovation has replaced traditions, uncertainty has replaced stability, and pluralism has replaced uniformity". These factors determine the functions of modern universities not only from the point of view of their direct purpose (training of qualified specialists), but also from the point of view of their adaptation to the changing conditions and requirements of the labor market.
Content analysis conducted among 159 universities of Russia and the world showed that the main functions of modern universities are reduced to 5 conceptual areas. The first and main function, as at the time of emergence of the classical university in its traditional understanding, is still the
formation of new ways of thinking;
creation of an academic environment;
creation of educational services;
promotion of knowledge around the world" (pp. 88-89).
The second function revealed by these authors is research. In the course of the analysis, the researchers note that "In the modern mission texts, this function is expressed as follows:
global context of research;
innovation of research results;
international openness and cooperation" (Emelyanova & Volosnikova, 2018, p. 91).
The other functions identified by the authors are professional, social and cultural, and disciplinary. At the same time, in the context of the disciplinary function, "stimulating competitiveness" is especially emphasized, which seems to be the crucial condition for professional activity in general. Otherwise, an institution that is behind its competitors not only in program development, but also in the concept of modernization, runs the risk of not taking the niche in which it could maximize its potential.
The authors of this study share the approach of colleagues from the Tyumen State University completely. For many years, the educational and research functions of RUDN have remained unchanged. At the same time, by promptly monitoring the changes on the market of educational services and the labor market, which is closely connected to it, the RUDN management is consistently adapting the university to new challenges. This is reflected in the mission of the university, which can be summarized as the training of specialists in demand in various fields of human activity and education of young people who can successfully work in any country of the world and show their creative potential in the conditions of interconnection of civilizations and the diversity of modern society (RUDN Mission, 2018). It should be noted that future specialists are trained at RUDN with the highest internationalization index in Russia, which, on the one hand, provides a number of competitive advantages and, on the other hand, imposes additional responsibility for the quality of the educational services provided. Graduates will later have to use their knowledge in practice not only in Russia, but also abroad, where the requirements of employers to specialists are often higher than in Russia.
A few words should be said about the factors of relevance of a university in modern conditions. Researchers Zemtsov, Barinova, & Eremkin (2015, p. 204) of the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IAER) of the Higher School of Economics and RANEPA indicate that "the peculiarities of the university’s location, for example, in the center of the capital or in a small town, affect all the components of the university's activity and the applicant’s choice. Applicants want to live in "the most comfortable city with a high standard of living, higher career prospects, etc. At the same time, the proximity of the university to the place of permanent residence of the applicant and their family is an equally significant factor". Returning to the topic of dynamism in modern life, meeting the above-mentioned conditions is of fundamental importance for the students striving not only to master a specialty, but also to create a family without losing those years that traditionally are spent on education. This trend first manifested itself after the end of World War II, but during the second half of the XX century and especially at the beginning of this century, it transformed into one of the key conditions in the choice of university by applicants.
New technological Principles of Education
The training of a qualified future specialist in the context of globalization requires new principles and methods for organizing the educational process. Among other things, this refers to the training techniques that imply the widespread use of digital and distance know-hows designed to optimize and speed up the training of a specialist, regardless of distances, citizenship, or other subjective factors.
One of such technological innovations is distance learning. In our opinion, the most successful definition for distance education was offered by the authors from Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Angelova and Podolskaya (2016, p. 28), in their work, they say: "Distance learning is a process of obtaining knowledge that is partially or fully realized with the use of computer and telecommunication technology". Further, they also reveal the main features of the distance approach to learning: "the student is at a distance from the teachers, training tools and educational resources that are located on the servers of the educational institution" (Angelova & Podolskaya, 2016, p.29-30). It is also interesting that Angelova and Podolskaya note the fundamental difference between distance learning and correspondence education (in the form it was used in the Soviet Union). According to the authors, these two approaches have a number of significant differences. The most significant one is that "the correspondence student obtains knowledge independently, with the opportunity to communicate with the teacher 2-4 times during the training course", while in the case of distance learning, contact with the teacher is constantly available online. Today, in many higher educational institutions, "correspondence education is supplemented, thus forming hybrid courses, and often it is replaced by distance programs" (Angelova & Podolskaya, 2016, p. 30).
This aspect implies a number of innovative technical solutions, which include, for example, the introduction of virtual classes in the educational practice. This topic was investigated by a group of Spanish and Argentine scientists (Esteve Romero et al., 2018) who managed to conduct an analysis of studies within the master’s program at the Jaume I University. As part of the study, Esteve Romero et al. (2018, p. 1166) came to the following conclusion. "The Virtual Classroom is an essential tool for e-learning. This teaching strategy depends on the accessibility of professors and students to the web, and how they deal with internet resources". The Master of Analytical Techniques of the Clinical Laboratory (TALC), taught at the University Jaume I, has undergone important changes in the last two years: it began offering traditional face-to-face classes, and it has recently turned into an almost distance-taught Master. The adaptation of the professors depended on their origin: the Hospital workers (40%) do not use internet tools, while University lecturers prefer them. Otherwise, the "students prefer to get access to the documents (articles and didactic units) by on-line tools. Only a 10% of the students asked to receive the didactic material in paper, because they did not have access to internet" (Esteve Romero et al., 2018, p.1169-1170). The main conclusion was that the institutions using e-learning must implement several support actions for distance students, like to offer courses about the management of web tools and websites, and provide free and unlimited access to internet.
RUDN follows the world practice; therefore, the entire system of pre-university training at the university, aimed at adapting future applicants for subsequent education at RUDN, has been switched to distance education. RUDN Master's schools, each a complex of activities for 3-5 days, integrated into the master's training process in general, are also often conducted on a distance basis. Within the master's training, there are several courses taught online: this is mainly done for the sake of the correspondence students.
System of continuing Education in Russia as the Factor of qualitative Masters’ Training
The topic of continuing education is one of the key issues in the context of the higher education reform in Russia. From the point of view of training a future specialist, this issue is also at the heart of the agenda, since one of the indispensable qualities of a modern specialist is their ability to adapt to the everchanging labor market conditions, and in some cases even their readiness to master a new specialty.
The authors of this study considered the issue of continuing education in Russia during the preparation of material for the international scientific and practical conference IATED/INTED in 2016 and 2018. The authors Martynenko & Parkhitko (2018, p. 8725) believe that for the successful introduction and implementation of the continuing education system in our country, first of all, we need "to adopt unified state standards, unified state programs, and unified state textbooks. At the same time, unified state standards have already been created in Russia". We also have come "to understand the need for a single textbook, at least a history textbook. But we must come to understand the need for unified state programs".
We should not forget that the development of continuing education inevitably entails the development of fundamentally new directions in higher education as a whole. This is the conclusion Mozhaeva (2013, p. 135) arrived at in a study prepared at the Tomsk State University. According to the author, development of e-learning, "naturally, generates the whole spectrum of new scientific directions at higher schools" which are connected not only with the development of new information, communications and pedagogical technologies, but also "with the research of cultural interfaces of EL tools, the social phenomena generated by EL development, with studying of features of EL management". Thus, the effectively operated e-learning is one of the important factors of innovative development of the contemporary education in whole and of higher educational institutions in particular.
The ultimate goal pursued not only by the Russian government, but also by the Russian society, is to ensure that the domestic system of education and training of highly skilled personnel is competitive on the global market of educational services and, consequently, on the labor market. The validity of this approach was revealed in the material prepared by Martynenko & Parkhitko (2016) and based on the results of the second stage of the reform of the Russian education system in 2016. A potential size of the continuing education market in
In general, the basic trends in development of continuing education market in
"rise of mobility and accessibility of education;
possibility of integration of educational process into social services;
development of technologies for a distance education" (Martynenko & Parkhitko, 2016, p. 5836)
Concluding the topic of continuing education, we should note that the successful implementation of this concept in our country is also hampered by the fact that, in contrast to our foreign partners, Russia has not yet acquired the necessary practical experience. Given the ambitious nature of the task, it seems that it will take at least several more years to fully implement the project. According to Filippova (2015) extension of the education concept via eliminating its identification with the formal face-to-face education and rendering of any activity that "aims to change attitudes and behaviors of individuals by providing them with new knowledge and skills" (p.350). Educational functions are performed by various social institutions in the modern system; enterprises assume important educational functions and significant part of the education system refers to modern computer and telecommunication technology for storage, processing and transfer of information supplemented by the conventional information technologies. Filippova (2015, p. 352) notes also the "establishment and adoption of market mechanisms, formation and development of the market of educational products and services; globalism – a distinctive feature of the new education system and its development process; this is the system of open, flexible, individualized lifelong learning".
We have examined the basic principles that determine the effective work to prepare a qualified future specialist. Through the example of RUDN master's program, which allows students to combine interdisciplinary areas of science, we have confirmed the correctness of the chosen course, which consists in the training of a specialist prepared in different areas. At the same time, the success of the implementation of this education model depends directly on the quality of reforming of the domestic educational system and its adaptation to the requirements of the international market of educational services.
The current stage of reforming of the higher education system in the Russian Federation is aimed at radically changing the approach to training and increasing the role of employers in the training process. The universities are faced with the task of bringing the educational programs as close as possible to the real conditions of the professional sphere. Often, the development of the industry can occur faster than a training full cycle of a specialist for it. Consequently, the training system must have some ability to quickly adapt to the new economic, social and production conditions. Integration of the Russian higher education in the European space also influences the requirements for graduates of the magistracy’s programs. A master’s program graduate must be able to consciously apply the knowledge gained while solving new non-standard problems, have the ability to solve problems with incomplete or limited information, have communicative and organizational and managerial skills, and be ready to systematically increase their educational level. Many universities consider the preparation of masters as one of the priority areas of their activities and, at the same time, highlight the need to reform the organization of the pedagogical process to ensure the conditions for the development of a free, creative and highly qualified specialist.
At the same time, in addition to the complexities of administrative and structural nature, there are objective complexities coming directly from the graduates. They are presented most clearly in the work by Glotova (2014), who structures them as follows:
"inability to present themselves demonstrating professional qualities by interview;
insufficient theoretical, practical and psychological preparedness level;
personal and professional competencies overestimation;
unwillingness to start professional activity from lowest career stages;
excessive expectations of labor remuneration level" (p.186).
Of course, simple lack of work experience within the specialty also remains among the main reasons why modern employers are skeptical of young graduates, even if they have a diploma with honors. And if the above listed problems, which are characteristic of modern graduates, can often be solved by graduates themselves, the last stereotype is basically the fault of the potential employer.
For the successful implementation of the tasks, we need to build a flexible and dynamic system for the training of masters, which is capable of transformation and based on principles that promote the development of competitive and highly skilled personnel. In this regard, the study of justification and development of a dynamic model of the master's training system capable of responding flexibly and quickly to various external and internal factors (changes in state requirements for the training, employers' requests, innovations in science and education, educational needs of the individual, etc.)., is a relevant scientific, pedagogical and social and economic task.
The cornerstone of the formation of an effective higher education system in Russia and, as a consequence, training of qualified personnel, is the emergence of the Federal State Educational Standard, which will take into account the new trends on the global market of educational services.
Finally, the modernization of the technical potential of Russian universities, rational introduction of modern ICT technologies, and distance learning with reasonable preservation of existing traditions will ultimately provide the required return in the form of a pool of specialists meeting the highest demands of the labor market both in Russia and abroad.
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18 December 2019
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Communication studies, educational equipment,educational technology, computer-aided learning (CAL), science, technology
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Martynenko, E., & Parkhitko*, N. (2019). Rudn Master’s Studies As An Example Of Future Specialists’ Training In Russia. In V. Chernyavskaya, & H. Kuße (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 51. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1716-1729). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.184