The article analyses the possibilities of game forms while studies the humanities, it describes the interactive methods of teaching history. The authors assert that the use of the interactive model of learning provides for life situations modelling, problems joint solution when a basis for the professional competences development is created, the dominance of any participant or an idea during the educational process is excluded. The authors investigate the prospects of classical and innovative teaching technologies combination; the characteristics of interactive teaching methods of history are given. It is pointed out that the personality of a teacher, whose role isn't diminished no doubt by time, is important. It is the teacher who often determines the motivation for learning. The article proposes a humanitarian project to optimize the process of education, formation and person's life. For this it is proposed to use interactive creativity, which possibility, in the authors opinion, is unlimited. It shows how interactive teaching methods are used in the history and local history teaching in the practice of the humanity teachers of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technology. At the same time, it is shown what material it is expedient to use from the history of science, technique and technology, from military history, both ancient and modern.
Keywords: A lecturer and a student cooperationEducational technologiesInteractive forms of lessons
At the present stage of the education system optimization, the use of "innovative" teaching technologies is proposed, meaning "the competences formation and a personality development". At the same time, active and close interaction of a teacher and students, democratic character, dialogue and openness of relations are envisaged. If we talk about the functions of a teacher, we should agree that, as an innovator, he must be a consultant, an organizer of cooperation, managing students' search work. But at the same time, in our opinion, the teacher must necessarily remain the custodian of norms and traditions, a propagandist of subject-disciplinary knowledge. In this case, the effective result of the learning process is real.
It is formulated in a number of Federal State Standards (
Teachers of higher educational institutions speak about the use of "innovative" teaching technologies in modern conditions more often (Khutornaya, 2015; Bakayev, Vasilyeva, Kalmykova, & Razinkina, 2018; Popova, Almazova, Khalyapina, & Tret'jakova, 2017; Pogodin & Li, 2017). However, when analyzing these technologies, their interpretation is superficially observed. In order for innovations to manifest themselves in the teaching scheme, we are forced to rely on classical technologies. Let us prove this statement.
The purpose of innovative technology is called "the competences formation and the individual development." But this is the common goal of any learning process, no matter what synonyms are chosen for the designation of competencies. In the nature and style of interaction between a teacher and students within the framework of innovative teaching technology, we include "democratic, dialogic and open relations". But the dialogue will not work if the credibility of a teacher is questioned. Without illustrative explanatory and informational methods of teaching that are part of the classical teaching technologies, it is impossible to form imitation and non-imitative teaching technologies. Without "reproducing" forms of response, it is impossible to form such types of activity as "productive", "creative", "problematic". Among the methods of assimilation in the order of their use, let's call: memorizing; activity by algorithm; search thinking activity (Kennewell, Tanner, Jones, & Beauchamp, 2008). In other words, such qualities as student activity, motivation for self-improvement, interest in the learning process are formed as a result of consistent application of classical, and innovative teaching methods.
Interactive sessions seem to be designed to solve the following methodological tasks:
awakening the students' interest in expanding the stock of knowledge;
encouragement of every active participant in educational process;
appealing to the feelings of each learner, contributing to image formation, personal perception of the material;
facilitating the effective assimilation of educational material;
multifaceted impact on students;
implementation of feedback (provoking the audience's response);
formation of vital skills;
development of students' own opinions and attitudes to the issues under discussion;
promoting adaptive behaviour change.
At the present stage of higher education development, interactive learning technologies are understood as a form of learning process organization in which it is impossible for a student not to participate in a collective, complementary, based on the interaction of all its participants in the process of learning cognition. The use of the interactive model of learning provides for life situations modeling, joint problem solving, in which the dominance of any participant in the educational process or any idea is excluded. At the same time, all necessary types of work should be retained within the framework of a lesson: the study of new material, the systematization of knowledge, the control and correction of knowledge, skills, their fixing, use and improvement. However, no model of teaching, no form of employment will lead to an effective result, if the teacher does not meet the given level of training.
In the framework of combining classical, innovative and interactive teaching methods, the personality of a teacher plays a special role. The sociological study, carried out at VSUET, showed that the students most appreciate such qualities of a modern teacher as: deep knowledge of their subject, ability to present material and explain something new, be responsive and sensitive, sociable and contact, having sense of humor. Note, that in the context of the cognitive process motivation, pedagogical mastery of a teacher is of high importance, which can form an interest in the subject and in learning process. We will point out that interest in learning, as practice shows, arises and develops in the process of exertion of mental abilities in the course of activities related to the search for tasks solutions. On this basis, internal interest arises (the "embryology" of knowledge). Acquiring knowledge and mastering the necessary skills become a necessity in the presence of certain conditions, the existence of which depends on a large extent on the teacher. Such conditions often become: motivation of interest in mastering a new one; psychological comfort, achieved by creating conditions for a "situation of success"; favorable environment for the thinking abilities development, for the manifestation of the productivity of search activity; use of group forms of a class organization (Kirkwood & Price, 2005; Almazova, Khalyapina, & Popova, 2017).
From this point of view, the following technologies of interactive communication have the greatest appeal starting from work in small groups, when a given problem or situation is discussed, and the found solutions are analyzed by the whole team. And continuing with such technologies as: "Marry-go-round" (the question is addressed to each of the next participant at the lesson), when the knowledge of dates and terms is worked out; "Aquarium", when immersed in a situation, for example, a historical event takes place (a meeting of the Zemsky Sobor, choosing the Tsar, the Kulikov battle or the battle of Borodino); a role-playing game, during which the material is easily memorized, and decision-making skills are formed (for example, a meeting of the State Duma is played out or the process of international negotiations is played back with full documentary accompaniment) (Boadu, Awuah, Ababio, & Eduaquah, 2016). The most difficult type for preparation is discussion, as well as brainstorming, as they provide a high level of knowledge and involve demonstration of the skills of material owning.
There is a certain pattern of learning, described by American Researchers R. Karnikau and F. McAlroe: a person remembers 10% of the read; 20% - heard; 30% - seen; 50% - seen and heard; 80% of what he says himself; 90% - of what he came to in the activity (Dvilichanskaya & Tupikin, 2010). That is why interactive forms of training are important for a qualified specialist training. Interactive training helps to develop communicative skills, to establish emotional contact between participants in the process, provides an educational task, since it teaches us to work in a team, to listen to the opinion of our comrades.
In modern conditions, work with students acquires many peculiarities. One of the main tasks in organizing students work at technical universities with humanitarian materials is to increase interest in the history of their country, respect for its state priorities. For these purposes, it is logical to use interactive methods within the course of history (Bykovskaia, 2013, pp. 36-38). The student's cognitive activity is most stimulated by the use of local history material. In Voronezh history, there are examples on which we can learn (Bykovskaia & Kartashova, 2013, pp. 29-31).
Voronezh has more than 400 years of its history. All the major events of Russian historical content have proved themselves in the history of the Voronezh region. The history of the native land gives a young man a base for spiritual development, for respect for the memory of ancestors. The most interesting for students in this context there are such special courses as "The Fatherland History in Faces", "From VCTI to VSUET", "History of Science and Technology". The study of history of Russian scientific and technical thought in a technical university is fully justified. The history of how knowledge is accumulated by a person, the history of discoveries and inventions that help us to learn nature and create a world of structures and materials that do not exist in nature, is deeply instructive. It teaches innovation and perseverance in achieving its goals, and knowledge of the past of domestic science and technology helps to understand better their current achievements and contradictions, makes it possible to foresee the course of the NTP. This is especially important for those who are the future creators of scientific and technological progress, for the current students of technical universities.
The course "The History of Russian Scientific and Technical Thought" contributes the humanitarization of technical education, provides a rich opportunity for the development of skills of students' independent activity, manifestations of their creative abilities and, in addition, for awakening interest to the historical past of the Motherland.
The use of local history material within the framework of the course makes the presentation of facts lively and understandable. Thus, when studying the early technical and economic history, data characterizing the Upper Paleolithic settlements on the Don in the village of Kostenki is involved. (Zagorovsky & Zagorovskaya, 1995) The greatest impression is produced by photographs of the houses excavations in which members of the ordinary community lived. On the long axis of the dwelling (35 m in length and 15-16 m in width) there were dozens of fire places for room sheeting and lighting. One of them served for roasting iron ore, from which red paint was extracted. There are also several household pits for food storage. Studies in Kostenki showed that people at the end of the Stone Age were not roving hunters, but led a complex settled home-economic life.
The story of the long-standing past of the Voronezh lands is of great interest during the lecture "Eastern Slavs: the treasury of world science and technology". It is known that craftsmen of Ancient Rus created outstanding works of art, which are at the same time vivid examples of high scientific and technological development. One of the oldest in Russia is pottery. Pottery, tools for foundries, building and finishing materials, clay toys were produced in different places (Rogov, 1982, p. 7). In many areas of the Central Chernozemije, toys and decorative figurines were carved from wood, made of cloth, tin, but the clay toys proved to be the most viable. Pottery in the village of Karachun (Voronezh region) is one of the oldest. Today a factory branch of art ceramics works here. The main products - korchagi, pots, flowerpots, and, in addition, toys (whistles, piggy banks, utensils). Like real ones, toy jugs are either glazed or decorated with circular stripes of white englobe. The number and interposition of the strips served once as an analogue of the stigma, the identification mark of the master.
In the XVII century the Romanovs, building the state defense, formed the "ambassadorial delegations" just here. So, in 1645, Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich notified Voronezh voevoda A.V. Buturlin about the arrival to Voronezh Russian ambassadors "with the treasury of the letter" Stepan Telepnev and the clerk Olferei Kuzovlev. Two translators, three scribes, four interpreters, two sobolnics, ten krechetnikov, falconers and hawks were sent with them to "our deeds". Russian ambassadors brought alive animals and birds to Tsarjgrad for Turkish sultan. Together with the ambassadors and their retinue, Cossacks were released to Don: Ataman Vasiliy Petrov, Captain Peter Safonov, "with twelve comrades." Don ataman and the Cossack were sent on their salary." The Cossacks had the so-called "Don vacation": the salary of the Russian Tsar for their service to protect the southern borders from the Crimean Tatars and Turks. While receiving the certificate, Buturlin was obliged "to accompany that parcel and our ambassadors from Voronezh to the Cossack to the lower yurts and to Azov." 150 servicemen from the Voronezh garrison were assigned to guard and escort the convoy (Ghansah, 2009).
In Voronezh lands in those days "the state was both defended and traded". Therefore, among the inhabitants of the city servicemen prevailed. Among the servicemen in Voronezh were not only Cossacks, but also archers. They numbered 172 people. At their disposal they had little land and pledged to carry service on foot in the city itself. They were not supposed to pay money and donating eight dessiatines could not support their families. Therefore, the archers were engaged in crafts and trade. Servicemen were also treated by gunmen, who served large-caliber artillery. In 1638 there were 10 cannons in the garrison of the city, each gunman served only one gun. Small-caliber artillery (chicken squeaks) was serviced by assimilators.
Few people know today that at the end of the XVII century Voronezh was the main river port of the country. Here river vessels (plots) were built, on which they rafted to Azov. This was the only way that connected Moscow and the southern outskirts of the country. It was from Voronezh fortress that not only Russian embassies went to Turkey, but prisoners were exchanged there, agreements were made with the Cossacks to stop the raids on the southern borders of Russia. Here in Voronezh, in 1695, the largest in the history river fleet was built: 522 shrugs, 42 seagoing boats, 134 rafts (Andreeva & Saubanova, 2016, pp.12-13). Peter knew about the experience of Voronezh masters and the important geographical position of the city, and therefore he chose it as the base for shipbuilding, while going on a campaign to Azov. Here, in the fortress he began to draw forces and funds for the construction of the navy. In order to observe how the work is going on, the Tsar himself came to Voronezh to participate in them. All the 65 days that Peter spent in Voronezh, he worked tirelessly. By May 1696 the first two sailboats-gallerias, four fire-ships and twenty-four galleys (brought to the city in disassembled form from Moscow) were built in Voronezh shipyards. For a while, thus, Voronezh became the capital of Russia. In the courtyard of the house of Ignat Motorin, where Peter lived, was deployed "sovereign" (the Tsar's military office from the time of Ivan the Terrible). Where he was at that moment, there was the capital of the state.
The construction of the ships at the shipyards in our region in the second half of the eighteenth century was led by Admiral Aleksey Naumovich Senyavin (Pokrovsky, 2018, pp.32-35). Senyavin’s family gave Russia 15 naval officers, including five admirals.
Ships built by Senjavin were involved in the war with Turkey for access to the Black Sea, as a result of which the first lands in the Crimea entered the Russian Empire. The idea to revive the Peter's shipyards belonged to the Empress Catherine II. The work was developed at the Ikoretskaya, Novokhoperskaya and Pavlovsky shipyards. Senyavin, the appointed commander of Don (since 1774 - the Azov) flotilla, quickly restored the former Peter's shipyards. In addition, the task was to create ships of a new type: large ships could run aground at the mouth of the Don, the small ones were ineffective in the battles. As a result, an option was proposed that took into account all the listed problems. The vessels built on this special project began to be called "Newly invented". Among the inventors was a whole team of seasoned sailors, including Alexei Senyavin. 93 Military units were lowered on water. The vessels were flat-bottomed, and had a draft no more than 2, 7 meters. On board, they carried from 12 to 16 cannon of medium caliber (Chernuch, 2016, p. 24). With the help of these ships Kerch, Enikale, then Kafa (Theodosius) and Sudak were occupied. As a consequence, Russia has established itself in the Crimea and the Northern Black Sea Coast. In 1783, the Ottoman Empire signed the act on the entry of the Crimean Peninsula Taman and Kuban into Russia. This fact was recognized by European countries.
The fate of many outstanding people of Russia, scientists and culture leaders of the XVIII century, is connected with the history of the Voronezh region. The first Voronezh local historian E.A. Bolkhovitinov showed the greatest interest to the personality of M.V. Lomonosov and his associates, one of whom was Nikita Ivanovich Popov, a professor of astronomy, a Voronezh vice-governor and a judicial figure of the Chamber of Civil Court (Kozhemyakin, 1986). N.I. Popov was the son of a Parish deacon and one of the best students of the Moscow Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy. Among its 11 graduates, together with Lomonosov, at the end of 1735 Popov was sent to St. Petersburg to listen to lectures. He studied with the professor of astronomy J. Delil and became the first Russian professor of astronomy. Popov showed himself not only as a teacher and lecturer, but also as an interpreter, as the publisher of the first systematized calendars in Russian. He led an active social activity, fought together with Lomonosov against the "German Party" and for the development of science in Russia. After Lomonosov' death the efforts of the "German party" were exiled to the "remote" provincial Voronezh, the only institution of which at that time was the seminary. It should be noted that the library of the seminary occupied the first place in Russia by the books quantity, Popov also contributed to the library increase (Veselovsky, 1898).
The material of the Voronezh region history significantly enlivens the work in practical classes on the history of the XVIII-XX centuries. The subjects of the reports that were heard at the seminars include such topics as "Voronezh is the cradle of the Russian fleet", "The Museum in the Kamennaya Steppe" (about V.V. Dokuchaev), "The First Welder N. Slavyanov", "S.I. Mosin's Trilinejka","The History of VSUET as a center of scientific and technical thought", "Nobel laureates N.G. Basov and A.M. Prokhorov", "The history of Voronezh Aviation Plant", 'Voronezh Katyusha", etc.
It is possible to consider the use of local history material as effective in students testing within the framework of the training course. Answering test questions, you can not only test and evaluate your own knowledge, but also learn a lot of new things. Questions of the following type invariably contribute to the cognitive activity revitalization:
- What types of aircraft were built at the Voronezh Aviation Plant?
the legendary Sturmovik of the Great Patriotic IL-2,
the first serial wide-body bus IL-86,
the first domestic supersonic passenger aircraft TU-144,
all the above listed constructions (Voronezh wings, 1982, pp.12, 21, 25).
In conclusion It should be said that the local historical material introduces greater concreteness and persuasiveness into the teaching of any historical course, forcing students to study the history of Russian scientific and technical thought, to think over the need for in-depth study of any phenomenon and the desire to know its essence.
The history of the native land gives the young generation a basis for spiritual development, for respect for the ancestors’ memory, for motivating their professional activities. In our opinion, the greatest interest among students in this context are such sections of historical education as "The history of the Fatherland in personalities", "The history of science and technology", "Business history" and "Military history".
Purpose of the Study
The solution of this problem and the problem of effective use of interactive types of occupations, requires new educational resources. As one of them, the idea of non-formal education is increasingly being called. In international practice, the term "non-formal education" is understood as "purposeful leisure activities offered in free time outside the school" (The State Program of the Russian Federation "Education Development" for 2013-2020). However, in Russia the best positions of these technologies have long been used as an integral part of learning process: from school to high school. The state policy of our country regards non-formal education as one of the possible innovative scenarios for the education system development, which is reflected in a number of official documents (Leisure. Non-formal education, 2008). This direction becomes important as a factor in human potential development;
In our opinion, to achieve the goals set by the curricula, each of the activities should be conducted in an interactive form (Bykovskaia, 2016, pp.334-335).
Let us agree that under the interactive technologies of teaching, it is possible to assume such an organization of learning process in which it is impossible for a student not to participate in the collective, complementary, based on the interaction of all its participants, the process of learning cognition. The use of the interactive model involves learning through the simulation of life situations, joint problem solving, in which the dominance of any participant in the learning process or any idea is excluded. At the same time, all necessary types of work should be retained within the framework of a lesson: the study of new material, knowledge systematization, knowledge control and correction, skills, their fixing, use and improvement.
In the context of the cognitive process motivation, pedagogical mastery of a teacher is of high importance, which can form an interest to the subject and to the learning process. It should be noted that learning interest, as practice shows, arises and develops in the process of mental strain in the course of activities related to search for solutions, to the tasks assigned. Among the ways of mastering the material, also in the order of their use, we call: memorizing; activity by algorithm; search thinking activity.
We emphasize that the process of professional self-identification involves setting new goals of activity, new meanings of activity, maximum disclosure of creativity (Sinyagina & Artamonov, 2015). All this, in one way or another, is developed in classrooms that is conducted interactively.
The following methods were required for the representativeness of the study.
The problematically-chronological method, with the help of which it is possible to solve the tasks posed in a certain time interval, which allows us to consider the object of investigation comprehensively.
The structural-functional method provides an opportunity to consider the structure and functions of the academic disciplines in the context of the application of interactive research methods.
The hermeneutical method as a universal interpretation and understanding of the texts of the studied and assimilated materials. In combination with the context of a particular historical epoch, it facilitates the process of "entering" (introduction) through the document in question at the appropriate time period, allows us understand adequately and explain the true and hidden meaning of the facts and through their mediation - historical events themselves.
Modern engineering education implies the use of interactive forms of education. Technocratic thinking is the position that all aspects of human life are affected and conditioned by technics and technology. At the same time, there is an opinion that due to rational technological thinking it is possible to solve all the problems of the mankind. But this is far from the case. The solution of global problems is based on the humanitarian knowledge. Today, the limited and social danger of the ideology of universal technological determinism, which accentuates the possibility of regulating the life of society exclusively with the principles of scientific and technical rationality, is becoming increasingly recognized.
Many concepts of education are focused nowadays on reducing its humanitarian component, on its rationalization. They exaggerate the role of natural and technical sciences and do not believe in the possibility of the practical implementation of the humanitarian project to optimize human life. In the question of determining the education priorities, the mankind, without distinction of the socio-political system, split into two camps: one - the priests of the industrial-electronic-nuclear trend in education - embodies the whole worldview, which was called "scientific and technical optimism." Others, represented primarily by the religious, humanitarian and natural-science intelligentsia, in most cases tend to the so-called "ecological pessimism". Each person, thinking about the world destinies, one way or another, adjoins one of these points of view. If the industrial-engineering elite, whose work and thought is the scientific and technological revolution (SNTR), is the focus of the former, the latter finds expression in the growing international "green" movement, in relevant UNESCO programs, in numerous private and state committees and organizations.
One thing is clear that the technique is aimed at transforming the human being in the course of transforming all the labor activity of a person. A man can no longer feel free himself from the influence of the technique he has created. And it is quite obvious that in technology there are not only boundless possibilities, but also boundless dangers. As an analogy, K. Jaspers gives an example of the discovery of primitive people fire: it also contains huge opportunities and huge danger. "Now, as then, humanity is entering a completely new path - perhaps, it is waited by the power of destructive forces and the darkness of non-existence". Such a process in the education system will be stopped only by its humanitarian accentuation.
As a part of the educational process in a technical university, it is necessary to use such forms of education in order not to cause a student to reject the information. The most successful results are provided by interactive forms of teaching. They are required not only by the age psychology of the young student environment, but also by the specific features of the socio-humanitarian disciplines. The material is more quickly acquired and more memorized while using interactive forms of interaction between a teacher and a student in the classroom. We tested such types of seminars as "Marry-go-round" (moving pairs, changing the interlocutor when discussing the problem), "Aquarium" ("immersion" in the topic), "Decision tree" (discussion of the issue and presentation of the prepared conclusions), "Historical court ", role-playing games in various forms. In preparation for Internet testing, the following forms are also used: "unfinished proposal", "fishing", "brainstorming". Interactive creativity of teachers and students is boundless. It is important only to skillfully direct it in order to achieve the set learning goals.
On the basis of the Moscow Aviation Institute (University) for several years, there have been organized representative interuniversity forums of the humanities which were devoted to modern educational technologies and their use in the system of engineers humanitarian training. The participants of the forums present their views on the problems of the humanitarian component development of technical education and its optimization in reports and collections of scientific articles. All the participants in the discussions consider it quite obvious that in modern conditions, one of the main directions for improving the education system should be the humanitarization of education and upbringing content, and the elimination of the gap between learning and social practice. This task is formulated clearly in the law of the Russian Federation "About Education". It is spoken about the humanistic nature of education, the priority of human values, human life and health, and individual free development. In fact, this normatively requires special attention to the problem of teaching in higher school the disciplines of the sociohumanitarian cycle.
Modern technology and new technologies challenge a person, and he can answer it only by a reasonable combination of material and humanitarian culture. An aggressive state of purely technical reason can lead to human civilization catastrophe. We are not talking about the introduction of technophobia ideas into the minds of the engineering and technical intelligentsia, but about flexible thinking formation with a sufficient level of humanitarian and environmental knowledge that raise specialists moral and their moral responsibility, as a kind of homo sapiens, for technic and technology creation (Gashkova, Berezovskaya, & Shipunova, 2017). Instrumentalism as a mode of human being in the world of dominance of the socio-technical paradigm production became one of the causes of modern European culture crisis, fulfilled with "obedience to rational forms of domination, utility and calculation" (Foucault). Modern engineering cannot be limited to functional, technical tasks, it must be commensurate with socio-cultural, political, legal, and moral norms. The specialists’ focus is the saturation of engineering activities with creative elements, value orientations, readiness for moral responsibility to society. Few people today challenge the possibility of applying scientific achievements to harm. From the means of service, technics can turn into hostile towards to a person if he leaves the hands of a morally undeveloped engineer who does not care, along with the economic and technical requirements of exploitation, to give his product safety, quietness, convenience, etc.
At the same time, we, as professionals, cannot be comforted by the fact that today neither the ideal of education nor the ideal model of the modern "educated person" exists in the world. The world is constantly changing, and it urgently requires changes in the education system in general, and, therefore, in our work with you.
History - as an integral part of work programs and curricula - is an integral part of the Russian educational content. It is history that promotes the activation of thinking abilities, provides communication and responsibility as character qualities, forms the evidence base, the consistency of conclusions, the lexical richness of the manager production language, the broad horizon of technical profile professional. Engineering education, supplemented by this humanitarian component, provides training for competitive specialists.
More recently, these tasks were served by the fact that history was mastered on three levels. "The stories about Russian history" in the elementary school formed a figurative and vivid idea of the most interesting and significant events and famous personalities of Russia. Then the study of history at secondary school in the system, which led to logic awareness and made the understanding of historical problems complete. Finally, the study of the main problems of Russian and world history in higher education, the political and economic and cause-and-effect characteristics which contributed to the development of ideas about contemporary political and legal content, the priorities of social development. The application of this scheme of studying history using interactive communication between teachers and students ensures the optimization of education at high school.
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18 December 2019
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Communication studies, educational equipment,educational technology, computer-aided learning (CAL), science, technology
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Alekseevna Bykovskaia*, G., Nikolaevna Miroshnichenko, E., & Dmitrievich Chernykh, V. (2019). The Efficiency Of Interactive Training On History Classes At High School. In V. Chernyavskaya, & H. Kuße (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 51. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1347-1358). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.02.144