The article presents the results of the adaptation of the Russian-language version of The Parental Bonding Instrument, mother and father versions (
Keywords: Parental attitudePerception of maternal attitudePerception of paternal attitudeQuestionnaireAdolescentsHigh school years
Several researchers have investigated family risk factors in child development including individual, structural, social and cross-cultural risks as a context for explaining the variation in children’s academic achievement (e.g., Tikhomirova & Malykh, 2017; Pougnet et al., 2011; Kordi & Baharudin, 2010), intelligence (e.g., Von Stumm & Plomin, 2015; Deater-Deckard et al., 2009; Nisbett et al., 2012), behavioral disorders (e.g., Petrill et al., 2004), etc. Among family factors, an important role of parent-child interactions in the variation of the children’s developmental and educational outcomes has been shown in a number of studies from different countries (e.g., Tikhomirova et al., 2017; Cheung & Pomerantz, 2011; Harold et al., 2007).
At the same time, aspects of parent-child interactions can be considered both from the point of view of parents and of a child. Previous studies reported there had been some disassociation between the scores of parents and adolescents who filled out the same questionnaire (correlation coefficients vary from 0.11 to 0.41; Tsaousis et al., 2012). One of the possible reasons of observed differences in these scores is unique individual experience of children (Tikhomirova & Malykh, 2017).
Two major aspects reflecting the parental attitude to a child might be singled out: (1) the degree of emotional acceptance of the child and (2) a type of involvement in the child’s activities (e.g., Kagitcibasi, 2005). These aspects of perception of the parental attitude are associated with individual differences in psychological traits and educational achievement among children of school age (Tikhomirova et al., 2017; Pougnet et al., 2011; Roy & Kwon, 2007; Kordi & Bahamdin, 2010; Harold et al., 2007).
According to previous studies, mothers and fathers organize the relationships with their child, participate in children's activities and demonstrate their attitude in different ways (Tikhomirova & Malykh, 2018). Previous studies demonstrated that the differences are related to the level of involvement in child's activities, satisfaction of child’s needs and desires, and support of the information flow. Regarding the perception of attitudes, differences were revealed between maternal and paternal attitude both for Acceptance and Positive Involvement. In particular, primary school children assessed maternal attitude as more emotionally accepting than paternal attitude (Tikhomirova & Malykh, 2018).
To analyze the perception of parent-child relationships on the samples of children of primary school age and young adolescents, was adapted the Russian-language version of the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Tikhomirova & Malykh, 2017a; Tikhomirova et al., 2013).
The Parental Bonding Instrument was developed specifically to study the perception of parental attitude on samples of high school students (Parker et al., 1979). The original version of this questionnaire includes two parts: Maternal and Paternal attitude, which allows studying an adolescent’s perception of mother's and father's attitude separately. Each of the two parts consists of the same 25 items.
The Parental Bonding Instrument was created to investigate the perception of parental attitudes by children of high school age (Parker et al., 1979; Safford et al., 2007). The central question of the article is the adaptation of the Russian-language version of the Parental Bonding Instrument. In this context, the factor structure of the questionnaire was studied on a sample of high school students using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. We tested the internal consistency of the questionnaire scales Care and Overprotection and assessed the effects of gender and age, and its interaction.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this work was to adapt the Russian-language version of the Parental Bonding Instrument including both Maternal and Paternal attitudes. To accomplish this goal, the factor structure of the questionnaire was revealed, the internal consistency of the questionnaire scales was tested and the effects of gender and age were considered.
The study involved 173 schoolchildren including 68 students from Grade 9 (44.1 % males, mean age = 15.8 years, SD = 0.4), 52 students from Grade 10 (34.6 % males, mean age = 16.8 years, SD = 0.4), and 53 students from Grade 11 (49.1 % males, mean age = 17.7 years, SD = 0.4). These three groups of adolescents were combined within one age category for further exploratory and confirmatory analysis of the structure of the questionnaire (42.6 % males, mean age = 16.7, SD = 0.9).
Written informed consent was obtained from the parents of all participants. The data was collected anonymously with each participant having been assigned a personal identification number.
All participants filled out a Russian-language version of the Parental Bonding Instrument to identify the perception of maternal and paternal attitudes separately. This procedure was conducted anonymously in the classroom under the supervision of a researcher.
Direct and reverse translation of the questionnaire items, names of scales and instructions were carried out by Russian and English speaking specialists in the psychology of child-parent relations.
The Parental Bonding Instrument includes two parts: Maternal and Paternal attitude, each of them consists of the same 25 statements concerning mother’s and father’s attitude to the adolescent. The students fill out two identical variants of the questionnaire relating to the relationship with both parents by choosing one of the four possible responses: Very like, Moderately like, Moderately unlike and Very unlike.
According to the original English-language version of the Parental Bonding Instrument, aspects of parental attitudes should be considered as the scores of the following scales:
Overprotection (or Control).
The Care scale consists of 12 item questions (e.g., “Seems emotionally cold to me”, “Enjoys talking things over with me”); the scale of Overprotection includes 13 items (e.g., “Lets me decide things for myself”, “Was overprotective of me”). Not all items are scored in the same direction.
The structure of the questionnaire was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis of the correlation matrix of responses to each item. The revealed structure was tested using the method of the principal components with Varimax rotation as the most appropriate one for generalizing the available data and reducing the number of variables. In order to confirm the identified structure of the questionnaire, confirmatory factor analysis was applied.
The following indices were used as criteria for models’ fit to empirical data: CFI – Comparative Fit Index, TLI – Tucker-Lewis index, RMSEA – root mean square error of approximation, WRMR – weighted root mean square residual. The CFI and TLI values above 0.9, the RMSEA value below 0.05, and the WRMR value being close to 1 indicated a good fit. The ratio of the chi-square to the number of degrees of freedom (df) below 3 was considered as the relative compliance index (Geiser, 2012). For reliability assessment, the questionnaire scales were tested with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency. Statistical package MPlus was used.
Exploratory factor analysis
The factor analysis of the correlation matrix of the responses for Maternal attitude variant with the method of principal components with Varimax rotation revealed two factors with 50.87% explained variance on the sample of high school students. The factor analysis of the correlation matrix of responses for Paternal attitude by the method of principal components with Varimax rotation revealed two factors with 53.6 % explained variance. Thus, based on the analysis of the scree plot and on the eigenvalues of the factors, a two-factor solution was chosen as the most adequate for describing the empirical data.
Confirmatory factor analysis
The achieved structure of the questionnaire was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. Table
In accordance with the above mentioned fit criteria, the two-factor confirmatory model describes well the data on perception of both Maternal and Paternal attitude in high school age.
In order to study the effects of gender and age and its interaction, two-way analysis of variance was carrying out.
Levene's test for the equality of variances was applied to test all distributions of the analyzed variables. For all scales of The Parental Bonding Instrument, excluding Overprotection of the Maternal attitude, the significance level was more than 0.05 suggesting the equality of variances on the analyzed indicators.
The Age factor represents the age of participants in the study expressed as belonging to Grade 9 (Mean age = 15.8 years (SD = 0.4)), 10 (Mean age = 16.8 years (SD = 0.4)) or 11 (Mean age = 17.7 years (SD = 0.4)). The Gender factor is the gender of participants in the study. The dependent variables are the two scales of the Parental Bonding Instrument, Maternal and Paternal attitude. Means and standard deviations (in brackets) for all scales are presented in Table
The results of the two-way analysis of variance are presented in Table
The analysis of variance of all scales of the Parental Bonding Instrument for both Maternal and Paternal attitude did not show the effect of sex (p > 0.05). Thus, there are no differences between males and females regarding the perception of Maternal and Paternal attitude on Care and Overprotection scales.
However, the effect of interaction of age and sex was statistically significant for Care, Paternal attitude, with 7% effect size (
According to the psychometric indicators presented in this paper, the Russian-language version of the Parental Bonding Instrument can be a reliable tool to measure high school students’ perception of the parental attitude. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a two-factor structure of the Russian-language version of the questionnaire, mother and father versions, with two obtained scales: Care and Overprotection.
The effects of the age and gender factors were assessed. It was shown that Age factor’s effect was statistically significant for the Overprotection, Paternal attitude, with 6% effect size, suggesting that older adolescents perceive the attitude of their fathers as less controlling than younger adolescents.There were no differences between boys and girls regarding their perception of Maternal and Paternal attitude on both Care and Overprotection scales. However, the effect of interaction of age and sex was statistically significant forCare, Paternal attitude only, with 7% effect size. Thus, in Grade 9 girls perceive paternal attitudes as more emotionally supportive than boys.
The Parental Bonding Instrument can provide analysis of the perception of parent-child relationships with research purposes on a Russian sample of high-school students, which opens the possibility of cross-cultural studies. In addition, the presence of the Maternal attitude and Paternal attitude versions makes this questionnaire applicable to differentiate the perception of each of the two parents.
This study was supported by the grant from the Russian Science Foundation №17-78-30028.
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23 November 2018
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Educational psychology, child psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology
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Tikhomirova, T., & Malykh, S. (2018). Adaptation Of The Russian-Language Version Ofthe Parental Bonding Instrument. In S. Malykh, & E. Nikulchev (Eds.), Psychology and Education - ICPE 2018, vol 49. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 671-678). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.11.02.78