Goal-Generating In The Development Of Teacher’s Subjectivity

Abstract

A description of the theoretical and methodological construct for a teacher’s subjectivity development based on a goal-setting activity is presented. The construct represents general approaches in a goal category definition, the principles and stages of goal-setting and the features of subjectivity activated at these stages. The subjectivity as a system-forming activity feature, demonstrated through a motivation structure is examined. Based on logical analysis of the induction, deduction and classification as modeling methods, the personal meaning of direction, strength and determination of the activity is discussed. The logic of goal-setting process is defined as a mechanism for subjectivity actualization, hierarchy and temporal goal sequence. The goal-setting is determined by dynamics of this process (the movement and development state of subjective features of a personality during the successive transformation from stage to stage). It is concluded that the teacher’s subjectivity isn’t sufficiently pronounced in the modern life, because the limitations connected to insufficient comprehension of contemporary education mission. The goal-setting activity becomes a key mechanism of subjectivity actualization if there’s interference of activity subject in the goal achieving process. Strategic reflexive games can be means of promoting cooperative goal-setting as well as developing dialogue thinking and communicative behavior that can help teachers achieve much higher level of subjectivity.

Keywords: Teacher’s subjectivitygoal-settingcooperative planning

Introduction

There have been currently stormy discussions about development of the human potential because of a new humanitarian technological economy and planetary challenges, affecting the state of preserving our civilization (Weizsäcker & Wijkman, 2018). The term ‘human development’ is referred to as a certain individual’s potential that permits a person not only to perform the given functions, but also to manifest one’s own activity.

The science determines these abilities as a category of subjectivity. In terms of the concept of sustainable development (The Sustainable Development Goals Report, 2016), the subjectivity can ensure the long-term economic success of our civilization, safe for future generations. Graduates of modern schools and universities face demands for the qualities of a multiple personality. An individual is of a high value if he is ready for fulfilment of innovative development processes (Kovalevich & Shhedroviczkij, 2015). They include the graduate's independence, his ability to set goals and to design his own ways of life and activity. In a specific situation, subjectivity manifests itself in the ability to offer a non-standard product, to analyze the whole situation and find a solution that is effective under the given conditions. Also it has to play different variants of developing events and to assess risks before making a decision having different consequences (Popov & Gluxov, 2017).

Problem Statement

It is clear that if a teacher has developed subjective qualities, he can develop subjectivity in schoolchildren too (Butler & Shibaz, 2014). But the strictly regulated educational process at school tends more likely to develop such a teacher’s features as the 'functionary', that leads to step-by-step performing tasks of a lesson rather than to correlating the goals and results of educational activity. In our study, we’re going to make an attempt to consider the problem of developing the teacher’s subjectivity through optimization of the goal-generating process.

Research Questions

  • Is a teacher a real subject of the pedagogical activity, or is the 'pedagogy of the sample' determines him as a subject in modern conditions?

  • How does the goal-setting activity influence the development of teacher's subjectivity?

  • What has the teacher at his disposal for developing his own subjectivity at a modern educational organisation?

It should be noted that now the most part of research is studying the subjectivity of the teacher in terms of continuous education as his ability to become a master of his own vital activity. Yet, we try to examine the teacher's subjectivity as the activity based on goal-setting, when the teacher acts as a goal-setting and goal-achieving subject (Petrovskij, 2015, 18).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to identify the mechanisms for actualization of the teacher’s subjectivity, and to look for ways of its development in the educational activity.

Research Methods

Before proceeding to these problems, we have to discuss the initial category of the term ‘subjectivity’ in this study. For the last 20 years the category of subjectivity has become the most popular in philosophical, psychological and pedagogical knowledge due to rethinking of human role in the civilization development.

National psychology has accumulated a lot of experience in studying an individual within the subject-activity approach. B.G. Ananiev considered an individual, first of all, as a subject of social activities (labor, communication, cognition). He defined the properties of an individual through a creative attitude to activity and its productivity.

Thanks to the works of the national philosopher and psychologist, S.L. Rubinstein the category of subject became central in psychology. The subject is referred to as a person responsible for the whole course of his life.

In studies of A. N. Leontiev, A. G. Asmolov, subjectivity is presented as a system characteristic of activity and is considered through the structure of motivation: needs, motives, goals, attitudes, emotions. They showed how personal meaning gives activity a special direction, strength, purposefulness.

V.A. Petrovsky proposed a principal model of an individual, which became a ground for a large number of psychological and pedagogical studies. He identified four basic characteristics of the subject: determination, reflexivity, freedom and development (Petrovskij, 2015).

Thus, in our study we can say: subjectivity is characterized by productivity, i.e. determination and goal-setting. Subjectivity is a system-forming factor that gives integrity and completeness to an activity.

The subject and subjectivity are not the same things. The subject is a performer of a practical activity, who initiates it, sets goals, selects the content and means, achieves the result and performs a comprehensive reflection of the whole activity. Subjectivity is the ability of a subject to change the surrounding world and develop oneself. This is a qualitative feature that appears in the process of becoming a person. Subjectivity occurs not accidentally: the intention of the subject is initial as a content-effective feature of activity.

Subjectivity can exist on an unconscious level. The person is a carrier of activity, but doesn’t realize his own influence on the world around and he does not reflect himself and his activity.

The degree of an awareness and transformation ways determines the levels of subjectivity development. At the conscious level, a subject chooses a goal on the basis of moral dimensions (Asmolov, 2010), using value preferences. We can see it while comparing the lessons of some teachers: for one teacher the purpose is to give students some amount of knowledge, and to demonstrate his own teaching competence. For another one, the goal is to develop the subjectivity in students, and that’s why his classes become a field for cognitive activity and autonomous learning.

Let's turn to our first question, whether the teacher in modern conditions is a real subject of pedagogical activity?

V.A. Petrovsky said: “the existence of a portrait in the culture does not guarantee the existence of its prototype in life. In other words, there is a portrait, but there isn’t anyone known in reality. So we have a doubt. Is there a subject?” (Petrovskij, 2015, 18). And he adds that it is hardly possible to call someone as an individual, if his goals and results diverge, his actions do not coincide with his deeds, and “his spoken thought is a lie.” Now we have here a theoretical scientist’s reflection of the notion “ subjectivity ”. Let's try to comprehend subjectivity in a real educational situation.

In the modern system of education, subject relationships are built vertically. The state administration is the main subject as a customer. It issues its subjectivity as the federal state educational standards. They are specified in the form of educational programs, methodical manuals, approximate time plans, etc. So, the teachers become objects of the state influence.

However, at the level of an educational institution, this situation is not so unambiguous: The school either acts as an object accepting programs, textbooks, techniques unchanged, or it seeks to comprehend state standards and look for its place in the educational space of a region. Then the second one develops and approves the innovation programs and acquires subjectivity for to its own educational activities.

If we go down to the level of a school administration and teachers’ staff, we can see that administration’s management is always a subject to the teachers’ staff. But the administration can build a subject to subject relationship, when it has some innovative ideas that become valuable for teachers. Passion for a new idea can occur if a teacher finds a personal meaning in this idea for himself. Thus, the teacher goes up to the level of subjectivity as a value-semantic realization of pedagogical activity. He becomes a subject, who is ready for creative activity that is important for himself, and starts to develop subjectivity in his students. V.A. Gert notes that the teacher’s subjectivity appears in interaction of the triad of meanings: ideas of the pedagogical school staff, personalized intentions of a student and meanings of a school subject (Gert, 2011).

Thus, while offering our answer to the first question, we can note that in the current situation, the existence of federal state educational standards does not limit teachers in actualizing their subjectivity. However, every teacher has to decide for himself, whether to develop his subjectivity or not.

At the same time, the results of some Russian scientists show that the subjectivity of a teacher might not be obvious enough. The main difficulties in the successful development of a teacher’s subjectivity are caused by a lack of a proper mission comprehension in the modern education. The prevalence of activity aimed on knowledge delivering, relativism of modern pedagogical concepts, the hard structured information space and the ambiguous nature of social life make it difficult for a teacher to move up to the stage of being an active subject (Volkova, 1998; Ezhak, 2015).

The results of N.V. Mezentseva show that some teachers display a low level of subjectivity, which is clearly manifested in the process of pedagogical goal-setting. The goal-forming is based on the approval motivation or on the fear of a punishment. Often, an ideal goal is formally declared, that doesn’t specify or reflect the real strategic values. There isn’t any voluntary and independent commitment and planning, but there’s a subordinate and distant relationship to students instead. Students’ discipline is valued much higher than their independence.

Teachers with a high level of subjectivity have a humanistic attitude to the student. They consider students as unique personalities. They encourage student’s independence and getting their own opinion. The activity of the goal-setting is also appreciated. The goal may be externally given, but the teacher critically evaluates the content, creatively processes it. He agrees the externally set goals with the universal values and with the context of the children’s life. The teacher respects an informed, motivated choice of goals and the creative activity (Mezenceva, 2011).

It was mentioned above that a teacher becomes a subject if he finds ideas relevant to him personally, among the requirements of federal state educational standards, when there is an opportunity for his self-determination, and when he can realize the personal meaning of given requirements. Consequently, the process of actualization of subjectivity reveals within the activity of goal-achieving.

The activity of goal-achieving becomes the key mechanism of actualization of subjectivity if there is an opportunity of goal-setting intervention for the subject of activity in the process of achieving the goal.

Let’s discuss in detail the concept of goal-setting and analyze it from the point of view of general scientific and pedagogical category of the goal.

In the philosophical literature, the category of the goal is represented in a lot of ways: in ideas, concepts, theories of society, man, personality, activity, behavior. As the most general characteristics of this category, we distinguish the following meanings.

The goal:

  • is an anticipation of the result, to which the actions are directed;

  • directs and regulates actions;

  • motivates human activity, permeates practice as an internal law to which a person subjects his will;

  • is something that is necessary for the goal achievement (Bobyleva, 2008; Locke & Latham, 2015).

In our analysis of literature on sociology, in the category of the goal there is an aspect of the mental anticipation of the results of human activity and behavior as well as the means and ways for achieving them. If there is a discrepancy between the actual situation of life and the goal that is revealing, the goal-setting acts as an activity aimed at overcoming this discrepancy - the realization of the goal. The project of the goal involves choosing the best path among possible alternatives. The project of activity appears as a certain system order of various acts and operations (Bobyleva, 2008).

From the pedagogical point of view, the process of goal-setting in the teacher’s project activity appears as a certain procedure of phased goal implementation, oriented toward the practical achievement of the optimal result (Camp, 2017). The notion of goal-setting as a target activity acquires in our research the nature of the methodological approach of identifying and concretizing the goals in pedagogical activity.

The analysis of psychological literature on the one hand shows the identity of the interpretations of the category of the goal with general scientific knowledge, on the other hand gives the idea of goal-setting importance for an individual.

Let us define a number of propositions. The goal-setting is considered as a subject to object process in which the goals of a subject and an object are harmoniously integrated (Locke & Latham, 2006). The directing and regulating meaning of the goal emphasize the subjective conditions of goal-setting in the activity and behavior of an individual. While determining the goal, the subject of an activity, chooses the ways and means to achieve it.

The image of a predicted activity result acquires an incentive force and turns into a goal. It starts directing the action and determining the choice of possible ways of its fulfilment only when the subject has a certain motivation.

In the analysis of the relationship between goal and goal-setting in the psychological literature, goal-setting procedures are emphasized, based on the goal-setting process, as a specific goal-centered activity of a subject, as well as the process of generating new goals in human activity, that is assessed as the central point of the action and the main mechanism for the formation of new human actions.

The mechanism of goal-setting is shown as a certain transformation of an order into a particular goal; the transformation of an activity motive into the motive-goal; the transformation of some casual effects of the action into a goal; the identification of intermediate goals; transition from preliminary to final goals.

The subject as an integral personality with his value, cognitive, creative, emotional-volitional potential independently determines the goal and designs the process of its accomplishment (Shim, Cho & Cassidy, 2013). The goal-setting here can act as the design of the goal-setting activity and to result in assessment of its appropriateness, validity and direction of the goal-setting mind.

Let’s use the theoretical model of goal-setting for designing the teacher’s subjectivity development as a main method in this study.

To design the development of the teacher’s subjectivity, we are going to use the concept of goal-setting in learning, shown in the dissertation research of O.A. Bobyleva (Bobyleva, 2008).

The concept is a combination of initial base data, a conceptual and terminological apparatus, a conceptual 'core'-generalizations of the theoretical level and generalizations of the process and technological level.

The following general principles of goal-setting were chosen:

logical one: it assumes that the system of goals, determining the subject of activity, must be logically completed and possess an internal harmony, which reasonably allows to present the design of activity;

objectivity: the hierarchy of goals does not mean a hierarchy of their values, presenting certain requirements to the hierarchy of goals necessary for the activity design;

hierarchy: from the general to the particular, from the hierarchically higher goals to the increasingly concrete and specific, reflecting the entire diversity of activities. At the highest level of goal-setting, an exit into the broad social sphere is inevitable;

concretization: it is seen that the order of movement towards a common goal can be presented systematically, taking into account the necessary number of tasks that need to be solved on the way to the ultimate goal;

practical orientation: the classification of objectives should reflect the theory of goal-setting, and also be an effective tool for the teacher (Bloom, 1971). The principle of practical orientation emphasizes the character of pedagogical activity of the teacher in the classification of goals;

integrity: the goal setting is an integral system of landmarks that determine the main areas of activity, which includes the universal ideals and tactical tasks of a person’s development.

The described principles underlie the process-technological model of goal-setting (Bobyleva, 2008). This model is universal and invariant and it represents a hard structured system of goals. As the main structural components are cognitive, psychomotor, emotional areas of educational activity, providing a holistic approach to its design.

In this paper, our task is not to apply the goal-setting model in its entirety. In the aspect of the topic, it is important to determine the semantic space in which the subjectivity of the teacher is actualized. Such a semantic space is the personal component of the goal-setting model, which is represented by the following content characteristics of subjectivity: sense-making, readiness for action, ability to make a choice, autonomy, finding value meanings.

The logic of the goal-setting process as a key mechanism for the actualization of subjectivity appears in the hierarchy and in the time sequence of goals: from hierarchically higher goals to an increasingly concrete and specific one, reflecting the whole range of activities and assuming, at the highest level of goal-setting, a high level of personal maturity of a subject capable of measuring the highest goals of activity with a sense of life. The process of goal-setting is determined by the dynamics of this process (the state of movement and development of subjective characteristics of the personality during the successive transformation from stage to stage). The stages of goal-setting are defined: goal-setting, target-keeping, goal-realization.

Thus, the goal-setting activity directly brings the teacher to the position of an active subject, permeates all practice as an internal law, to which the teacher subordinates his will for the accomplishment of higher goals.

Findings

Designing the teacher's subjectivity development in reflexive strategic games is a result of this study. To comprehend the question of looking for means of developing the teacher’s subjectivity, let’s discuss a process-technological model of goal-setting concept mentioned above.

The goal-setting activity involves three stages: 1) goal-setting, which leads to launching the activity, 2) the goal-keeping that ensures the preservation of the supposed image as the result, 3) the goal-realization, where the subject is dealing with the objective expression of the image of his goal.

Let’s project the development of the content characteristics of the teacher’s subjectivity on the basis of the process-technological model of goal-setting.

The first stage of goal-setting involves the emerging the goal as such. It is commonly known that activity can be determined either externally or internally. In the aspect of subjectivity, only internal motivation matters. Motive is defined as a conscious need. Since a person is simultaneously aware of a multitude of needs, they start competing among themselves and building the hierarchy according to their subjective significance. To get a need for active and creative activity, a teacher must receive an idea that becomes personally valuable to him.

The problem of making a teacher to accept an external goal (fixed in state educational standards) as his own remains in the administrative educational practice the most difficult.

For highlighting the role of conventional interaction in management of an educational organization, the strategic reflexive games offered by V.E. Lepsky are of a special interest. Their structure is based on “subject-oriented principles, models and subject ontology of organizing and developing social systems” (Lepskij, 2012, 89). The main processes in these games are goal-setting, assembling development subjects and forming strategic competence.

With a certain modification, the general scheme of this game can be applied for the collective development of an educational organization development program, in which all school teachers can be involved. Technologically, this game can be built in the format of “World Cafe” (Brown & Isaacs, 2005), Open Space Technologies (Owen, 2008), etc.

In any format, while keeping the generalized scheme of strategic design, and competent moderation, collective mental activity leads to collective goal-setting. A unified value-semantic field is formed where each teacher takes an active part in the choice of the school development path, presents his ideas, formulates his own meanings, and indicates his goals (Kerr & LePelley, 2013). Thus, through active semantic creation, a teacher becomes self-determined as a strategic subject of the development.

While acting as an active subject in the meaning of “creation”, the teacher produces communication revealing senses that can transform the reality in his subjective world, thereby revealing its new facets and understanding levels.

The freedom of the goal choice, the ways and means of its implementation is important at this stage. The opportunity of making choice creates a prerequisite for the appearance of responsibility.

It is advisable to play these games for three days to achieve a comprehensive immersion into the problems, as well as to reach a better existential interpretation of one’s involvement into the cooperative matter.

In addition, the strategic reflexive games create a polysubjective reflexive environment in the educational organization, reveal unknown participants in the management of strategic design and assessment processes, formulate strategic goals of the school, possible scenarios, forecasts, etc., determine the personnel reserve.

Deep personalized processing and comprehensions of goals in an educational organization, correlation with his own system of life values allows the teacher to accept external goals (set by the administration) and start the goal-setting.

Thus, an image of a possible goal arises at the stage of goal-forming, and it has a special attraction thanks to its personal meaning. At the same time, the appearance of an attractive image of a potential goal is not a guarantee of its achieving, because a decision making is necessary.

In the conditions of a cooperative mental activity affecting the values of teaching and the existential aspects of the life, the teacher consciously makes a decision, because he understands the importance of the goal he voluntary takes.

The further compulsory procedure is making a plan that involves constructing a chart of sub goals for the teacher to attain. The correctly determined sequence and time frame are important, because the wrong plan is a waste of time and effort leading to disappointment. Collective discussion of real terms and tactics in achieving goals can support the teacher at this stage. The procedure of making a plan demonstrates the level of the teacher's readiness for action, and his ability to reach the subjective position.

The next stage is the goal-keeping. The successful goal-keeping is accompanied by assessment of the goal value by the person, who faces numerous obstacles while achieving the goal. The negative assessment of the goal may result in giving up the activity. A person has to decide oneself whether to pursue or abandon the goal in the situation of difficulties.

The better comprehension of the goal meaning occurs in the activity itself. The teacher begins to put innovations in practice and tries to mark the changes in his students that confirm the significance of new meanings and ideas best of all. Autonomy and enthusiasm in their activity reinforce the subjectivity of the teacher.

When the teacher models his professional behavior, activity and communication, his subjectivity helps him determine the activity measure of external and internal resources in achieving the goal and in determining the appropriateness of the strategy and the technologies chosen.

In discussions of the teacher’s personality as a subject of activity, some researchers focus on how creatively he transforms it by his reflexive attitude to experience, potential motives, abilities, personal characteristics and the product of professional activity. The developed teacher’s personality as an active subject of the activity becomes evident in practice through his initiative, responsibility, self-determination, the realization of meaningful orientations, satisfaction and self-efficacy.

On the third stage of goal realization, the subject deals with an objective expression of his goal image, and the result achieved. This stage is important for the further development of the teacher's subjectivity. Comprehension of the result (for example, his students made a conscious professional choice) makes the teacher happy and strengthens his willingness to further activity. To be aware of being useful to the public interest, and especially to the future generation, is the highest aim of the human existence. Therefore, it inspires the teacher to the further productive goal-setting, goal-keeping and goal-achieving activity as an active subject (Travers, Morisano & Locke, 2015).

Some reflective strategic games might become one of the means of developing teacher’s subjectivity because they can involve all members of a teacher’ staff in generating personally significant goals, their harmonization, retention and goal-setting.

Conclusion

In modern education, the subjective and personal teacher’s position to his purpose, tasks and innovative transformations gain a special concern.

In education, the subject's position of a teacher imparts an ethical and moral tone to actions addressed to others, providing the subjectivity manifestation. Goal-setting becomes the key mechanism of the subjectivity actualization if there is an opportunity for a subject of his involvement in the process of achieving the activity goal.

Strategic reflexive games can promote cooperative goal-setting as well as develop dialogue thinking and communicative behavior that help teachers achieve much higher level of subjectivity.

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.02.98

Online ISSN

2357-1330