Formation Of Universal Academic Activities Of Schoolchildren In The Modern Educational Environment
In the article, the authors consider formation of universal educational actions of primary school students in modern conditions. Admitting that reading has a meta-subject nature they reveal essential characteristics of reading during a digital era and what features of process of its formation of this all-educational skill change at primary school. The interrelation of the reader's competences and regulatory universal educational actions formed at primary school students is considered. Close connection of informative universal educational actions and reading consists already in the fact that reading is a cognitive activity. Any activity in the most general view consists of a stage of orientation, goal-setting, planning, realization, and a stage of control and assessment. Reader's activity consists of the same stages, for it is also necessary to create the program of regulatory universal educational actions. The program of communicative universal educational actions, describing problems of their formation at primary school students, relies on characteristic signs of activity of communication, on its structure. Thus, for communicative activity it is supposed to use speech means as well as in reading activity; to build dialogical communication including in a remote form by means of mechanisms of information and communication technologies. However, the authors conclude that a combination of traditional paper and digital media for reading of primary school students is more efficient for their psychological development.
Keywords: Primary school studentuniversal educational actions
The Russian primary school works several years at a basis of the federal state educational standard (FGOS) constructed on system and activity approach which assumes to bring up and develop the identity of the child in the conditions of information society (Approximate main educational program …, 2010, p.p. 5).
Orientation to results of education that are achieved by formation at students of primary school of the universal educational actions (UEA) acts as the FGOS backbone component. Except the interdisciplinary program for formation of UEA one more program having also interdisciplinary character is entered - "Reading. Operation with the text". (Approximate main educational program …, 2010, p.p. 43, 49-51).
It seems, such assessment of a role of reader's competence of the educational program to primary school is not accidental. In practice of training at primary school, reading has several factors among which priority the modern teachers read valuable and social factors of reading. The entity of a valuable factor consists in ability of reading "to open for the reader wealth and beauty of language, to thereby enrich its communicative potential: the person has more opportunities for self-expression, becomes communicatively more successful that in the modern society is especially appreciated" (Zinovyeva, 2016, p. 263). Other argument in favor of a reading role appreciation the cognitive value of reading appears in present period: by means of reading, the young reader opens for himself "possible patterns". In addition, the social factor of reading is important for younger generation: "reading creates in consciousness "…"certain social models: human natures, samples of behavior and action, behavioral responses to various situation-dependent calls" (Zinovyeva, 2016, p. 263).
The reading role in formation of subject results on separate disciplines is important. Certainly, the reading role in disciplines of a humanitarian cycle – "Literary reading", "Russian", "Foreign language" is important as well. However, it plays not less important role in other disciplines of primary education: "Mathematicians", "Technologies", "World around". So, in the course of development of discipline "World around" the primary school student learns "to use natural-science texts (on paper and electronic media, including on the controlled Internet) for the purpose of information search; to use various reference media (dictionaries, encyclopaedias, including computer) and children's literature on the person and society for the purpose of search informatively of information, answers to questions, explanations, for creation of own oral and written statements" (Approximate main educational program of educational institution. Elementary school, 2010, p. 69-70).
In the light of such broad representation of reader's competences reading acts as a backbone element of all primary education.
Reading as universal ability is equally important for different categories of students and adults to which during life it is necessary not only to study, but not once to be retrained, using reading as the tutorial.
Purpose of the Study
Reading has always had meta-subject nature. The purpose of our research is to reveal essential characteristics of reading during a digital era and what features of process of its formation of this all-educational ability change at primary school.
The following methods were applied to the solution of objectives: theoretical (comparative and relative, retrospective, terminological-lexical, analysis, and modeling); empirical (pedagogical observation, conversation). Legislative documents and standard and legal documentation have been used.
Reading – since beginning of written culture - is long ago a cornerstone of a world civilization. Humankind overestimated the reading role as sociocultural several times. Until a publishing era, reading was given sacral character; scholars defined its role in the same key: reading as a way of knowledge of God which was carried out in the course of reading divine texts.
Age of Enlightenment has appreciated Reading: it was considered as a way of disposal of humankind of ignorance, as a way of education of a wide people at large, their familiarizing with culture, to cultural texts first. At this time, more significance is attached to a social and pedagogical component of reading. Reading is considered as the "rational, intellectual process" directed to knowledge by the person of the world and itself in the world. Educators considered reading both an integral part of scientific cognitive activity in general, and development of reason, powers of thinking of the certain person (Melentyeva, 2015).
Throughout many centuries, such assessment of reading has been connected with the general assessment of a role of the book published on paper.
In general, it is possible to state that reading in process of the existence changed, acquired new data on various aspects of reader's activity; the purposes of reading, its concept changed. As the famous modern researcher of reading Yu.P. Melentyev writes, "the essence of reading represents extremely difficult education at which there are all three concepts called above (knowledge of God, knowledge of the world, knowledge of) acting into the forefront depending on values of certain eras" (Melentyeva, 2015, p. 23).
During a digital era essential characteristics of reading change: there is a reading the electronic text, and, not always, it is formed based on reading the paper text. Researchers note that skills of work with electronic texts are often formed spontaneously in the preschool childhood: "in computer games, social networks, electronic encyclopaedias, messengers and other resources" (Oganov, Kornev., 2017, p. 20). It turns out that the child gains skills of work with paper texts during systematic school training, sometimes already having experience of communication with the electronic text.
It cannot but affect in general reading formation as universal educational action. On the one hand, it obviously endures crisis what recession of interest in reading around the world testifies to: special state programs on reading are introduced, the conducted special sociological researches on reading demand education reforms, for example, measurements of reader's competences of readers of different age groups (PIRLS, PISA and others) have brought to life cardinal changes in reader's training of pupils in many countries including our country. By the way, in 2018 also reading from the screen will be subjected to testing of PISA (Shill, 2013, p. 219). On the other hand, nearly the leading role in formation of various educational and professional competences, despite introduction to educational process of school of other educational technologies is assigned to reading: game, remote, information and communication. The last have led to emergence of a new text type with which students of primary school at whom the skill of reading just begins to be formed are constantly forced to work. Modern researchers understand "the text produced by means of any electronic medium of information (the computer, phone, the tablet) and combining in itself in a varying degree lines of an oral and written language" as the electronic text (Balakina, 2016, p. 17). These characteristics of the text differ from traditional (Bolotnova, 2009) a little.
The early comparative studies of reading from paper and reading from the monitor screen conducted in the 90th years of the last century showed that people read electronic texts more slowly and understand them worse, than printing (Chibisova). In many respects it was explained by that, the human visual system appeared at that time the information, which is still insufficiently adjusted for reading from the display. "The image on the screen strongly differs from natural objects, as it self-shining, but not the reflected also has smaller contrast range. Screen characters consist of the discrete points – pixels. These points have no clear boundary, and therefore signs and lines are much less contrasting, than in the book" (Morozova, Novikova, 2013, p.p. 85-86). However, the last researches say that the modern school students cope with reading electronic and paper texts approximately equally (Margolin, 2013)
For creation of productive model of formation at primary school, students of such universal educational action as reading data of these comparative researches are very important. Therefore, at the first stages of formation of skill of reading – the reading mechanism – there shall be, probably, a sparing mode of a combination of the electronic and paper text taking into account physiological features of development of visual system of the young reader. Process of formation of skill of reading at primary school students consists their several stages, of which the initial stage is very important (Silchenkova, 2015). However even at a stage of formation of original skill of reading (the reading mechanism) you should not neglect use of different sign and symbolical training aids, for example, to apply in training activity creolized texts – texts which consists of two heterogeneous parts: verbal and nonverbal, provided in the text by iconic signs (Silchenkova, 2007). The habit to use different means of decoding of information allows readers of a low school age to develop flexible strategies of transition from the paper text to electronic and vice versa.
The program of the universal educational actions (UEA) provides formation of personal, regulatory, informative, communicative universal educational actions. All of them are to some extent connected with reader's competences: or are formed due to reader's actions, or in an implicit form on structure repeat them, promoting thereby their formation.
Close connection of informative universal educational actions and reading consists already in the fact that reading is a cognitive activity. Of course, reader's activity of younger school students not always is cognitive activity in classical style for several reasons. First, reading students of primary school is just formed: they make many mistakes, read slowly, and have many difficulties in understanding of the read text. Secondly, it is impossible to call reader's activity cognitive activity in pure form. The cognitive linguistics distinguishes scientific knowledge of the world which can be made in the course of reading scientific treatises, and cognitive knowledge as which it is understood "naturally comprehended", the usual life experience learned and gained during everyday practice. Reading primary school students fits the second definition more: to be acquainted with social experience of last generations, to master it makes the main task of reading at primary school (Svetlovskaya., Picheool, 2017). Despite it, reader's activity does not lose for the child of informative value; it promotes its formation, forms cognitive interest, informative activity. Not accidentally, definition "informative" is equally applicable also to reader's terms: "reader's interest", "reader's activity". It seems, it is not a casual game words, the deep meaning is behind it.
However it is necessary to agree that their informative universal educational actions are in many respects formed on a basis even not fully the created reader's competences of primary school students, since abilities on information search in various sources (educational literature, encyclopedias, reference books, etc.) and finishing with abilities of semantic reading. We will notice that bases of semantic reading are formed at lessons of literary reading at the different levels of development of the text: on dictionary and lexical, syntactic (conclusions and judgments for primary school students exist mainly in a type of data of syntactic designs), and at last, at the level of the text. Reader's competences of primary school students are reflected as well in the meta-subject section "Reading. Work with the text" that is done in general by reader's skills by a condition of formation of informative universal educational actions.
We will consider interrelation of the reader's competences and regulatory universal educational actions formed at primary school students whose all system is directed to formation of structure of educational activity of the primary school student, formation of their subject position. Any activity in the most general view consists of a stage of orientation, goal-setting, planning, realization, and a stage of control and assessment. Reader's activity consists of the same stages, for it is also necessary to create and the program of regulatory universal educational actions provides keep an educational task, as well as it. At lessons of literary reading at a stage of preparatory work for reading the text the motivation of reading – why to read - is formed, i.e. the purpose of the forthcoming activity is formulated. More often, the teacher does it, and the reader of younger school age is capable to accept it. Nevertheless, over time the young reader has to learn to formulate the purpose of the forthcoming reading. Certainly, it becomes with a support on specifics of material and on data of textual criticism, on the doctrine about strong positions of the text – heading, the beginning, a text ending. The technique of elementary education does to reading the amendment on age features of readers of younger school age, adds here also illustrations to the text for children, in the children's book (Svetlovskaya, Picheool, 2011, 2017).
Formation of regulatory educational actions is promoted largely by reading the text to which such quality as a regulativity which is treated in a text linguistics "as the system quality of the text consisting in its ability "to operate" cognitive activity of the reader" is peculiar (Bolotnova, 2009, p. 388). Thus, especially subject, it is possible even to tell; tightly educational skill is acquired by meta-subject (intersubject) character because of its universality. In many respects, it is caused by the fact that the text represents result of activity, keeping in itself in the removed type of its property and structure. Thus, its property provides interrelation of regulatory and reader's actions.
The same can be told about features of formation of productive actions of operation of control and assessment of educational activity, and reader's activity including. The feature of reader's activity of younger school students in this aspect consists that it sometimes has the delayed character, demands some time for judgment and assessment of the facts and events represented by the writer. Reader's assessment belongs also in formation and expression in respect of the external speech of the opinion concerning reading and identification of the author's attitude of the author towards the characters and the described events. In this sense it is possible to speak about communication emergence "the author – the reader", and here quite appropriate to pass to consideration of communication of communicative universal educational actions and readings.
Communication of communicative universal educational actions and reading is found even in one definition of reading: "Reading – the communicative act" in which the author and the reader are partners in communication (Zinovyeva, 2016, p. 263). It is long ago the accepted interpretation of reading which indicates, however, specifics of such communication: this distantly communication, it is mediated by the text, not limited to time. The program of communicative universal educational actions, describing problems of formation them at primary school students, certainly, relies on characteristic signs of activity of communication, on its structure. So, for communicative activity it is supposed to use speech means as well as in reading activity; to build dialogical communication including in a remote form by means of tools of the information and communication technologies (ICT).
Especially it is necessary to stop on formation at primary school students of ability to consider a position of the partner (partners) in communication and also ability "to allow a possibility of existence at people of various points of view including not coinciding with its own, and to be guided by the partner's position in communication and interaction" (Approximate main educational program of educational institution. Elementary school., 2010, page 48). This universal educational action is especially valuable in reader's activity; it is connected with specific reader's competence on perception of images of characters and adequate estimation of their actions, motives of acts. This competence is the cornerstone of reader's integrative ability according to the analysis and interpretation of the text of the literary work which substantial information contains in the system of artistic images. According to researchers, "dialogue with the text" helps to intensify "the mental processes included in understanding" (Soboleva, 2012, p. 12).
It seems that in educational space of primary school there is a mutual influence of process of formation of communicative universal educational actions and process of formation of actually reader's competences – the analysis and interpretation and process of formation of associative thinking.
The Russian methodical science in the person of professor N.N. Svetlovskaya has opened laws of formation of the child - reader long ago; it has developed models and options of a training material, i.e. children's books for their use after hours; it has offered adequate to a training material – to children's books – a work method: a reading method – examining which has ability of transformation depending on the level of reader's preparation and a grade level; at last, it has created the harmonious system of formation of the child - reader (Svetlovskaya, Picheool, 2011, 2017). It should be noted that digital or digital reading easily fits into this system also. Quite big material of observations for children's digital reading is saved already up. Some conclusions are extremely important for practice of formation of reader's competences at children of primary school age, for example, readers of any age read "intangible" texts on electronic media more superficially. At adult readers, it turns into scanning. In many respects, it occurs because in the text on paper it is much easier to be guided significantly more simply. Tactile feelings are extremely important for readers of this age with subject and evident thinking. Researchers state the careful assumption that sensual tactile feelings of young readers help the steady external base for the movement on the text and, therefore, it helps development of a plot. Therefore, in reading by primary school students it is possible to combine organically these two types of reading, doing amendments on feature of their physiological and psychological development.
As an output, we offer an expression of the famous researcher of reading Yu.P. Melentyeva: "During the modern electronic era a reading entity new judgment. In a situation of extension of visual opportunities of training, education, communication, etc. it (entity) acquires a certain special status as reading remains the only way of union to world knowledge (to science, culture) and to experience (intellectual, emotional, pragmatical), recorded in writing on any medium – parchment, paper, the screen. The entity of reading ("superentity") which still should be comprehended deeply also consists in it today" (Melentyeva, 2015, p. 26).
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