The article considers sources of updating of linguodidactic materials and methods to form professional skills of students majoring in "philology" and "journalism". The problem of development of methods and techniques of training is among the key ones in language teaching. However, researchers focus mainly on teaching methods, while the quality of didactic materials draws less attention. Texts should be considered as one of the key elements of the education of philologists and journalists: after all, the use of texts that correspond to the communicative tasks of today, rather than yesterday, is the key to successful adaptation to the conditions of tomorrow. Specific texts were used for this study: transcribed shorthand records of direct television sports reports and announcements about renting an apartment on the Internet, and examples of non-standard solutions in this area are demonstrated. The authors propose step-by-step methods for analyzing texts representing current discourse practices, and make representative conclusions about what professional skills can be built using this language teaching material. Besides, the proposed methods of using authentic texts enable instructors to develop analytical thinking of students studying linguistics and journalism, to form an interest to the changing discursive reality and thus to increase the efficiency of university level professional training.
Theoretical and practical training of students cannot be fully implemented without taking into account the current state of the environment in which they are to carry out professional activities. For students majoring in the humanities these activities are directly or indirectly related to discourse practice, since humanitarian knowledge is formed by the development of ideas that are expressed in discourses.
Modern theorists who study the interrelations and interconditioning between the society and language generally accept the idea that our knowledge and social behavior are "the products of discourse", i.e. the result of different ways of categorizing reality, which do not directly reflect the reality. The ways how the surrounding reality is understood and represented in the language are historically and culturally conditioned and therefore can change over time. The discourse is a form of social behavior that shapes the social world (Jorgensen & Phillips, 2008).
This initial premise makes it necessary to study modern discourses in terms of their reflection of the social, socio-political, and cultural shifts, the knowledge about which forms not only the world view of students, but also their professional competences.
Development of analytical skills of students has always been one of the main tasks of the national system of education. However, modern higher education institutions, as well as the Russian education system in general, are dominated by the traditional type of teaching: the teacher is focused, first of all, on the passing on to students the knowledge and methods of actions in a readymade form for acquisition and reproduction purposes only. This approach does not form students' analytical and creative skills and, as a result, does not prepare them for successful professional self-realization (Klarin, 1997).
The problem of development of methods and techniques of training is among the key ones in language teaching (Anisimova, 2014; Shibko 2014). However, researchers focus mainly on teaching methods, while the quality of didactic materials draws less attention. We believe that it should be considered as one of the key elements of the education of philologists and journalists: after all, the use of texts that correspond to the communicative tasks of today, rather than yesterday, is the key to successful adaptation to the conditions of tomorrow. One of the ways to solve this problem is to significantly update the didactic materials for students according to modern trends in the use of language and to analyze the latest discursive practices (Amlinskaja, 2017; Ganapolskaja, 2013; Litvin, 2017; Matison, 2013; Tsykunov, 2015; Khosainova, 2014; Starr, 2004). The use of samples of modern discourses as a material for linguocultural analysis is an indispensable condition for preparing specialists in the field of native and foreign language, journalism, and advertising.
Purpose of the Study
In this regard, authentic materials that meet the challenges of forming competencies in the study area and understanding their language teaching potential are becoming more and more urgent in innovative educational programs.
The method is based on the following goals:1) analysis of a specific type of discourse using the proposed model with the identification of the characteristics of the relevant discursive practice; 2) producing the texts that meet the standards of communication in the said discursive sphere, and/or the development of tasks that form the relevant competencies.
Introduction of new discursive practices in philologist education
The methodology of teaching Russian as a Second Language (RSL) is focused on the teacher's task to form the students' linguistic and communicative competencies in the field of the studied language and culture. The Russian language proficiency of level B1 and above implies the student's ability to understand non-adapted texts on various subjects (Urovni vladeniya russkim yazykom, 2014) [The first level (TORFL-1/B1) of the foreign citizen's proficiency in Russian as a foreign language has to meet the following criteria. <...>To be able to understand dialogues in written and verbal speech, find factual information (subject, time, characteristics of objects, goals, reasons) and express his or her attitude to statements and actions of speakers, to understand announcements in audio recordings, news, social and cultural information.]. Russian philology has highly developed approaches to work with media texts (Skorokhodova, 2008). Taking into account the communicative needs of the students, the teacher should refer to the discursive practices that are not yet reflected in the textbooks and manuals on RSL, but relevant for the adaptation of foreigners to the new cultural reality in the country of the target language. It can be search for apartments for temporary accommodation, renting a car, buying necessary things, dating, search for friends by interest, hotel reservation, etc. Based on these tasks, it is possible to outline the range of potential sources of language teaching material found primarily on the Internet. Most of the texts of this kind are not always decoded by foreigners correctly and, accordingly, it is problematic for them to engage in communication without the knowledge of the peculiarities of the discursive practices and extra linguistic realities. They constitute the background of these texts and it has to be understood. In this regard, a student should master the skills of using the texts that are relevant to the speech practice into language teaching materials. This task is solved in two stages: 1) analysis of discursive practice based on the proposed description model; 2) development of didactic materials taking into account the characteristics revealed by the analysis. For this purpose, students are offered a model describing the discursive practice, which allows them to reveal its cognitive, sociolinguistic, communicative and linguistic characteristics (Issers, 2015). Based on these parameters, the student can describe the linguistic and communicative reality that is given to him or her in immediate observation, but requires reflection in terms of language teaching.
The relevant aspects of the description of discursive innovations include the following: 1) social sphere/institution which is covered by this type of discourse; 2) communicative channel/media; 3) genre features; 4) sociolinguistic characteristics; 5) communicative strategies and tactics; 6) language characteristics; 6) attitude/tonality of communication, etc. As an example of completing the above-mentioned tasks, we will give an analysis of modern practice of house renting found on the Internet.
Analysis of discursive practice of house renting
When a person arrives in another country for a short period of time, he or she can afford to stay in a hotel or a hotel. But if the period of stay is several months, it may be more advantageous and convenient to rent a house or apartment. Therefore, it is important for the teacher to teach the foreigner how to get orientation in the related discursive practice.
This type of discourse is currently undergoing changes due to the prevailing choice of communication channel – the Internet. The number of websites where you can place a rental ad is increasing. However, they often become a platform for the activities of fraudsters. Therefore, it is important for a foreigner to know some peculiarities of such texts and the extra-linguistic reality behind them to be able to decode the meanings that are laid down in the texts about housing rent.
Social sphere and communication channel.
Housing rent activities are realized through the services provided by an estate agency, but it can also be carried out without intermediaries. Recently, due to the development of the Internet, more and more similar ads are found on special Internet sites, such as Avito, Domofond, and in social groups in "VKontakte".
Despite the fact that the ads of housing rent are mainly found on the Internet, they retain the structure and basic semantic components that existed in the previous period. Usually they specify which type of housing is required or rented (house, apartment, room), number of rooms (if it is an apartment or a house), the area, the cost of housing per month, the conditions of payment for utilities, the availability of furniture and household appliances, preferences regarding tenants, contact information of the landlord. These components are not always present, but some of them are a mandatory part of a rental housing ad (compare examples 1, 2, containing a concise and expanded form of an ad).
(1) Apartment for rent. 1 room, 43 m², on the 6th fl. of six-storey brick house (Here and elsewhere the spelling and punctuation of the authors are preserved.).
(2) cozy, modern apartment in the center of Omsk. Total living area 43 sq. m. New, recently remodeled, fully furnished, water heater, washing machine, all household appliances (iron, vacuum cleaner, microwave oven, refrigerator, TV), Wi-Fi. Guarded yard. Public transport stops 100 meters from the entrance. Contact directly with the owner. Utilities are not included. All meters installed. Not for daily rent. No pets.
(3) Apartment from the owner, no agent fee! Do not contact me if you are a real estate agent!
In rental housing ads, the addressee's position is filled according to the wishes of the owner of the apartment and reflects the cultural stereotypes of the country of the target language. The most ideal representation of the landlord in Russia is the family couples (family), as it inspires hope that the apartment will be in the right order.
(4) 1-room apartment for rent, Nejbuta, 98. For a long period. Married couple preferred.
The category "desirable" addressee also includes a decent tenant. The notions of 'decency' in this communicative situation may be explicitly expressed in both types of ads: renting and leasing of apartments: no bad habits (no b/h), tidiness, timely payment. The social status of tenants can serve as an additional sign of decency.
(5) Rent 1-room apt. preferably to a decent
(6) Two decent girls (
(7) The apartment is in good condition
It should be noted that lingocognitive characteristics of this discursive practice include
(8) Rent 1 room apartment in good condition, with all the necessary furniture and appliances. Preferences: No children or pets,
Communicative strategies and tactics.
The communicative goals of the authors of the rental housing ads depend on their role position: for the landlord, it is to attract a potential client and convince him or her that this accommodation is the best, for the tenant, it is to show himself as a person who is able to pay for the apartment and maintain the order in it. Different tactics of self-presentation are used for this purpose. The landlord aspires to show himself/herself to the best of his/her ability and to win over potential clients. This may be expressed in a formal indication that the landlord is the owner of the house, as well as in the characteristics of his home, taking into account the needs of the potential tenant:
The characteristics of the tenant reflected in the ads have the same goal: to establish the addressee's trust: the most frequent key characteristics are
A significant characteristic for the owner is the solvency of the addressee and the timely payment of housing:
These are words and vocabulary-grammatical structure that mark belonging to one or another type of discourse. For the discursive practice in question it is, first of all, a thematic group of words, reflecting the realities of rental housing. These are the nouns that indicate role positions: on the one hand,
Since a housing rental ad is usually made according to a certain model, the business interest determines the seriousness of the tone. On the classified ads sites, the user must complete a standard form to submit an ad, so only the description field is left for expressing creative ideas. At the same time, the communication channel affects the tonality of the texts: Thus, when placing ads in "VKontakte" tenants and landlords are afforded some playful tone and irony, as in examples 12-13.
Such texts reveal not only a desired image of a potential tenant, but also characterize the author of the text.
On the basis of the revealed characteristics of the studied discursive practice students-philologists may form ideas about the newest practice of language use and skills of development of various tasks aimed at building language and communicative competences of foreign students. Thus, the student learns how to transform modern discursive practices into a language teaching material.
The use of discursive practices of modern sports commentators as language teaching material
The main agents of sports discourse are sports journalists, sports experts, and sports television commentators. For the professional training of modern sports commentators, language teachers may be advised to use texts of the main genre of sports discourse – live television reports, as well as the texts of sports print and Internet media (Rader, 1999; Sports Illustrateded. By Rob Fidler, 2004; Steen, 2014; The Best of sport, 2005; Wilstein, 2001). These texts are rich with language material.
In regard to what has been said, we will present the author's method of specialized training of independent sports commentators.
We distinguish seven basic communicative types of linguistic personae of sports commentators: commentator – reporter; commentator – analyst; commentator – expert; ironic commentator; commentator-joker; commentator-cheerleader; commentator-actor (see more: (Malysheva, 2016).
It is obvious that classification of the linguistic persona of the sports commentator is primarily based on his or her main communicative attitude which is realized by the agent of the television sports discourse in the genre of reportage and depends on the individual characteristics of the journalist's linguistic persona. However, this does not mean that if, during the reporting, a certain typology trait dominates, the journalist does not perform communicative actions that are inherent in another communicative type.
Thus, any journalists who works in the genre of live television sports report, cannot avoid being a "reporter", because it is the rendering of the events what constitutes the sport report genre, and, therefore, the journalist is obliged to provide a more or less detailed commentary to the recipients of the sports discourse of what is happening at the sports arena during the broadcast. However, it is not always "reporting" that dominates the discursive practice of sports journalists during their live broadcast.
The practical stage of training includes the analysis of discursive practices of in-service sports commentators within the genre of live TV sports broadcast. Detailed examples of the results of this kind of research are presented in (Malysheva, 2016).
Texts from live television broadcasts produced by ironical commentators are focused primarily on such spectator/user/reader, whose world view, way of thinking and attitude to sports and sport related events do not contradict with those of the journalist. Moreover, such texts are intended for such addressee who is capable to "unravel" the "ironic codes" of these texts.
The existence of such communicative type of discursive linguistic persona is conditioned, in our opinion, by the fact that one of the basic characteristics of contemporary journalistic trends is the postmodern manner of writing. Today irony became not only and not so much a literary device, but
The essential feature is its duality, double coding- what Charles Jencks referred to (Jencks, 2015). The complexity of the texts where irony is present and their effect is based on that the addressee should "see" this code and correctly interpret its meaning.
The effect of irony in the speech of the journalist can be created by different means: precedent phenomena and their transformation, ironic tropes (epithets, hyperboles and litotes, metaphors, etc.), violations of the stylistic balance (use of jargon, archaisms, and high flown and substandard vocabulary), the representation of paradoxes, paraphrases and so on.
Mr. Utkin is one of the brightest ironical commentators in the Russian sports journalism and his oral and written texts can become a useful language teaching material for the training of sports journalists. In his sports comments, V. Utkin clearly manifests the tendencies that are characteristic of modern Russian speech in general and the speech of television journalists in particular: in addition to the irony shown at all levels of his texts, they have other elements: interactivity; intense individualism; stylistic versatility, including combination of conversational and bookish styles of speech; abundance of metaphors; attention to the play of words; intertextuality; similarity of radio and tv commentary of any content with a DJ's style of speech; dominance of phatic speech genres, including those of diffusing nature. Metaphors and comparisons are the most frequent stylistic devices in V. Utkin's comments, and we can note the big diversity and number of the tropes that he uses: this journalist very rarely uses stock phrases and clichés:
However, as it has already been emphasized above, the fundamental feature of the linguistic persona of V. Utkin is irony manifested by various linguistic ways: "
This journalist has such a word view that enables him to connect incompatible things; he "breeds" signs of different systems, his world is paradoxical and full of ironically perceived original images-that is why many ironic comments of this commentator are built on a directly or indirectly expressed antithesis:
The language game through the lens of irony is another important characteristic of the linguistic persona of Vasily Utkin. So, on the TV screen, the addressee sees a simple pass to the partner during a football match, but V.Utkin accompanies such video sequence with the following comment: "
These examples reveal that the metaphors produced by the speaker tend to have ironic subtexts.
V. Utkin most often comments matches of foreign football teams, so the author's language reflection is aimed at ironic play upon the meaning of the names of the players that are unusual for the Russian language, and most of the examples we have recorded are interesting from the linguistic perspective:
Thus, the increased creativity of speech is one of the specific features of the linguistic persona of Vasily Utkin. Individualization of speech is manifested, in particular, in the already mentioned and illustrated word coinage, first of all in the field of occasional word formation based on frequency and regular – and therefore well received by addressees – word formation patterns:
The last example is extremely interesting for the analysis: the lexeme
Another peculiarity of the linguistic persona of V. Utkin is that he frequently uses metalinguistic statements that are characterized by ironic background meanings:
Sports journalist V. Utkin combines the features of an ironical commentator and commentator-analyst, commentator-expert, but in the first place, through the primarily phatic and informative genres that he uses, in the syntactic structures and lexical units, in pragmatic and stylistic style of his texts, he "broadcasts" the ironic world view of a journalist;
The article presented the methodological experience of using new discursive practices to build professional competencies of philologists and journalists which seems to be in demand and proves that up-to-date didactic materials are important for educational process. Development of methods and techniques by means of which the teacher conducts training of future experts using the texts that demonstrate modern tendencies in discursive practices of various types, is, in our opinion, an integral part of successful learning. This activity, in combination with methods and techniques, developing creative and analytical skills of students, will allow educators to achieve the results which will meet the requirements of the present day.
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21 September 2018
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Issers, O. S., & Malyshe, E. G. (2018). Modern Discursive Practices As Classroom Material For Philology And Journalism Tea. In S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 46. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 231-240). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.02.27