The Influence Of Socialization Mesofactor On Psychological Peculiarities Single Women`S Marital Expectations
The present article considers the results of an empirical study of the influence of the mesofactor of socialization on the role expectations and ambitions of unmarried women from the metropolis and province. In our empirical study, the subjects are unmarried women (100 people) aged 18 to 30 years old. 50 women of them (two age groups, from 18 to 22 and from 25 to 30) live in the metropolis (Moscow) and 50 women (two age groups, from 18 to 22 and from 25 to 30) live in the towns of Staraya Russa (the Novgorod region, 30 thousand inhabitants) and Desnogorsk (the Smolensk region, 50 thousand inhabitants). The age-related dynamics of expectations from marriage among female residents of the megapolis has been established. The influence of the mesofactor of socialization manifests not only in the presence of differences in role expectations and role pretensions from the future marriage, but also in the presence of a significant difference on the level of self-esteem in women in the age group from 25 to 30 years. The self-esteem of residents in the megacity at this age is significantly higher than the self-esteem level of women in the small town. Among the women living in the small towns, in the both age groups, a significant relationship between the scales of role expectations and pretensions in marriage and the level of self-esteem reveals.
Keywords: Marriagerole expectationsrole pretensions
What is the role expectations and the role pretensions?
In many respects, the main problem of modern marriages (i.e. their instability) arises from the destructive behaviour of spouses, the contradictions in the role expectations (spouses' attitudes to the active fulfillment of certain family responsibilities by the partner) and role pretensions (the willingness of each spouse to fulfill certain family duties) (Sheynov, 2006).
Therefore, a practicing psychologist working with the family needs some information about the characteristics of marriage expectations and pretensions among residents of different localities in order to use this information in the advisory work.
Role contradictions can arise under the influence of the mesofactor of socialization: global political, socio-economic and technological changes stimulate a large-scale internal migration. The relocation of a large number of people from small towns to megacities leads to the emergence of many families in which spouses have lived in different localities before marriage. Each of them has its own system of established attitudes to the optimal distribution of family roles, "what is good and what is bad "in marital relations, in relationships with children and relatives, in making money and distributing family resources.
Is there any age dynamics of role expectations from the future marriage of female residents of the megalopolis and small towns?
Is the influence of socialization mesofactor significant in the differences in role expectations and role pretensions in the future marriage for the women aged 18-22?
Purpose of the Study
The aim of this study is to determine the influence of socialization mesofactor (living in the megapolis or a small town) on psychological peculiarities of marital expectations of single women.
The following psychodiagnostic methods were used in the study: a) the methodology "Role expectations and pretensions in marriage" (Volkova, 1985); b) the test for measuring the motivation of affiliation (Raigorodsky, 2006); c) the test "Determination of the level of self-esteem" (Kovalev, 1991).
The study of such characteristics as a self-esteem and ability to affiliate in unmarried women at different ages was due to the availability of numerous literature data on the role of these personality characteristics in the establishment of harmonious interpersonal relationships (Altaev, et al., 2015; Satir, 1992; Egides, 2001).
In our empirical study, 100 unmarried women aged 18 to 30 years old participated. They consisted of 50 women (two age groups, from 18 to 22 and from 25 to 30) living in the metropolis (Moscow) and 50 women (two age groups, from 18 to 22 and from 25 to 30) living in the towns of Staraya Russa (the Novgorod region, 30 thousand inhabitants) and Desnogorsk (the Smolensk region, 50 thousand inhabitants).
The division of the sample into these two specified age groups was determined by the statistical data. From the late 1970s to the early 2000s the average age of marriage in Russia did not change and was 24.5 years old for men and 22.5 years old for women. In the new century, this stable indicator demonstrated significant changes. Starting from 2011, the statistics on the average marital age in Russia was steadily on the level of 27 years for men (32.8% of all married men) and 22-24 years for women (37.5%). Thus, both in the "good old" and modern times, the social standard of the "age norm" of marriage for women was definitely below 25 years old. Consequently, women older than this age might experience some social pressure in this aspect of their lives, which we assume is significantly different in the metropolitan area and provinces.
Our studies have shown the presence of the age dynamics of role expectations from the future marriage of the female residents of the megalopolis: at an older age (25 to 30 years old). The women attach a greater importance to such spheres of family life as sexual relations in marriage and social activity of the husband compared to the women of younger age (18 to 22 years old).
As for the residents of smaller towns, there are no statistically significant differences between role expectations and pretensions in the unmarried women in the both age groups. For the both age groups, the following spheres of family life are most important: an emotional-psychotherapeutic function of marriage, external social activity (professional and social), and personal identification with the marriage partner. The importance of sexual relations in marriage appears as the least significant point for them.
The significant influence of socialization mesofactor is evident in the differences in role expectations and role pretensions in the future marriage for the women aged 18-22. For the women of this age living in a small town, the importance of community of interests and value orientations with the spouse as well as the involvement of the future partner in the economic and household organization of the family are significantly higher than that of the women at this age living in the megalopolis.
This result indicates that the residents of the megapolis aged 18 - 22 years old are much more focused on their own values and interests than their peers from a small town. Along with the high importance (according to their evaluations) of the sphere of sexual interaction with the spouse, this indicates that at this age they consider marriage to be rather an opportunity to have quality sexual relations with a regular partner.
Further, at an older age, from 25 to 30 years, the "brides" of the big and small cities also differ in their role expectations from the future marriage. For the women of the megapolis, the orientation toward the future marriage as an environment conducive to psychological detente and emotional stabilization is significantly higher than that of the women living in a small town.
It turns out that regardless of where they live, in the both age groups the unmarried women demonstrate quite a low self-esteem. A significant difference in the level of self-esteem in the women in the age group from 25 to 30 years old is established as follows: the self-esteem of the residents of the megacity at this age is significantly higher than the level of self-esteem of the female residents of a small city.
This can be explained by the fact that in a small city, women are heavily influenced by such factors as public opinion, established views and customs.
Previously, the age of marriage has been traditionally considered to be from 18 to 22 years old. Therefore, for the woman who has not got married by the age of 25 to 30 years, it is difficult to defend her opinion and maintain her self-confidence, when all the relatives feel already that she does not cope with her main task, that is, to get married and have children. As a result, women living in a small city have a lower level of self-esteem, which in turn, causes problems in choosing a marriage partner.
In a megapolis, women experience much less pressure of established norms and accepted stereotypes. They have more freedom of choice and examples, which are fundamentally different from the rules and traditions, previously considered to be inviolable and compulsory.
In the 18-to-22 age group the women living in a small town have a significant relationship between the scales of role expectations and pretensions in marriage and the level of self-esteem. The women with a low self-esteem are mainly focused on a intimate-sexual interaction with the spouse as the main value of marriage; the women with a high self-esteem are more oriented toward household activities, setting up housekeeping (a " family hearth"), and maintaining a family economy.
The women in the age group of 25 to 30 years old in a small town have a significant relationship between the scales of role expectations and pretensions in marriage and the level of self-esteem. The women with a high self-esteem are more likely to identify themselves with a partner. This means that they consider themselves to be capable of establishing a dialogue with their spouses, building relationships based on a community of interests, values, and goals.
The data obtained can be used in the work of family psychologists in counseling families in which spouses have lived in different localities before marriage. In these families, the coordination and harmonization of role expectations and pretensions has a special significance.
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18 December 2019
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Child psychology, developmental psychology, child care, child upbringing, family psychology
Cite this article as:
Tsvetkova, N., Umanskaya, E., & Stefanenko, A. (2019). The Influence Of Socialization Mesofactor On Psychological Peculiarities Single Women`S Marital Expectations. In S. Sheridan, & N. Veraksa (Eds.), Early Childhood Care and Education, vol 43. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 489-492). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.07.64